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thereby, it will find its level again by The beedlessness of our seamen is escaping on the sides of the bason, each proverbial; but in no instance is it more way; but let a card, or some other obrtacie, be pat on one side, and the whole quantity gross and culpable than in approaching the will escape by the other side, to produce a British Channel. They do not consider level. Just so it is with the water forced that the same wiod wbich is fair for their into the Gulph of Mexico by the Trade Winds ; for, as it canuot find its level by voyage from the westward, has its influence escaping on both sides, from the Gulph; on the waters of the Gulpb stream, and owing to the north coast of South America sets them more than usually forward. It extending so far to the eastward, as again also prolongs their extent and power, and to meet the Trade Winds, it all
, therefore, carries them with proportionate violence escapes on the north side, and takes its course along the east coast of Florida, until against the coast of Portugal ; insomuch it passes the Bahana Islands, and then, as that the reckoning of vessels coming from I have said, forces its way into the Atlantic England is vitiated by this influence, drivOcean, to restore the level interrupted by the Trade Winds. It cannot escape between ing them out of their course ;— which in the Islands, because it meets the trade one instance cost Britain eighteen ships winds again. This current it is, which, and a man of war, in a single night.forcing its way into the Atlantic Ocean, Knowing this inattention of our seamen, governs the navigation of that sea, and carries vessels so much to the eastward of Capt. Hadley in laying down the Scilly their reckoning, that they approach the Islands in his Chart, is opposed to have western shores of Europe before they are placed the westernmost half a degree, or aware of it; and the weather very frequently proves so bazy and cloudy, that no
more, to the west, further thau they really observations can be taken to correct their are : not that he did not know their true longitude, before they get into soundings. position ; but, by this honest fraud to inI have been informed in the west of Eng. duce the mariner to keep a sharp look out, land, that a vessel has been known (the name of which was mentioned to me) ta sooner thun he otherwise would have done. have run on shore on the north coast of The perfection to which modern maps are Devonshire, with all her small sails set, in bronght has removed this salutary error: the night time, right before the wind. But and it will be an unspeakable advantage if the frequency of wrecks, on those shores, is but too well ascertained by the many
this remonstrance of Admiral Swiney melancholy accounts which our paval his should be attended with the desired effect, tary affords.
and ipfuse caution into the incautious. Vessels should, therefore, always sound at sun-set, whenever they get within one If it were possible to compose a complete hundred leagues of Scilly by their reckon, History of the Gulf of Streams, it would ‘ing, when coming from the westward : and the depth of water, or having no sound-be found to comprize a series of Anomalies ings, will ascertain what sail they may
of the most extraordinary kind :--somecarry in the longest night, without getting times scarcely sensible, and not felt among into danger before morning. But the mis- the tides ; at others so strong, that all vesfortune is, vessels will depend on their reckoning, and run for the English or Bri- sels within its influence shall be many tish Channels without sounding, more leagues- out of their reckoning. In some especially if they happen to have had mild places, it requires a strong wind to stem it; weather on their voyage. I, myself, in a and we have heard of vessels which every two-decked ship, was near being on the day seemed to advance against it, but, after rocks of Scilly, when coming from the West Indies.
a fortnight, or even three weeks' sailing The loss of the Alexander, East India- found themselves, on nearing the land, man, off Portland, on the 25th of March, scarcely twenty leagues from the port of 1815, when every soul on board perished, their departure. It is the UNCERTAINTY of gave rise to the publication of these obser- this cause of error, that should render mavations, which, though they may not possess much merit, it is hoped will not bring riners vigilant, and even jealous; especially into contempt the humble exertion of when fair gales and favourable weather
AN OLD SEAMAN. have conspired to please them.
IS NOT THE ONLY ARTICLE TO BE CON
of people than one : THE RAW MATERIAL TWO WORDS TO A BARGAIN : SECOND THOUGHTS ARE BEST.
