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court, as to create uneasiness and distrust in the jealous mind of Ferdinand, and made it neceffary for Columbus again to return to Spain, in order to counteract their machinations, and to obtain such further supplies as were neceffary to his great political and benevolent purposes.
$5. On his arrival at courts and stating with his usual dignity and confidence the whole history of his transactions abroad, every thing wore a favorable appearance. He was received with usual honors, and again folicited to take charge of another squadron, to carry out further supplies to pursue his discoveries, and in every respect to use his discretion in extending the S; an sh Empire in the New World. In this third voyage he discovered the conținent of America, at the mouth of the river Oronoke.
56. He rectified many disorders in his government of Hispaniola, which had happened in his absence ; and every thing was going on in a prosperous train, when an event was announced to him, which completed his own ruin, and gave a fatal turn to the Spanish policy and conduct in America. This was the arrival of Francis de Bovadilla, with a commision to supercede Columbus in his government ; and with power to arraign him as a criminal, and io jndge of his former adminiftration.
57. It seems that by this time the enemies of Columbus, despairing to complete his overthrow by groundless infinuarions of misconduct, had taken the niore effectual method of exciting the jealousy of their fovereigns.
58. From the promifing samples of gold and other valuable commodities brought from America, they took occasion to represent to the King and Queen, that the prodigious wealth and extent of the countries he had discovered, would foon throw such power into the hands of the Viceroy, that he would trample on the royal authority, and bid defiance to the Spanish power. 59. These
arguments were well calculated for the cold and fufpicious temper of Ferdinand, and they must have had some effect upon the mind of Isabella. The consequence was, the appointment of Bovadillo, who had been the inveterate enemy of Columbus, to take the government from his hands. This first tyrant of the Spanith nation in America, began his administration by
ordering Columbus to be put in chains on board a thip and fending him prisoner to Spain.
60. By relaxing all discipline, he introduced disorder and licentiousnefs throughout the colony. He fubjected the natives to a most miserable fervitude, and apportioned them out in large numbers among his adherents. Under this fe
vere treatment perished, in a short time, inany, thousands of thufe innocent people.
61. Columbus was carried in his fetters to the Spanish court, where the King and Queen either feigned or felt a fufficient regret at the conduct of Bovadilla towards this il-. luftrious prisoner. He was not only released from confinement, but treated with all imaginable refpect.
62. But although the King endeavored to expiate the effence, by censuring and recalling Bovadilla, yet we may judge of his lipcerity from his appointing Nicholas de Ovana da, another bitter enemy of Columbus, to succeed in the government, and from his ever after refusing to reinstate Columbus, or to fulfil any of the conditions on which the discoveries were undertaken.
63. After two years solicitation for this or fome other employment, he at length obtained a fquadron of four small veffels, to attempt new discoveries. He now set out with the ardor and enthufiafin of a young adventurer, in quest of what was always his favorite' object, a paffage into tlie South Sea, by which he might fail to India. He touched at Hifpaniola, where Ovado, the Governor, refufed him admittance on thore, even to take shelter during a hurricane, ..the prognostics of which his experience had, taught him to diloern.
64. By putting into a finall creek, hie rodė out the storm and then bore a way for the continent. Several months in this most boisterous season of the year, he spent in exploring the coast round the gulph of Mexico, in hopes of finding the intended navigation to India. , At length he was thipwrecked, and driven ashore on the Illand of Jamaica. 65. His cap of Calamities feemed now completely foll.
lis cup He was cast upon an Island (of lavages without provisions, without any vessel, and thirty leagues from any Spanish settlement. But the greatest providential misfortunes are
1 capable of being imbittered by the insults of our fellow creatures.
66. A few of his hardy companions generously offered, in (wo Indiah canoes to attempt a yoyage to Hispaniola, in hopes of obtaining a vefsel for the relief of the unhappy crew. After suffering every extremity of danger and hardthip, they arrived at the Spanish colony in ten days. Ovan. do, through perfonal malice and jealousy. of Columbus, after having detained these meflengers erght months, dispatched à veffel to Jamaica in order to spy out the condition of Coa lambus and his crew; with positive instructions to the Captain' not to afford them any relief."
