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And not to grace an awful princely sceptre.

CLIF. He is a traitor ; let him to the Tower,
That gold must round engirt these brows of mine ; And chop away that factious pate of his.
Whose smile and frown, like to Achilles' spear, Q. Mar. He is arrested, but will not obey;
Is able with the change to kill and cure.



says, shall give their words for him. Here is a hand to hold a sceptre up,

YORK. Will

you not, sons ? And with the same to act controlling laws.

Edw. Ay, noble father, if our words will serve. Give place ; by heaven thou shalt rule no more

Rich. And if words will not, then our weapons O'er him whom heaven created for thy ruler.

shall. Som. O monstrous traitor!—I arrest thee, York, Clif. Why, what a brood of traitors have we Of capital treason 'gainst the king and crown :

here ! Obey, audacious traitor; kneel for grace.

York. Look in a glass, and call thy image so; YORK. Wouldst have me kneel? first let me I am thy king, and thou a false-heart traitor.ask of these,

Call hither to the stake my two brave bears, If they can brook I bow a knee to man.- That, with the very shaking of their chains, Sirrah, call in my sons * to be my bail ;

They may astonish these fell-lurking curs ;

[Exit an Attendant. Bid Salisbury and Warwick come to me. I know, ere they will have me go to ward, They'll pawn their swords fort my enfranchisement. Q. MAR. Call hither Clifford; bid him come Drums. Enter WARWICK and SALISBURY, with amain, [Exit BUCKINGHAM.

Forces. To

say if that the bastard boys of York Shall be the surety for their traitor father.

Clif. Are these thy bears ? we'll bait thy bears York. O blood-bespotted Neapolitan,

to death, Outcast of Naples, England's bloody scourge!

And manacle the bear-ward in their chains, The sons of York, thy betters in their birth,

If thou dar’st bring them to the baiting-place. Shall be their father's bail ; and bane to thoso

Rich. Oft have I seen a hot o'erweening cur That for my surety will refuse the boys !

Run back and bite, because he was withheld; See, where they come ; I'll warrant they'll make

Who, being suffer'de with the bear's fell paw, it good.

IIath clapp'd his tail between his legs and cried : Q. Mar. And here comes Clifford, to deny their And such a piece of service will you do, bail.

If you oppose yourselves to match lord Warwick.

Člir. Hence, heap of wrath, foul indigested Enter EDWARD and RICHARD PLANTAGENET,


As crooked in thy manners as thy shape ! with Forces, at one side ; at the other, with

York. Nay, we shall heat you thoroughly anon. Forces also, old CLIFFORD and his Son.

Cliv. Take heed, lest by your heat you burn Clir. Health and all happiness to my lord the

yourselves. king!

[Kneels. K. HEN. Why, Warwick, hath thy knee forgot York, I thank thee, Clifford : say, what news

to bow? with thee?

Old Salisbury,-shame to thy silver hair, Nay, do not fright us with an angry look: Thou mad misleader of thy brain-sick son ! We are thy sovereign, Clifford --kneel again ; What, wilt thou on thy death-bed play the ruffian For thy mistaking so, we pardon thee.

And seek for sorrow with thy spectacles ?Clik. This is my king, York, I do not 0, where is faith! O, where is loyalty ! mistake;

If it be banish'd from the frosty head, But thou mistak'st me much to think I do:

Where shall it find a harbour in the earth ?To Bedlam with him! is the man grown mad? Wilt thou go dig a grave to find out war, K. HEN. Ay, Clifford; a bedlam and ambitious And shame thine honourable age with blood ? humour

Why art thou old, and want'st experience ? Makes him oppose himself against his king. Or wherefore dost abuse it, if thou hast it?

(*) First folio, sonne.

(1) First folio, os. a First let me ask of these, &c.] The old text reads, “ - of thee." By these York is supposed to mean his sons, or his forces.

b Exit BUCKINGHAM.) The old copies have no stage direction here; but it is evident from what the King says presently

Call Buckingham, and bid him arm himself"that he must have left the stage at some period of the scene. The inodern editors have been equally unmindful of his exit.

c Who, being suffer'd-) That is, who being unrestrained, er checked. So in Act III, Sc. 2:

“Lest, being suffer'd in that harmful slumber," &c. And in "Henry VI." Part III. Act IV. Sc. 8:

“ A little fire is quickly trodden out,

Which being suffer'd, rivers cannot quench." Mr. Collier's annotator, from ignorance of the idiom, substitutes having for being; "and," Mr. C. remarks, " we may be confident, gives us the poet's language."