“ Having beeu introduced to a person, who The processes of art are rarely, or never, independent, ove of another, nor is there this sort in the island of Sicily, I have
some years ago formed an establishment of oue ihat can properly call itself detached, learned several important circumstances or isolated. Perhaps, this is the great se relating to this business, which have never cret which inaiutaius the superiority of yet been given to the public. I have also Br tish manufactures. It is granted freely, been favoured with the perusal of a great that in some oue point of manufacture the part of the correspondence which passed Continental artists equal, or excel us; but, in the whole taken together, in the general 1o print the whole, or any part of these
ou the occasion; and having obtained leave excellence of the several departments whose letters, I shall subjoin such extracts as I combined result dues, and must, conduce conceive will be interesting to those who to that whole, there is no country like Bri- may be desirous of acquiring more infortain, so comp'ete, and so musterly.
mation on the subject. It might be supposed, for instance, that
In the first letter, which is dated Mes. where Nature furoished the priucipal in sipa the 6th September, 1808, this inteiligredieut, that Art might easily furnish the
gent correspondent says, u The time of accessaries required by the manufacture, pressing is generally in the latter end of bul experience has demonstrated the cou
ihe mouth of November and December, trary. "A remarkable instance, iu proof of for till that period the lemons* yield little this, is related by Mr. Parkes, in his valu.
or no juice." able and improving work, called “ Chemical Essays," 5 Vols. London, 1815. The
“The country round Messina consists of desire was—to obtain the acid of lemons in mountains of immense height, rising one a chrystallized, or at least, in a dry state, above avother, and thickly covered with from ihe place wliere vature had bestowed fruit trees, chiefly olives and lemons, which them io profusion. Such a place is the render this piace the very best in the world island of Sicily. The process is, to squeeze
for procuring lemon-juice." out the juice and saturate it with whiting;
“ The quay surpasses most others, ex. dry this, and cask it up, for exportation, tending for a mile and a half, close to the
Now, the island certainly furnishes le- edge of which ships lie in 20 fathom water. mons, io millions jemthe farmers press the Formerly a range of superb houses, per juice into casks, and the buyer racks it o# fectiy uniform, extended the whole length into other casks. Here begin the difficul- of this marino, or quay ; but ever since ties; the casks are iufirm, and unless in the earthquake these magnificent mansions ported, are scarce ; --stowage is wanting lle...
As soon as the country people press and much of the juice perishes before it is shipped. Then, saturate it with whiting, the juice, they bring it in heret for sale. and preserve it : but, “ the island yields no
The buyers do not afford it warebousewhiting ; you must send for thut 10 Eng room, but roll it into the streei, exposed land." It requires a large vat; but, there to the weather and to the heat of the sun, is no wood in the island to make it of ; no
where it remains till an opportunity offers workman to put it together. It requires for shipping it. It is therefore not surbaskets for draining—" the Siciliuns make prising that so much is imported that is none such; je!ch them from Englund."-10 musty and perished, and that the English short, if England will have this citrate of merchapis oftea find it so bad on its arrival Hime, in a compact state, it must furnish in England as to create a difficulty in pro. whiting-vats—pumps - casks — baskets, caring for it even the amount of the imand ships in which to transport it. port duty."
Now, to whom, after all, does this commodity properly belong ?-1o its native In one of his letters he remarks, that isiand, or to an island fifteen hundred at this time of the year 200 lemons are gemiles off ?
nerally required to furnish one gallou 'of The probability is, that citrate of lime juice; and that, on this account, there are might be made from lemons, and their presses in the island which are so constructjuice, imported into England-might be ed that they will squeeze many thousands made in England infinitely more readily, of lemous at once. and quite as cheap, as in the districts which † The farmer brings it to Messina in furuish the most abundant supply of le his own casks, and the njerchant must pronons.
vide casks to rack it into, when be takes it The history is instructive, to more classes away,
In a letter dated Messina, Sept. 30, 1808, / standing the large size of the apparatus, he says, “ The pressing continues till the the effervescence occasions me much troue following March, the quantity of juice ble; and this I attribute to the chalk being produced increasing every month, in pro sifted to so fine a powder. portion as the fruit becomes riper, and the “ Neither the monks, por any of the innecessity of gathering them greater. The habitants seem to have the slightest cujuice is sold hy the saim, which is a mea- riosity to know what the article is, al. sure equal to 21 gallous English."
