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sides; and the nation holds it no sin, to tarre" ftragedy, comedy, history, pastoral, pastoral-comithem on to controversy: There was, for a while, cal, historical-pastoral, tragical-historical, tragicalno money

bid for argument, unless the poet and comical--historical-pastoral,scene undividable,or the player went to cutts in the question. poem unlimited: Seneca cannot be too heavy, nor Ham. Is it possible?

5 Plautus too light: For the law of writ', and the Guil. O, there has been much throwing about liberty, these are the only men. of brains.

Hum. O Jephtha, judge of Israel,—what a treaHam. Do the boys carry it away?

adst thou! Ros. Ay, that they do, my lord; Hercules ? Pol. What a treasure had he, my lord? and his load too.

10 Ham. Why,--One fair daughter, and no more, Ham. It is not very strange: for my uncle is

Theʻzhich he loved passing well. king of Denmark, and those, that would make Pol. Still on my daughter. Aside. mouths at him while my father lived, give twenty, Ham. Am I noi i' the right, old Jephtha? forty, tifty, an hundred ducats a-piece, for his pic Pol. If you call me Jephelia, my lord, I have a ture in liitle! There is something in this more 15 daughter, that I love passing well

. than natural, if philosophy could find it out. Ham. Nay, that follows not.

[Flourish of trumpets. Pol. What follows then, my lord ? Guil. There are the players,

Ham. Why, as By lot, God zvot,--and then, you Ham. Gentlemen, you are welcome to Elsinour, know, It caine to pass, As mosi like it c:as", Your hands. Come then : the appurtenance of 20 The first row of the pious chanson will shew welcome is fashion and ceremony: let me com you more; for look, where my abridgenient ply with you in this garb; lest my extent to the comes. players, which, I tell you, must shew fairly out

Euter four or fire players. ward, should more appear like ertertainment than You are welcome, masters; welcome, all:-I am yours. You are welcome: but my uncle-father,25 glad to see thee well :-welcome, good friends.and aunt-mother, are deceiv'd,

0, old friend! Why, thy face is valanc'd since I Guil. In what, my dear lord ?

saw thee last; Com'st thou to beard me in DenHam. I am but mad north-north-west : when

mark?-What! my young lady and mistress! the wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a By-'r-lady, your ladyship is nearer to heaven, than hand-saw *.

30 when I saw you last, bythe altitude of achioppine". Enter Polonius.

Pray God, your voice, like a piece of uncurrent Pol. Well be with you, gentlemen!

gold, be not crack'd within the ring"? - Masters, Ham. Hark you, Guildenstern ;-and

you

you are all welcome. We'lle'an to't like French at each car á hearer: That great baby, you see falconers, fly at any thing we see: We'll have a there, is not yet out of his swadling-clouts. 35 speech straight : Come, give us a taste of your

Ros.Ilaply, he's the second time come to them; quality; come, a passionate speech. for, they say, an old man is twice a child.

1 Play. What speech, my good lord ? Ham. I will prophesy, he comes to tell me of Ham. I heard thee speak me a speech once -the players; mark it.--You say right, sir: on but it was never acted; or, if it was, not above Monday morning; 'twas then, indeed. 4once: for the play, I remember, pleas'd not the

Pol. My lord, I have news to tell you. * million : 'twas caviare's to the general: but it

Ham. My lord, I have news to tell you. When was (as I receiv'd it, and others, whose judgements, Roscius was an actor in Rome,

in such matters, cried in the top of mine'') an exPol. The actors are come hither, my lord. cellent play; well digested in the scenes, set down Ham. Buz, buz”!

45 with as much modesty's as cunning. I remember, Pol. Upon mine honour,

one said, there were no sallets in the lines, to Ham. Then cuine each actor on his ass", make the matter savoury; nor no matter in the Pol. The best actors in the world, either for! (phrase, that might indite the author of airection":

* To provoke any animal to rage, is to tarre him. * i.e. They not only carry away the world, but the world-bearer too: alluding to the story of Hercules' relieving Aulas; or the allusion may be to the Globe playhouse, on the Bankside, the sign of which was Hercules carrying the Globe.

jl. e, in miniature.

