Chemical Process: Design and Integration

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John Wiley & Sons, Jun 10, 2005 - Technology & Engineering - 712 pages
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This book deals with the design and integration of chemical processes, emphasizing the conceptual issues that are fundamental to the creation of the process. Chemical process design requires the selection of a series of processing steps and their integration to form a complete manufacturing system. The text emphasizes both the design and selection of the steps as individual operations and their integration. Also, the process will normally operate as part of an integrated manufacturing site consisting of a number of processes serviced by a common utility system. The design of utility systems has been dealt with in the text so that the interactions between processes and the utility system and interactions between different processes through the utility system can be exploited to maximize the performance of the site as a whole.

Chemical processing should form part of a sustainable industrial activity. For chemical processing, this means that processes should use raw materials as efficiently as is economic and practicable, both to prevent the production of waste that can be environmentally harmful and to preserve the reserves of raw materials as much as possible. Processes should use as little energy as economic and practicable, both to prevent the build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels and to preserve reserves of fossil fuels. Water must also be consumed in sustainable quantities that do not cause deterioration in the quality of the water source and the long-term quantity of the reserves. Aqueous and atmospheric emissions must not be environmentally harmful, and solid waste to landfill must be avoided. Finally, all aspects of chemical processing must feature good health and safety practice.

It is important for the designer to understand the limitations of the methods used in chemical process design. The best way to understand the limitations is to understand the derivations of the equations used and the assumptions on which the equations are based. Where practical, the derivation of the design equations has been included in the text.

The book is intended to provide a practical guide to chemical process design and integration for undergraduate and postgraduate students of chemical engineering, practicing process designers and chemical engineers and applied chemists working in process development. Examples have been included throughout the text. Most of these examples do not require specialist software and can be performed on spreadsheet software. Finally, a number of exercises have been added at the end of each chapter to allow the reader to practice the calculation procedures.

 

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Contents

Chapter 1 The Nature of Chemical Process Design and Integration
1
Chapter 2 Process Economics
17
Chapter 3 Optimization
35
Chapter 4 Thermodynamic Properties and Phase Equilibrium
57
Chapter 5 Choice of Reactor I Reactor Performance
77
Chapter 6 Choice of Reactor II Reactor Conditions
97
Chapter 7 Choice of Reactor III Reactor Configuration
121
Chapter 8 Choice of Separator for Heterogeneous Mixtures
143
Chapter 21 Heat Integration of Distillation Columns
445
Chapter 22 Heat Integration of Evaporators and Dryers
459
Chapter 23 Steam Systems and Cogeneration
465
Chapter 24 Cooling and Refrigeration Systems
513
Chapter 25 Environmental Design for Atmospheric Emissions
551
Chapter 26 Water System Design
581
Chapter 27 Inherent Safety
625
Chapter 28 Clean Process Technology
635

Chapter 9 Choice of Separator for Homogeneous Fluid Mixtures I Distillation
157
Chapter 10 Choice of Separator for Homogeneous Fluid Mixtures II Other Methods
181
Chapter 11 Distillation Sequencing
211
Chapter 12 Distillation Sequencing for Azeotropic Distillation
235
Chapter 13 Reaction Separation and Recycle Systems for Continuous Processes
259
Chapter 14 Reaction Separation and Recycle Systems for Batch Processes
291
Chapter 15 Heat Exchanger Networks I Heat Transfer Equipment
317
Chapter 16 Heat Exchanger Networks II Energy Targets
357
Chapter 17 Heat Exchanger Networks III Capital and Total Cost Targets
387
Chapter 18 Heat Exchanger Networks IV Network Design
399
Chapter 19 Heat Exchanger Networks V Stream Data
429
Chapter 20 Heat Integration of Reactors
439
Chapter 29 Overall Strategy for Chemical Process Design and Integration
649
Appendix A Annualization of Capital Cost
653
Appendix B Gas Compression
655
Appendix C Heat Transfer Coefficients and Pressure Drop in Shellandtube Heat Exchangers
661
Appendix D The Maximum Thermal Effectiveness for 12 Shellandtube Heat Exchangers
667
Appendix E Expression for the Minimum Number of 12 Shellandtube Heat Exchangers for a Given Unit
669
Appendix F Algorithm for the Heat Exchanger Network Area Target
671
Appendix G Algorithm for the Heat Exchanger Network Number of Shells Target
673
Appendix H Algorithm for Heat Exchanger Network Capital Cost Targets
677
Index
679
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About the author (2005)

Professor Robin Smith is Head of the Centre for Process Integration at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST) in the United Kingdom. Before joining UMIST he had extensive industrial experience with Rohm & Haas in process investigation and process design, and with ICI in computer-aided design and process integration.. He was a member of the ICI Process Integration Team that pioneered the first industrial applications of process integration design methods.  Since joining UMIST he has acted extensively as a consultant in process integration projects.  He has published widely in the field of chemical process design and integration, and is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers in the UK and a chartered engineer. In 1992 he was awarded the Hanson Medal of the Institution of Chemical Engineers in the UK for his work on clean process technology.

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