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respectively, so as no farther Tenure Thall be created, but that upon all further or other Alienations thereafter to be made, the said Lands so aliened shall be held of the fame Lord and his Heirs, of whom the Aliener did then before hold, and by the like Rents and Services which were before due and accustomed.

SECT. XX.

And further our Pleasure is, and by these Prefents, for us, our Heirs and Succeffors, we do covenant and grant to and with the said William Penn, his Heirs and Affigns, That we, our Heirs and Succeffors, shall at no Time hereafter fet or make, or cause to be set or made, any Impofition, Cuftom, or other Taxation, Rate or Contribution whatsoever, in and upon the Dwellers and Inhabitants of the aforesaid Province, for their Lands, Tenements, Goods or Chattles, within the said Province, or in and upon any Goods or Merchandizes within the Province, or to be laden or unJaden within the Ports or Harbours of the said Province, unless the same be with the Consent of the Proprietary, or chief Governor, or Assembly, or by Act of Parliament in England.

SECT. XXI.

And our Pleasure is, and for us, our Heirs and Succeffors, we charge and command, That this our Declaration shall from henceforth from Time to Time be received and allowed in all our Courts, and before all the Judges of us, our Heirs and Succeffors, for a fufficient lawful Discharge, Payment and Acquittance; commanding all the Officers and Ministers of us, our Heirs and Successors, and enjoining them upon Pain of our highest Dif

pleasure,

pleasure, that they do not presume at any Time to attempt any Thing to the contrary of the Premiffes, or that do in any Sort withstand the fame; but that they be at all Times aiding and affifting, as is fitting to the said William Penn, and his Heirs, and unto the Inhabitants and Merchants of the Province aforesaid, their Servants, Ministers, Factors, and Affigns, in the full Use and Fruition of the Benefit of this our Charter.

SECT. XXII.

And our farther Pleasure is, and we do hereby, for us, our Heirs and Successors, charge and require, That if any of the inhabitants of the said Province, to the Number of Twenty, shall at any Time hereafter be desirous, and shall by any Writing, or by any Person deputed by them, fignify such their Defire to the Bishop of London for the Time being, That any Preacher or Preachers, to be approved of by the said Bishop, may be sent unto them for their Instruction; That then such Preacher or Preachers shall and may refide within the said Province, without any

Denia) or Molestation whatsoever.

SECT. XXIII.

And if perchance hereafter any Doubt or Question should arise, concerning the true Sense and Meaning of any Word, Clause, or Sentence contained in this our present Charter, we will, ordain, and command, That at all Times, and in all Things, such Interpretation be made thereof, and allowed in any of our Courts whatsoever, as shall be adjudged most advantageous and favourable unto the faid William Penn, his Heirs and Affigns : Provided always no Interpretation be admitted

thereof, thereof,, by which the Allegiance due unto us, our Heirs and Successors, may suffer any Prejudice or Diminution ; although express Mention be not made in these Presents of the true yearly Value, or Certainty of the Premisses, or any part thereof, or of other Gifts and Grants made by us, and our Progenitors or Predecessors, unto the said William Penn: Any Statute, Act, Ordinance, Provision, Proclamation, or Restraint heretofore had, made, published, ordained, or provided, or any other Thing, Caufe or Matter whatsoever, to the contrary thereof, in any wise notwithstanding. IN WITNESS whereof we have caused these our Letters to be made Patent; Witness OURSELF, at Westminster, the Fourth Day of March, in the three and thirtieth Year of our Reign. Annoque Domini One Thousand Six Hundred and Eighty one.

By Writ of Privy Seal,

PIGOT T.. $ 436649694596

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18650$99$$s The FRAME of the Government of the

Province of Pennsylvania in America : Together with certain LA W S agreed upon in England, by the Governor and divers Freemen of the aforesaid Province, to be further explained and continued there, by the first Provincial Council. that. Ihall: be held, if they see meet..

The PRE FACE. WHEN the great and wife GOD had made

the World, of all his Creatures it pleased him . to chuse Man his Deputy to rule it ; and to fit bim for so great a Charge and Truf, he did not only qua

lify him with Skill and Power, but with Integrity to use them juftly. This native Goodness was equally his Honour and his Happiness; and whilst he flood heri, all went well; there was no need of coercive or compulsive Means ; the Precept of divine Love and Truth in his Bosom was the Guide and Keeper of his Innocency. But Luft

, prevailing againsi Duty, made a lamentable Breach upon it, and the Law, that had before no Power over him, took place upon him and his disobedient Pofterity, that such as would not live con-. formable to the holy Law within, should fall under the Reproof and Correction of the just Law without, ix. a judicial Administration.

This the Apoflle teaches in divers of his Epifles The Law (says he) was added because of Tranfgression: In another Place, Knowing that the Law, was not made for the righteous Man; but for the. disobedient and ungodly, for Sinners, for unholy and prophane, for Murderers, for Whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with Mankind, and for Men-stealers, for Liars, for perjured Persons, &c. But this is not all, he opens and carries the. Matter of Government a little further : Let every Soul be subject to the higher Powers; for there is. no Power but of GOD. The Powers that be are ordained of GOD: Whosoever therefore rea listeth the Power, resisteth the Ordinance of GOD. For Rulers are not a Terror to good Works, but. to evil : Wilt thou then not be afraid of the. Power? Do that which is good, and thou shalt have, Praise of the same. He is the Minister of GOD to thee for good. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for Wrath, but for Conscience fake.

This settles the divine Right of Government beyond Exception, and that for two Ends: First, To terrify evil Doers ; Secondly, To cherish those that do well; which gives Government a Life beyond Corruption,

and

and makes it as durable in the Word, as good Men shall be. So that Government seems to me a Part of Religion itself, a Thing sacred in its Institution and End. For if it does not direftly remove the Cause, it crushes the Effects of Evil, and is as such (though a lower yet) an Emanation of the same divine Power, that is both Author and Object of pure Religion ; the Difference lying here, that the one is more free and mental, the other more corporal and compulsive in its Operations : But that is only to evil Doers; Government itself being otherwise as capable of Kindness, Goodness, and Charity, as a more private Society. They weakly err, that think there is no other Use of Government than Correction, which is the coarfest Part of it: Daily Experience tells us, that the Care and Regulation of many other Affairs, more soft and daily necessary, make up much the greatest Part of Government, and which must have followed the Peopling of the World, had Adam never fell, and will continue among Men on Earth under the highest Attainments they may arrive at, by the coming of the blessed Second Adam, the LORD from Heaven. Thus much of Government in general, as to its Rise and End.

For particular Frames and Models, it will become me to say little ; and comparatively I will say nothing. My Reafons are : First, That the Age is too nice and difficult for it; there being nothing the Wits of Men are more busy and divided upon. 'Tis true, they seem to agree in the End, to wit, Happiness ; but in the Means they differ, as to divine, so to this human Felicity ; and the Cause is much the same, not always Want of Light and Knowledge, but Want of using them rightly. Men side with their Palions again their Reason, and their finister Interests have so strong a Biass upon their Minds, that they lean to them against the Good of the Things they know.

Secondly,

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