* This was a common proverbial speech. Buz, buz! are, probably, only interjections employed to interrupt Polonius. o This seems to be a line of a ballad. ? Writ, for triting, composition. • These were quotations from an old song: · Mr. Steevens explains this allusion thus: “The pinus chansons were a kind of Christmas Curols, containing some scriptural bisa tory thrown into loose rhymes, and sung about the streets by the common people when they went at that season to solicit alis:

-Hamlet is here repeating some scraps from a song of this kind; and when Polonius enquires what follows them, he refers him to the first row (i. e. division) of one of these, to obtain the information he wanted.” lo i. e. as Dr. Johnson thinks, those who will shorten

my An a' ridgement is used for a dramatic piece in the Midsummer Night's Dream, Act V. Sc. I. "A chimppine is a high shoe worn by the Italians. 1. That is, cruck's too much for use.

13 The cariare is the spawn of the sterkett, a fish of the sturgeon kind, which seldom grows above thirty inches long. It is found in many of the rivers of Russia. --The general means the people, or multitude. 1i.c. tcere higher than mine.

1 Modesty, for simplicity. i, e, convict the author of being a fantastical afected writer.

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but call'd it, an honest method; as wholesome as Ham. It shall to the barber's, with your beard.
sweet, and by very much more handsome than Pr'ythee, say on :-He's for a jigg, or a tale of
fine. One speech in it I chiefly lov’d: 'twas bawdry, or he sleeps : say on; come to Hecuba.
Æneas' tale to Dido; and thereabout of it espe 1 Play. But who, ah zroč! hud szen the mobled?
cially, where he speaks of Priam's slaughter; If 5

queen
it live in your memory, begin at this line; let Ham. 'The mobled queen?
me sce, let me see ;-

Pol. That's good; mobled queen is good.
Tlu rugged Pyrrhus-like the Hyrcanian beast,-- 1 Play. Run bare-foot up and down, threat'ning
'tis not so ; it begins with Pyrrhus.

the flames
The rugged Pyrrhus,—he, whose sable arms, 10 With bisson * rheum: a clout upon that head,
Black us his purpose, did the night resemble, Where late the diadem stood; and, for a robe,
When he lay couched in the ominous horse, About her lank and all o'er-teemed loins,
Hath now this dread and bluck complexion smeard A blanket, in the alarm of fear caught up;
With heraldry more dismal; head to foot

Who this had seen, with tongue in venom steep'd,
Now is he total gules ?; horridly trick'd 15 'Gainst fortune's state would treason have pro-
Wish blood of faihers, mothers, daughters, sons ; But if the gods themselves did see her then, [nounc'd:
Bal'd and impasted with the parclung streets, When she saru Pyrrhus make malicious sport
That lend a tyrannous and a damned light In mincing with his sword her husband's limbs;
To their lord's murder: Roasted in wrath, and fire, The instant burst of clamour that she made,
And thus o'er-sized with coagulate gore, 20 (Unless things mortal move them not at all)
With eyes like carbuncles, the hellish Pyrrhus Would have made milch the burning eyes of hearen,
Old grandsire Priam seeks:-So, proceed you. And passion in the gods.

Pol. 'Fore God, my lord, well spoken; with Pol. Look, whe'er he has not turn’d his colour,
good accent, and good discretion,

and has tears in's eyes.—Pr’ythee, no more. 1 Play. Anon he finds him,

1251 Ham. 'Tis well, I'll have thee speak out the Striking too short at Greeks; his antique szuord, rest of this soon._Good my lord, will you see the Rebellious to his arm, lies where it falls,

players well bestow'd? Do you hear, let them be Repugnant to command: Unequal match'd, well used; for they are the abstract, and brief Pyrrhus at Prian drives; in rage, strikes wide ; chronicles of the time: After your death, you But with the whiff and reind of his fell sword 30 were better have a bad epitatb, than their ill reThe unnerred fother falls. Then senseless Ilium,

you

live.
Seeming to feel this blow, with flaming top

Pol. My lord, I will use them according to
Stoops to his base; and tvith a hideous crush their desert.
Takes prisoner Pyrrhus' ear: for, lo! his sword, Ham. Odds bodikins, man, much better: Use
Which was declining on the milky head 35 every man after his desert, and who shall 'scape
Of reverend Priam,

seem'd i' the air to stick : whipping? Use them after your own honour and So, as a painted tyrant, Pyrrhus stood;

dignity: The less they deserve, the more merit And, like a neutral to his will and mutter, is in your bounty. Take them in. Did nothing

Pol. Come, sirs.