though, until it is dry, it continually occa“ The citrate, when taken from the sions a most agreeable odour.” baskets in which I drain it, is of a consis
Juve 22, 1809. “ The storing of lemon. tence and grain as fine as batter, and so juice is here a most difficult and expendelicate of touch, when about half dry, sive thing, since the soldiers occupy all the that if, as ou some occasions, when the wea places formerly used for this purpose, and ther looked uncertain, it became prudent also many of the convents, which have all to remove it into the warehouse, to be un
very large repositories." der cover, it could scarcely be touched
July 4, 1809. “I cannot recollect without breaking and crumbling into whether I informed you, but I have been dust."
under the necessity of hiring a large room May 8th, 1809: “I have had many dif- formerly the refectory of the convent, the ficulties to contend with in bringing the door of which opens on the terrace where preparation fof the citrate of lime to any 1 dry. This serves also to store the citrate perfection ; and this chiefly in the drying when dry, and at times, when the weather it, an object of the most inaterial impor, looks squally, to bring it under cover; a tance; and so much have I been perplexed very necessary precaution in this climate, on this score, that I have felt my expecta- as the rain descends in torrents unknown tious quile damped upon the occasion."
to us in England, and would very soon “I observed to you before, that the wea waslı away every thing, so that you see, ther had not been settled euough to admit this business, when conducted on a large of any attempt at drying out of doors; scale, requires plans and precautions which for the high mountains hanging over is nothing but actual operations can point are until the present month continually out to us." bringing down showers : aud the atino
Jone 22, 1810. "I find as much differ. sphere, during this time, is very unfavoura.
ence iv lemon.juice as in wine, and both ble to drying."
havr more or less body, according to the “ I therefore made use of the upper particular soil on which the fruit grows, rooms of my house for this purpose, where When freslt squeezed all seemis equally, I sprend out the citrate, and constantly sharp and good. The hot weather, howattended to turning it and exposing it to ever, is the rest, and much will not bear it ; the air for two mowibs: it now arreared it often changes very quickly, and a mawkperfectly dry, and as hard as it its original ish vinegar-sort of taste alone remains. state of chalk; and wanting the rooms to Thongh the early juice resists the heat the bring forward inore, I proceedler! to pack best, I can positively assert that, with the it in large casks, to be ready for shipping. utmost care, there is no certainty of preHowever, at the expiration of two or iliree serving its native sharpness in the hot days, when I began to fill up and cooper months, but by the addition of lime, or the casks, I found the article so heatul that
sonie other agent." I was obliged inmediately to tura it all Before I conclude this part of the Essay, out again to dry it better."
it will be right to apprize those who may The cisteru* in which I work is capa. intend to enubark in this business, that it ble of containg 12 pipes; but notwith will be necessary to send the writing from
England, ''s ncither lime, chalk, por any In another letter he says,
" It is in
other suitable ingredient for the purpose is possible at 20 y price to procure a risinin
in be found in Siviiv. of woord in this place capable of holding In seuding out whiting or chalk, it will the nei'essary quantity. There is no wool be advisable not to rely entirely on one to be obtained in the island fit for it, and shipment; fur, should the calcareous earth much less could a workman be found who be lost, it is probable the whole purchase would be capable of patting it together. of juice would be spoiled, before a fresh Even baskets for draining must be sent supply could be written for, and actually from England, as pone but very small ones arrive in the island. are to be had in Sicily, and those very, Parkes's “ Chemical Essays," Vol. IIL poor and slender."
p. 47, &c.