67. This order was punctually executed. The captain approached the shore, delivered a letter of empty compliment from Ovando to the Admiral, received his answers and returned. About four months afterwards a 'veffe : came to their relief; and Columbus, worn out with fatigués and broken“ with misfortuness returned for t!re l'aft time to Spain.
68. Here a new distress awaited him, which 1 hệ couidered as one of the greatest he had suffered in his whole life. This was the death of Queen Ifabella, his last and greatest friend.
69. He did not suddenly abandon himself to despair. He called upon the gratitude and justice of the King, and in terms of dignity; demanded the fulfilment of the former contract.
70. Notwithstanding his age and infirnities, he even folicited to be further employed in extending the career of discovery, without a prospect of any other reward but ? the consciogliels of doing good to mankind. But Ferdinand; cold, ugrateful, and timid, dared not to comply with a single proposal of this kind, left he should increase his own obligations to a man, whole-services he thought it dange. Tous to reward, .74. He therefore delayed and avoided any decifion on thefe fubje&ts, in hopes that the declining health of Columbus would soon rid the court of the remonftrances of a man, whose extraordinary merit was, in their opinion, a ffficient occafion for destroying him.
72. In this they were not disappointed. Columbus l'anguished a short time, and gladly resigned a life, which had
been work out in the moft effential services that perhaps were ever rendered, by any human character, to an ungrate: ful world.
A SKEICH of the HISTORY of the late War in
a revenue in America, without her consent, occafi. oned the late war, which feparated this country from GreatBritain.
2. The first attempt of consequence was the famous Stamp Act, March, 1765. By this the Americans were obliged to make use of A amped paper, for all notes, bonds and other legal instruments; on which paper a duty was to be paid.
3. This act occafioned fuch general uneafiness in America, that the parliament thought proper to repeal it the year after it was made.
4. But the next year (1767) the Tea Act was framed, by which a heavy duty was laid upou tea, glass, paper, and many other articles, which were much used in America. This threw the colonies into confusion, and excited such refentment among the people, that the Parliament, three years after, took off three fourths of the duty.
s. The duty was still disagreeable to the Americans, who entered into refolutions not to import and consume British manufactures.
6. A few years after (in 1773) the people of Boston, who were detei mined not to pay duties on tea, went on board, fome Ahips, belonging to the Eaft-India company, which lay in the harbour, and threw all the tea overboard. In other parts of America, violent opposition was made to Britiin taxation.
7. This opposition enkiudled the resentment of the British Parliament, which they expreffed the next year (1774) by fhutting the port of Boston, which ruined the trade of that flourishing town. This act was followed by others, by which the constitution of Mafachusetts was new modelled, and the liberties of the people infringed.
8. These rath and cruel measures, give great and universal alarm to the Americans., General Gagę was fent
zs 37. od the afeAions of America from 12* 10 år ard produced a combined crpof.
sities of rafticn. SFW205 22 to be rade, to oppofe by force, Eu acs of Parliament. The, militia of
is the ole of arms, great encou. ' *s BTT i the manuiaclure of gun-powder, astre totes to obtain all kinds of military
TIET, colazel Lelie was feat with a de stos Boitoll, to take poflefon of
Butas, este tie x5-laws; but he was received * Chines, a crecize with spirit in the execution of
$ The enties breegsout America, remonftrated * A: de lame time many contributions of e and are css frca every quarter, were fent to the ishasa Bektes, who were suffering in confequence of
Teine rez, tersurived in Boston, to enforce e TË zutes of the British partiament. For.
s seeded ce Boton reck, by order of Gene:**: ne ze sessition and fores in Cambridge and Cerraries and secured.
I seedeputies frem mot of the Colonies, met Paidelybia. Thefe delegates approyExceea ce people of Massachuseizs ; wrote a
Iz Gzze; obliked a declaration of rights ; Tria lot to irport, or use British goods ; ei anne King of Great Britain ; an address to EM *** Eden; another to the inhabiigre, a sczzi to the inhabitants of the
peeglice rett year (1775) was pafied 7,3 e Dorthern colonies were for
it disc Nenitund and, for a certains The reseas de compete of thek celonies,
33 zrane lo sported by the fift:ery. Siegees va polied, which restrained
corter colonies, to Gieat-Bri
Veisies, except under cērtain is Sizes of opprelion on the part