[Erit Polonius. But, as we often see, against some storm,

401 Ham. Follow him, friends : we'll hear a play
- silence in the heureus, the rack stand still, to-morrow. Dost thou hear me, old friend; can
The bold winds speechless, and the orb beloty you play the murder of Gonzago?
As hush as death: anon, the dreadful thunder 1 Play. Ay, my lord.
Dotha rend the region: So, after Pyrrhus pauses 145 for a need, study a speech of some dozen or six-

Ham. We'll ha't to-morrow night. You could,
Aroused rengeance sets him net a-work;
And never did the Cyclops' hammers full

teen lines, which I would set down, and insert
On Mars's armour, forg'd for proof eterne, in’t? could you not?
With less remorse than Pyrrhus' bleeding sword 1 Play. Ay, my lord.
Now falls on Priam.-

Ham. Very well. Follow that lord; and look
Out, out, thou strumpet Fortune! All you gods, 50 you mock hiin not.--My good friends, [to Rosen-
In general synod, tuke array her porer;

crantz and Guildenstern) I'll leave you till night: Breuk all the spokes and fellies from her wheel, you are welcome to Elsinour. And bowl the round nare down the hill of heuren, Ros. Good, my lord. [Exeunt Ros. and Guil. as low us to the fiends!

Ham.Ay, so, God be wi' you:--Now I am alone, Pol. This is too long.

1530, what a rogue and peasant slave am 1! · Hamlet is telling how much his judgement differed from that of others. One said, there was no salt in the lines, &c., but called it an ionest method. The author probably gave it, But I called it an honest method, &c. 2 Gules is a term in heraldry, and signifies red. According to Warburton, mobled, or nabled, signifies veiled; according to Dr. Johnson, it is huddled, grossly covered. --Mr. Stee. vens says, he was intormed that mab-led in Warwickshire (where it is pronounced mob-led) siguifies led astray by a will o' the whisp, or ignis fatuus.---Mr. Tollet adds, that in the latter end of the reign of king Charles II. the rabble that attended the earl of Shaftesbury's partisans was first called mobile rul gus, and afterwards, by contraction, the mob; and ever since, the word mob has become proper English. Bisson or beesen, i. č. blind; a word still in use in some parts of the North of England. 3 T4

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Is it not monstrous, that this player here, I should have fatted all the region kites
But in a fiction, in a dream of passion,

With this slave's offal: Bloody, bawdy villain !
Could force his soul so to his own conceit, Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindless *vil-
That, from her working, all his visage warm'd; Why, what an ass am I! This is most bravc;[lain!
Tcars in his eyes, distraction in 's aspect, 5 That I, the son of a dear father murder'd,
A broken voice, and his whole function suiting Prompted to my revenge by heaven, and hell,
With forms to his conceit? And all for nothing! Must, like a whore, unpack my heart with words,
For Hecuba!

And fall a cursing, like a very drab, What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba, A scullion ! That he should weep for her? What would he do, 10 Fie upon 't! foh! Had he the motive and the cue' for passion, About, my brains! Hum! I have heard, That I have? He would drown the stage with tears, That guilty creatures, sitting at a play, And cleave the general ear with horrid speech; Have by the very cunning of the scene Make mad the guilty, and appall the free, Been struck so to the soul, that presently Confound the ignorant; and amaze, indeed, 15 They have proclaim'd their malefactions : The very faculty of eyes and ears.

l'or murder, though it have no tongue, will speak Yet I,

With most miraculous organ. I'll have these A dull and muddy-mettled rascal, peak,

players Like John-a-dreams, unpregnant of iny cause?, Play something like the murder of my father, And can say nothing ; no, not sor a king, 20 Betore mine uncle: I'll observe his looks; l'pon whose property, and most dear lite, I'll tent him to the quick; if he do blench', A'damın'd defeat' was made. Am I a coward ?