AMERICA: UNITED STATES.
selves, as cheaper than steam-engines, and National Begister :
as free from the accidents which, from mis
mavagement, have attended steam engines, FOREIGN.
on confined and crowded decks. These vessels so impelled he proposes to cail teum boats, instead of steam bouts, and he has already
built one 66 feet long and 41 feet wide, Nestructive Conflagration.
which he runs with success as a ferry hoat. Halifax, (N. S.) Ocl. 14.-A most dread. He advertises that he will build boats to ful conflagration broke out in the town of ron any distance by animal power' as fast Halifax on the night of the 9th instant, by
as by steam, and at balf the expence. which several buildings were in a short
Death; extraordinary Miser. time totally destroyed. The loss is calcu At Norfolk, America, May 16, Peter Forde, Jated at 40,0001, which has ruined sereral
a native of France, and well known for his , worthy individuals
, but little of the pro- penurious habits, and strong attachment to perty having been insured. Fortunately the precwus metals. Duriog a residence in there was scarcely a breath of wind at the that place of probably twenty years, lie time, or the greater part of the town would continued in the occupatiou of a retail grohave been destroyed. The military com
cer, upon the most limited scale, his stock posing the garrison, and the crews of the in trade seldom exceeding 500 slobars; yet ships of war, were most actively employed in this inconsiderable way, it is asserted on this distressing occasion, and have been that he accumulated upwards on 20,000 highly and justly applauded for their ex
dollars! The mapuer in which he lived ertions.
may in some degree account for an accu
mulation so disproportionate to the means Expences of living.
he employed. He denied himself all the Extract of a letter, received by a gen- employed no servants
, except occasionally
comforts of life, kept no company, and teman of Cliff, niear Selby, from his brother, ot Baltimore, in America, dated
a negro boy to stay in the shop when he of being oppressed with taxes; I will give and the whole expense of his household May 25, 1816:-"You seem to complain went out. One room served inim for his
store, parlour, bed chamber, and kitchen; you a small account of our's, in a free would be over-rated at 100 dollars a year. conntry as they please to call it. My The acquisition of money constituted his house rent is £67 10s., tavero license 215 58. 6d., furniture tax 255., watch (gold) bimself up to a life of wretcheduess iu oiher
only source of enjoyment; for this be gave Is., dogs 9s., water £4 10s. a-year. are taxed for every thing we possess. i respects, that might have challenged the give you a statement of our markets:
-compassion of mendivity itself; and beyond Wheat 10, Oats 4s. 6d., Barley 58. 6d. this his ideas of happiness never wandered.
He has left no relation, and we understand per bushel : Beans we have none: Potatoes Is. per bushel : Beef is. sd. per subject, bis estate of course falis under the
did not make a will; and being a French pound: Veal is. Sd.; Matton Gd.; Pork jod.; Bacon 1s. sd.; Butter 3s. Ed. per veral thousand dollars in specie, we learn,
administration of the French Consul. Sepound; Eggs 1s. 6d. per dozen ; and every
were secreted in various parts of bis lodg. thing iu proportion. You can now form
ings! your opinion of both couutries.”
More correct accounts say that this overFire in the woods, not extinguished.
ratest is stock in trade,wnich neverexceeded The destructive fire in the woods in the 200 dollars, and that, by no other visible district of Maine ştill coutinues its ravages,
means that tne profits of this scauty busi
ness, he had hoarded up riearly fitty there by the last accounts. Some heavy rains
sand dollars! About 20,000 rollars were which had fallen bad tended partially to check its progress. The couhagration has deposited in the Bauks, 15,000 dollars he not been confined to the brush-woods invested in real estate, and about 10,000
had sometime ago remitted to France, and aloue, as was first supposed, but old forests dollars in gold, were acridintuity found of many miles' extent have been swept a
after his death, deposited in the false botway by the devouring fames.
toni of a woolen chest, under a quantity Team Boats.
of old clothes and rubbish! Te extraorMr. Hart, of Philadelphia, instead of a dinary weight of the chest. after its visible steam engine of so many horses' power, contents were taken omi, excited curiosity, has introduced the force of the horses them. and led to the discovery of the treasure !