For shame! in duty bend thy knee to me,
That bows unto the

SCENE II.-Saint Alban's.
with mickle age.

grave Sal. My lord, I have consider'd with myself The title of this most renowned duke;

Alarums : Excursions. Enter WARWICK. And in my conscience do repute his grace The rightful heir to England's royal seat.

WAR. Clifford of Cumberland, 'tis Warwick K. HEN. Hast thou not sworn allegiance unto

calls ! me ?

And if thou dost not hide thee from the bear, Sal. I have.

Now,—when the angry trumpet sounds alarm, K. HEN. Canst thou dispense with heaven for And dead men's cries do fill the empty air, — such an oath ?

Clifford, I say, come forth and fight with me! SAL. It is great sin to swear unto a sin ; Proud northern lord, Clifford of Cumberland, But greater sin to keep a sinful oath.

Warwick is hoarse with calling thee to arms.
Who can be bound by any solemn vow
To do a murderous deed, to rob a man,
To force a spotless virgin's chastity,

Enter YORK.
To reave the orphan of his patrimony,
To wring the widow from her custom'd right; How now, my noble lord! what all a-foot ?
And have no other reason for this wrong,

YORK. The deadly-handed Clifford slew my But that he was bound by a solemn oath ?

steed, Q. MAR. A subtle traitor needs no sophister. But match to match I have encounter'd him, K. HEN. Call Buckingham, and bid him arm And made a prey for carrion kites and crows himself.

Even of the bonny beast he lov'd so well. York. Call Buckingham and all the friends

thou hast, I am resolv'd for death or* dignity.

Enter CLIFFORD. Clif. The first I warrant thee, if dreams prove true.

(again, WAR. Of one or both of us the time is come. WAR. You were best to go to bed, and dream YORK. Hold, Warwick, seek thee out some To keep thee from the tempest of the field.

other chase, CLIF. I am resoly'd to bear a greater storm, For I myself must hunt this deer to death. Than any thou canst conjure up to-day;

War. Then, nobly, York ; 't is for a crown And that I'll write upon thy burgonet,

thou fight'st.Might I but know thee by thy household badge. As I intend, Clifford, to thrive to-day, War. Now, by my father's badge, old Nevil's It grieves my soul to leave thee unassail'd. crest,

[Exit. The rampant bear chain’d to the ragged staff, Clif. What seest thou in me, York ? Why This day I'll wear aloft my burgonet,

dost thou
pause ?

[love, (As on a mountain-top the cedar shows

YORK, With thy brave bearing should I be in That keeps his leaves in spite of any storm,)

But that thou art so fast mine enemy. Even to † affright thee with the view thereof. Clir. Nor should thy prowess want praise and CLIF. And from thy burgonet I'll rend thy bear,

esteem, And tread it under foot with all contempt,

But that 't is shown ignobly and in treason. Despite the bear-ward that protects the bear. York. So let it help me now against thy sword,

Y. CLIF. And so to arms, victorious father, As I in justice and true right express it! To quell the rebels and their 'complices.

CLIF. My soul and body on the action both ! Rich. Fie! charity! for shame, speak not in YORK. A dreadful lay!-address thee instantly. spite,

[They fight, and CLIFFORD falls. For you shall sup with Jesu Christ to-night. CLIF. La fin couronne les oeuvres. [Dies. Y. CLIF. Foul stigmatic, that's more than thou York. Thus war hath given thee peace, for canst tell.

thou art still. Rich. If not in heaven, you'll surely sup in Peace with his soul, heaven, if it be thy will! hell. [Exeunt severally.


(*) Old text, and.

(t) Old text, so. a Household badge.) So " The Contention." The first folio misprints household, housed.

Foul stigmatic,-) A stigmatic originally signified any one

marked, as a criminal punishment, with a hot iron. To appreciate the application of this term to Richard, we must call to mind the cruel belief once prevalent, that personal deformity was a brand or stigma set by Nature on a being, to indicate a vicious and malignant disposition.

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Enter Young CLIFFORD.

