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The general idea and purpose of this work are presented in the Introduction. But while it was designed in the first place to lay a foundation for the development of Methods of Teaching for those who are preparing themselves for the work of the schoolroom, the principles and laws developed are no less applicable to public speaking, family training, and every other influence by which thought, feeling, or voluntary action is developed or molded.

The main lines of thought, and the form of the work as a Science of Education are new. This has not been sought for the sake of novelty, nor to make it appear that there is need of the work; but, because it has been so universally felt that there was need of a work radically different from any thing that existed, this method of treating the subject was adopted, although it was new. But, because the field was new, it is not expected that it is free from errors that will expose it to just criticism, and because the end in view is truth, criticism is not deprecated. If it shall lead some one to correct its errors, and carry its truths to more important conclusions, it will have accomplished its greatest good.

It only remains for me to express my sense of obligation to the Publishers for many acts of courtesy and real kindness in preparing to present the work in an appropriate form; and to Dr. Lemuel Moss, a college classmate and esteemed friend, for important criticisms and suggestions.

FREDONIA, N. Y., September, 1887.

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INTRODUCTION.

Not to be studied critically, but to be read carefully.

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HE
purpose

of this Introduction is to bring the reader to the point of view from which the following treatise was conceived. This will most readily and naturally be

effected by setting forth the way in which the author was himself led to this point of view; hence an allusion to personal experience seems necessary, which would otherwise have no significance.

2. It has been common to base methods of teaching on the science of Psychology. The end which these methods have in view is the development of the mind to what Psychology declares it ought to be. The one universal law of methods is growth by exercise. According to this the study of methods becomes an inquiry into the best means and manner of exercising the various mental faculties. Grant that this fairly well marks out the province of methods, what help can Psychology give in such an inquiry? It names the faculties to be exercised, but it does not tell how to exercise them, which is what methods seek to know. In the first place, the science of Psychology is the science of an accomplished result, the mind in a developed state; methods of teaching apply to the process by which that result is reached. Psychology is a test of

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