i kuow my course. The spirit, that I have seen, Who calls me villain? breaks my pate across ? May be a devil: and the devil hath power Plucks off my beard, and blows it in my face? To assume a pleasing shape; yea, and, perhaps, Tweaks me by the nose? gives me the lye i’ the 25|Out of my weakness, and my melancholy

, throat,

(As he is very potent with such spirits) As deep as to the lungs? Who does me this? Abuses me to damn me: I'll have grounds Ha! Why, I should take it: for it cannot be, More relative than this; The play's the thing, But I am pigeon-liver'd, and lack gall

Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king To make oppression bitter; or, ese this, 30

[Exit.

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King. AND ference

SCENE I.

Queen. Did you assay bim
The Palace.

40 To any pastime?

Ros. Nadam, it so fell out, that certain players Enter King, Queen, Polonius, Ophelia, Rosen

We o'er-raught' on the way: of these we told hint; crantz, and Guildenstern.

And there did seem in him a kind of joy
ND can you by no drift of con To hear of it: They are here about the court;

45 And, as I think, they have already order
Get from him, why he puts on this confusion; This night to play before him.
Grating so harshly all his days of quiet

Pol. 'Tis most true: With turbulent and dangerous lunacy?

And he beseech'd me to entreat your majesties, Ros.He does confess, he feels himseli distracted; To hear and see the matter. But from what cause, he will by no means speak. 50 King. With all my heart; and it doth much Guil. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded;

content me But, with a crafty madness, keeps aloof,

To hear him so inclin'd. When we would bring him on to some confession Good gentlemen, give him a further edge, Of his true statc.

And drive his purpose on to these delights. Queen. Did he receive you well?

55 Ros. We shall, my lord. [Exeunt Ros. und Guil. Ros. Most like a gentleman.

King. Sweet Gertrude, Teave us too: Guil. But with much forcing of his disposition. For we have closely sent for Hamlet hither;

Ros. Niggard of question; but, of our demands, That he, as 'twere by accident, may here Most free in his reply.

Atfront • Ophelia. 1 i. e. the hint, the direction. ? j. e. not quickened with a new desire of vengeance; not teeming with vengeance. 3 Defeat, for dispossession. * i.e. unnatural. • The meaning is, Wits, to your work. Brain, go about the present business. 6 j. e. search his wounds. ?i. e. if he shrink, or start.

* Relative, for convictive, according to Warburton.--- Relative is, nearly related, closely connected, according to Dr. Johnson. ? Oüer-raught is over-reached, that is, over-took. To afront, is only to meet directly.

Her

you did;

Her father, and myself (lawful espials")

|No traveller returns-puzzles the will; Will so bestow ourselves, that, seeing, unseen,

And makes us rather bear those ills we have,
We may of their encounter frankly judge; Than fly to others that we know not of !
And gather by him, as he is behav'd,

Thus conseience does make cowards of us all; If 't be the affliction of his love, or no,

5 And thus the native hue of resolution That thus he suffers for.

is sickly'd o'er with the pale cast of thought; Queen. I shall obey you:

And enterprizes of great pith and moment, And, for my part, Ophelia, I do wish,

With this regard, their currents turn awry, That your good beauties be the happy cause And lose the name of action.-Soft you, now! Of Hamlet's wildness; so shall I hope, your vir-10

[Seeing Ophelia. Will bring him to his wonted way again, [tues The fair Ophelia ?-Nymph, in thy orisons To both your honours.

Be all my sins remember'd. Oph. Madam, I wish it may. [Erit Queen.

Oph. Good my lord, Pol. Ophelia, walk you here: -Gracious, so How does your honour for this many a day? please you,

15 Ham. I humbly thank you; well. We will bestow ourselves:--Read on this book ; Oph. My lord, I have remeinbrances of yours,

[To Ophelia. That I have longed long to re-deliver; That show of such an exercise may colour [

pray you, now receive them. Your loneliness.-We are oft to blame in this, Ham. No, not I ; 'Tis too much prov'd,--that, with devotion's vi-201 never gave you aught. And pious action, we do sugar o'er (sage, Oph. My honour'd lord, you know right well, The devil himself.