Y. CLIF. Shame and confusion ! all is on the

rout; Fear frames disorder, and disorder wounds Where it should guard. O war, thou son of hell, Whom angry heavens do make their minister, Throw in the frozen bosoms of our part Hot coals of vengeance !-Let no soldier fly: He that is truly dedicate to war Hath no self-love; nor he that loves himself, Hath not essentially, but by circumstance, The name of valour.—0, let the vile world end,

[Seeing his dead father. And the premised flames of the last day Knit heaven and earth together! Now let the general trumpet blow his blast, Particularities and petty sounds To cease! Wast thou ordain’d, dear father, To lose thy youth in peace, and to achieve

The silver livery of advised age ;
And, in thy reverence, and thy chair-days, thus
To die in ruffian battle ?—Even at this sight
My heart is turn’d to stone: and, while 't is mine,
It shall be stony. York not our old men spares;
No more will I their babes : tears virginal
Shall be to me even as the dew to fire ;
And beauty, that the tyrant oft reclaims,
Shall to my flaming wrath be oil and flas.
Henceforth I will not have to do with pity:
Meet I an infant of the house of York,
Into as many gobbets will I cut it,
As wild Medea young Absyrtus did:
In cruelty will I seek out my fame.-
Come, thou new ruin of old Clifford's liouse :

[Taking up the body.
As did Æneas old Anchises bear,
So bear I thee upon my manly shoulders ;
But then Æneas bare a living load,
Nothing so heavy as these woes of mine. [Erit.


SCENE III.-Fields near Saint Alban's. fighting, and SOMERSET is killed.

Alarum : Retreat. Flourish ; then enter YORK,

RICHARD PLANTAGENET, WARWICK, and Rich. So, lie thou there ;

Soldiers, with drum and colours.
For underneath an alehouse' paltry sign,
The Castle in Saint Alban's, Somerset

YORK. Of * Salisbury, who can report of him,Ilath made the wizard famous in his death.

That winter lion, who in rage forgets Sword, hold thy temper : heart, be wrathful still:

Aged contusions and all brush of time; Priests pray for enemies, but princes kill. [Exit. Repairs him with occasion ? This happy day


Is not itself, nor have we won one foot,
Alarums : Excursions. Enter King HENRY,

If Salisbury be lost.

My noble father,
QUEEN MARGARET, and others, retreating.

Three times to-day I holp him to his horse,

Three times bestrid him, thrice I led him off, Q. Mar. Away, my lord ! you are slow : for Persuaded him from any further act : shame, away!

But still, where danger was, still there I met him ; K. HEN. Can we outrun the heavens? Good

And, like rich hangings in a homely house,
Margaret, stay

So was his will in his old feeble body.
Q. Mar. What are you made of ? you'll nor But, noble as he is, look where he comes.

fight nor fly :
Now is it manhood, wisdom, and defence,

To give the enemy way; and to secure us
By what we can, which can no more but fly.

SAL. Now, by my sword, well hast thou fought [Alarum afar of


By the mass, so did we all.-I thank If you be ta’en, we then should see the bottom


Richard : of all our fortunes : but if we haply scape

God knows, how long it is I have to live ; (As well we may, if not through your neglect),

And it hath pleas'd him, that three times to-day We shall to London get; where you are lov’d,

You have defended me from imminent death. And where this breach, now in our fortunes made,

Well, lords, we have not got that which we have: May readily be stopp'd.

'Tis not enough our foes are this time fled,
Being opposites of such repairing nature.

York. I know our safety is to follow them ;
Re-enter Young CLIFFORD.

For, as I hear, the king is fled to London,
To call a present court of parliament.
him ere the writs go

forth : Y. Clif. But that my heart's on future mischief What


lord Warwick ? shall we after them ? set,

War. After them! Nay, before them, if we can. I would speak blasphemy ere bid you fly; Now, by my hand, lords, 't was a glorious day: But fly you must; uncurable discomfit

Saint Alban's battle, won by famous York, Reigns in the hearts of all our present parts. Shall be eterniz'd in all age to come.Away, for your relief! And we will live

Sound drum and trumpets :—and to London all : To see their day, and them our fortune give:

And more such days as these to us befal ! (1) Away, my lord, away! [Exeunt.


Let us pursue

a of Salisbury,-) Mr. Collier's annotator, following the earlier version of the play, which reads,

"But did you see old Salisbury?"substitutes old for of.




(1) SCENE II.-With Margery Jourdain, the cunning | iii open places within the cytie of London, and after that witch.] From Ryder's Foedera we find that on the ninth adiudged to perpetuall prisone in the Isle of Man, under of May, 1432 (the 10th of Henry VI.), Margery Jourde- the kepyng of Sir Ihon Stanley, knyght. At the same mayn, John Virley, clerk, and friar John Ashwell, who season wer arrested as ayders and counsailers to the had been confined on a charge of sorcery in the castle of sayde duchesse, Thomas Southwel, prieste and chanon Windsor, were conveyed by the Constable of the castle, of saincte Stephens in Westmynster, Thon Hum priest, Walter Hungerford, to the Council at Westminster, and Roger Bolyngbroke, a conyng nycromancier, and Margerie were there delivered into the custody of the Lord Chan- Iourdayne, surnamed the witche of Eye, to whose charge cellor. The same day, upon finding securities for their it was laied, that thei