He has a brother living in France, who
Fine Arts Patronized. has a large family; to this brother, it was M. Saint Martin, Counsellor in the High the last request of the deceased, that all his Court of Justice of Liege, has given this effects in this country might be remitted.city (Brussels) a proof of his regard, by re( Norfolk Paper.)
questing the Governor of the province to accept a certain number of paintings, to
serve particularly for the instruction of Sporting at Vienna.-On the 13th of
young artists. These paintings are thirty November, the meadow of Simmering 1 in pumber, and his Excellency the Comnear Vienoa, displayed horse-racing upon missioner-General of Public Instructiou has à grand scale. "Our Ambassador, Lord authorised the Governor to accept his paStewart, won the first four prizes, three of triotic offer, and to place the pictures in a which were against Count Szecheny, and convenient situation, till the apartment in one against Count Wenceslas Lichtew. The University, which is preparing for stein. Count Szecheny won the first them, can be got ready. against Lord Stewart. Each race was for 200 ducats. On the 21st, the races were repeated. Their Royal Highnesses the The late Eclipse , great obscurity. Grand Dukes were on the ground. A
A letter from Copenhagen of the 19th mare, the property of Lord Stewart, won
Nov. the first prize against Prince Lichtenstein's took place to-day, was very visible : about
says, “the eclipse of the sun which horse. Prince Esterbazy left Vienna the same day, to proceed to Naples. The ten minutes past teu in the morning, there Prince will pass ihrough his estates in Hun- that one could neither read vor write."
was so much obscurity for two miuutes, gary: he has invited all the fashionable world to meet him there, to form a grand
FRANCE, hunting party.
The Gazette de France has published a Incautious Astronomer.
statement of the prices of the chief necesA letter from Vienna, dated the 29th of saries of iife in France, from which it ap, November, says—“ Prince Leopold, of Si-pears that in some articles we have the ad, cily has been so unfortunate as nearly to vantage in point of cheapuess. According lose his eve-sight, from having imprucent to this statement, Bread cost 18 sous, or ly looked too long at the eclipse of the sun
9d. British, per loaf of 41b.; Beef 7d. a on the 19th of this month, without the pro- | Butter' 1s. 2d.; Eggs Is. 7d. (two dozen)
pound; Veal 8J.; Mutton 7d. ; Pork 8d.; tection of a coloured glass."
Suyar Is. 6d. per Ib.; Coffee 1s. 5d.; and
Price of bread : management at Paris. Brussels, Dec. 2.-For some time past In Paris the four-pound loaf is only eighrobleries and all kinds of excesses, such teen sols '(nine pence); but immediately as maliciously burning houses and barris, out of the gates of the town it is sold for have beguu to be again very numerous in four and twenty. In some of the provinces the neighbouring French departments. bread is sold at eight sols a pound; and in Tbe dearuess of provisions is by no means many at seven. This high price of provi. the only cause of this; the numerous sedi- sio!is, joined to the low wages which retious pamphiets and incendiary writings, sult from the want of commerce of every which have been circulated there for some kind, causes the most serious distress. Potime past, proves that the evil-disposed and tatoes are veither abundant nor good of adversaries of the Government, make lise their kiod: they have been too much wetted of every circumstance to increase the gene in the ground to keep well. The crop ral distress. The Civil and Military Au- of chesnuts has failed in several provinces thorities have takeu measures to check this of France, where they are the principal, if evil as much as possible. In the towns not the sole food of the peasants during and in the country, the National Guard four months, the want of them, in a year performs its Juty with double zeal. The like this, is no small addition to the uniinilitary force must assist, aud the Com-versal distress, In Paris, conipensation is manders of the Army of Occupation have made to the bakers to enable them to sell Leen requested in those places where the their bread at eighteen sols. It has been means are insufficient, to assist the Magi- , at all times customary in France to make strates to the utmost of their power. It is a sacrifice to prevent the inhabitants of the hoped that these measures will have the capital from suffering by a too great rise cst result.
in the necessaries of life'; the expense of