[pos'd, King. O, 'tis too true! how smart

And, with them, words of so sweet breath com-
Alash that speech doth give myconscience![Aside. Is made the things inore rich : their perfume lost,
The harlot's cheek, beauty'd with plastring art, 25 Take these again; for to the noble mind
Is not more ugly to the thing that helps it, Rich gifts wax poor, when givers prove unkind.
Than is my deed to my most painted word: There, my lord.
heavy burthen !

Ham. Ila, ha! are you honest?
Pol. I hear hiin coming; let's withdraw, my Oph: My lord?
lord, [Exeunt king, and Polonius. 30 Ham. Are you fair?
Enter Hamlet.

Oph. What ieans your lordship?
Ham. To be, or not to be, that is the question: Ham. That, if you be honest, and fair, you
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind, to suiter should adnit no discourse to your beauty.
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune; Op!. Could beauty, my lord, have better com-
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, (35 merce than with honesty?
And, by opposing,end them?-To die;—to sleep;-- Ham. Ay, truly; for the power of beauty will
No more;-and, by a sleep, to say we end sooner transforin honesty from what it is to a
The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocks bawd, than the force of honesty can translate
That flesh is heir to, -'tis a consummation beauty into its likeness: this was some time a
Devoutly to be wish'd. To die ;--to sleep;-. 40 paradox, but now the time gives it proof. I did
To sleep! perchance, to dream ;--Ay, there's love you once.
the rub;-

Oph. Indeed, my lord, you made me believe so. For in that sleep of death what dreams may come, Ham. You should not have believ'd me: for When we have shuffled off this mortal coil?, virtue cannot so inoculate our old stock, but we Must give us pause: There's the respect, 45 shall relish of it: I lov'd you not. That makes calamity of so long life: [time, Oph. I was the more deceiv’d. For who would bear the whips and scorns of Ham. Get thee to a nunnery; Why would'st The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contume thou be a breeder of sinners? I am myself indifThe pangs of despis'd love, the law's delay, [ly, ferent honest; but yet I could accuse me of such The insolence of office, and the spurns 50 things, that it were better, my mother had not That patient mierit of the unworthy takes, borne me: I am very proud, revengeful, ambiWhen he himself might his quietus * make tious; with more offences at my beck, than I With a bare bodkin 5! who would fardels bear, have thoughts to put them in, imagination to give To groan and sweat under a weary life;

them shape, or time to act them in: What should But that the dread of something after death, 55 such fellows as I do crawling between carth and The undiscover'd country, from whose bourn heaven? We are arrant knaves, all; believe none 'j. e. spies.

? i. e. turmoil, bustle. 3 Dr. Warburton remarks, that “the evils here complained of are not the product of time or duration simply, but of a corrupted age or manners. We may be sure, then, that Shakspeare wrote, the whips and scorns of th’tinie. And the description of the evils of a corrupt age, which follows, contirms this emendation.” * This expression probably alluded to the writ of discharge, which was formerly granted to those barons and knights who perso nally attended the king on any foreign expedition. This discharge was called a Quietus. It is at this time the term for the acquittance which every sheriff receives on settling his accounts at the exchequer. A bodkin was the ancient term for a small dagger.

of

of us: Go thy ways to a nunnery. Where's your Pol. It shall do well: But yet do I beliere father?

The origin and commencement of his grief Oph. At home, my lord.

Sprung trom neglected love.--How now, Ophelia? Ham. Let the doors be shut upon him; that he You need not tell us what lord Hanilet said; may play the fool no where but in's own house. 5 We heard it all. My lord, do as you please; Fareweli.

But, if you hold it fit, after the play,
Oph. O, help him, you sweet heavens ! Let his qucen-mother all alone entreat him

Ham. If thou dost marry, I'll give thee tinis To shew his grief; let her be round with him “; plague for thy dowry; Be thou as chaste as ice, And I'll be plac'd, so please you, in the ear as pure as snow, thou shalt not escape calumny. 10 Of all their conference: If she find him not, Get thee to a nunnery; farewell: Or, if thou wilt To England send him; or confine him, where needs inarry, marry a fool; for wise men know Your wisdom best shall think. well enoughi, what monsters you make of them. King. It shall be so: To a nunnery, go; and quickly too. Farewell. Mladness in great ones must not unwatch'd go. Oph. Heavenly powers, restore him!