, at the request of the duchesse, had good behaviour, they were discharged.

devised an image of waxe representyng the kyng, whiche

by their sorcery, a litle and litle consumed, entendyng (2) SCENE IV.-All, away!] Hall's account of the therby in conclusion to waist and destroy the kynges arrest and trial of the Duchess and her confederates, is as

person, and so to bryng hym to death ; for the which follows :-" Thys yere (1442-3), dame Elyanour Cobham,

treison, they wer adjudged to dye, and so Margery Jorwyse to the sayd duke, was accused of treason, for that she, dayne was brent in smithfelde, and Roger Bolyngbroke by sorcery and enchauntment, entended to destroy the

was drawen and quartered at tiborne ; takyng upon his kyng, to thentent to advaunce and promote her husbande

death, that there was never no suche thyng by them yma. to the croune : upon thys she was examined in sainct

gined ; Thon Hum had his pardon, and Southwel died Stephens chapell, before the bishop of Canterbury, and there in the toure before execution,' by examinacion convict and judged to do open penaunce, in


(1) SCENE 1.

--for flying at the brook, I saw not better sport, these seven years' day.] Thomas Nash, (not the satirical author of “Pierce Pennilesse his Supplication,") in his “Quaternio, or a Fourefold Way to a Happie Life," 1633, p. 35, affords an animated picture of the sport of hawking at water-fowl :—“And to heare an Accipitrary relate againe, how he went forth in a cleare, calme, and Sun-shine Evening, about an houre before the Sunne did usually maske himselfe, unto the River, where finding of a Mallard, he whistled off his Faulcon, and how shee flew from him as if shee would never have turned head againe, yet presently upon a shoote came in, how then by degrees, by little and little, by flying about and about, she mounted so high, until she had lessened herselfe to the view of the beholder, to the shape of a Pigeon or Partridge, and had made the height of the Moone the place of her flight, how presently upon the landing of the fowle, shee came downe like a stone and enewed it, and suddenly got up againe, and suddenly upon a second landing came downe againe, and missing of it, in the downecome recovered it, beyond expectation, to the admiration of the beholder at a long flight.”

lyfe. And was warned in hys dreame that he shoulde como out of Berwyke, where he said he had ever dwelled, to seke saynt Albon, and that he had ben at his shryne, and had not bene holpen. And therfore he woulde go seke hym at some other place, for he had hard some say sins he came, that sainct Albonys body shold be at Colon, and indede such a contencion hath ther ben. But of troth, as I am surely informed, he lieth here at Saint Albonis, saving some reliques of him, which thei there shev shrined. But to tell you forth, whan the kyng was comen, and the towne full, sodainlye thys blind man at Saint Albonis shrine had his sight agayne, and a myracle solemply rongen, and te Deum songen, so that nothynz was talked of in al the towne but this myracle. So happened it than that Duke Humfry of Glocester, a great wyse man and very well lerned, having great joy to se such a myracle, called the pore man unto hym. And first shewing hymselfe joyouse of Goddes glory so shewed in the gettinge of his sight, and exortinge hym to mekenes, and to none ascribing of any part the worship to himself

, nor to be proued of the peoples prayse, which would call hym a good and a godly man therby. At last he loked well upon his eyen, and asked whyther he could never se nothing at al in al his life before. And whan as well his wyfe as himself affermed falsely no, than he loked advisedly upon his eien again, and said, I beleve you very wel, for me thinketh that ye cannot so well yet. Yes, sir, quoth he, I thanke God, and his holy marter, I can se nowe as well as any man. Ye can, quoth the duke; what colour is my gowne? Than anone the beggar tolde him, What coloure, quoth he, is this mans gowne? He told him also, and so forth, without any sticking, he told him the mes of al the colours that coulde bee shewed him. And whan my lord saw that, he bad him walke faytoure, and made him be set openly in the stockes. For though

(2) SCENE I.-Let them be whipped through every market, town, till they come to Berwick, from whence they came.] Shakespeare may have derived the incidents of the foregoing scene from a story related by Sir Thomas More as communicated to him by his father :-“I remember me that I have hard my father tell of a begger that, in Kyng Henry his daies the sixt, cam with his wife to Saint Al. bonis. And there was walking about the towne begging a five or six dayes before the kinges commynge thither, saienge that he was borne blinde and never sawe in hys

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