151

[Exưunt. Ham. I have heard of your paintings too, well

SCENE II. enough; God hath given you one face, and you make yourselves another: you jig, you amble,

A Hall. and you lisp, and nick-name God's creatures, and

Enter Hamlet, and two or three of the Players. make your wantonness your ignorance': Go to ;20 Ham. Speak the speech, I pray you, as I proI'll no more on't; it haih made me mad. I say, nounc'd it to you, trippingly on the tongue: but we will have no more marriages: those that are if you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had married already, all but one, shall live; the rest as lief the town-crier spoke my lines. Nor do shall keep as they are. To a nunnery, go. not saw the air too much with your hand, thus;

[Exit Flamlet. 25 but use all gently: for in the very torrent, tempest, Oph. O, what a noble mind is here o'erthrown! and (as I may say) whirlwind of your passion, you The courtier's, soldier's, scholar's, eye, tongue, must acquire and beget a temperance, that may sword;

give it smoothness. O, it offends ine to the soul, The expectancy and rose of the fair state, to hear a robustious perriwig-pated' fellow tear a The glass of fashion, and the mould of form?, 30 passion to tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of The observ'd of all observers! quite, quite down the groundlings; who, for the most part, are And I, of ladies, most deject and wretched, capable of nothing but inexplicable dumb shows, 'I hat suck'd the honey of his music vows, and noise: I would have such a fellow whipp'd Now see that noble and most sovereign reason, for o'er-doing Termagant”; it out-herods Herod": Like sweet bells jangled, out of tune and harsh; 35 Pray you, avoid it. That unmatch'd formand feature of blown youth, 1 Play. I warrant your honour. Blasted with ecstasy": 0, woe is me!

Ham. Be not too tame neither, but let your own To have seen what I have seen, see what I see ! discretion be your tutor: suit the action to the Re-enter King, and Polonius.

word, the word to the action ; with this special King. Love! his atfections do not that way 40 observance, that you o’erstep not the modesty of

nature: For any thing so overdone is from the Nor what he spake, though it lack'd form a little purpose of playing, whose end, both at the first, Was not like madness. There's something in his and now, was, and is, to hold as 'twere the mir. soul,

ror up to nature; to shew virtue her own feaO'er which his melancholy sits on brood; 45 ture, scorn her own image, and the very age

and And, I do doubt, the hatch, and the disclose, body of the time his form and pressure. Now Will be some danger; Which, for to prevent, this, over-done, or come tardy oif, though it make I have, in quick determination,

the unskilful laugh, cannot but make the judicious Thus set it down; He shall with speed to England, grieve; the censure of which one, nust, in your For the demand of our neglected tribute : 50 allowance, o'er-weigh a whole theatre of others

. Haply, the seas, and countries different, 0, there be players, that I have seen play,—and With variable objects, shall expel

heard others praise, and that highly-not to speak This something-settled matter in his heart; it profanely, that, neither having the accent of Whereon his brains still beating, puts him thus christians, nor the gait of christian, pagap, nor From fashion of himself. What think you on 't :15jman, have so strutted, and below'd, that I have 1 i. e.

you

mistake by tanton affectation, and pretend to mistake by ignorance. The model by whom all endeavoured to forın themselves.

The word ecstacy was anciently used to signify some degree of alienation of mind. • To be round with a person, is to reprimand him with freedomn. ? This is a ridicule on the quantity of false hair worn in Shakspeare's time; for wigs were not in common use till the reign of Charles Il. Players, however, seem to have worn theni niost generally, • The meaner people then seem to have sai below, as they now sit in the upper gallery, who, not well understanding poetical language, were sometimes gratified by a miinical and mute representation of the drama, previous to the dialogue. ? Termagani was a Saracen deity, very clamorous and violent, in the old moralities. * The character of Herod in the ancient mysteries-was always a violent one. i. c. resemblance, as in a print. 1° Any gross or indelicate language was called profane. 1

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