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The various horrors of a Persian desert are depicted with impressive detail in the ninth chapter : a well occasionally serving to define the length of a stage, and the direction of the way. Kullugan, Dizuk, and Gull, are names of villages described in the tenth chapter; together with a tribe of Loorees, a sort of gypsies, who reject the doctrine of a future state and approve suicide, and who were met in this region. The district of Puhra is the chief topic of the eleventh chapter; in which a sudden discovery that the author is an European creates in the reader a great anxiety for his fortunes.
Lieutenant P.'s arrival at Bunpoor discloses the very high degree of favour with which Captain Grant was remembered in this district. “ Go down to the sea-port towns," said the chieftain, “and declare you know Grant, and you may have as much money as you choose to borrow;" and it was in consequence of being able to talk about Captain Grant, that the author, whose resources were beginning to fail
, was. assisted to proceed. There are certain traits of character which attach the man of nature, and which it is exceedingly important to seek in the diplomatic agents who are sent into an uncivilized country.
In the thirteenth chapter, the author quits Beloochistan, a little beyond Basman, where is a boiling well. The province of Kirman, into which he next entered, acknowleges the jurisdiction of Persia.
Chap. xiv. describes Nuheemabad, and Bumm; and the fifteenth relates to Kirman. This is an important provincial metropolis, and Lieutenant P. was induced to make some stay in it, with the hope of obtaining intelligence respecting Captain Christie from Heerat. The copious use of native Persian authorities gives to this and the ensuing chapter a high value in the eye of learning; and they exhaust the geography of the province. In the seventeenth chapter, the author proceeds to Sheeraz, so repeatedly celebrated by the classical poets of Persia, and thence to Isfahan, where he unexpectedly meets again with his original fellow-traveller. Captain Christie being soon afterward selected by his Majesty's envoy at the court of Persia as one of the officers to remain in that country, Lieutenant P. returned to Bombay, having descended the Tigris in boats, and embarked at Bussora.
Thus far the work consists of a journal, not remarkable for the number of striking objects which each successive day pre
acred fire in it since the days of Zoroaster) in their own compartment of the city, but for this indulgence they are indebted to the avarice, not the tolerance, of the Persian government, which taxes them at twenty-five rupees each man.'
sents to notice, but deriving a peculiar interest froin the repeated dangers, romantic adventures, and hair-breadth escapes of this very ingenious and spirited wanderer. А young Ulysses, he has every where some pretended character to assume, some deceptious disguise to wear, some fictitious part to perform; yet every where a natural power of ingratiation, and the inherent force of superior accomplishment and talent, surround his poverty and rags with the attachment and admiration of all who approach. A wide district, new and strange to geography, has thus been amply explored, and. vividly described; while traits of manners especially abound, which give to these travels a value analogous to those of Volney. Few Englishmen have hitherto displayed a plasticity which could so entirely adopt an oriental exterior, and amid such variety of intercourse habitually conceal the European.
The second part of this volume contains a geographical and historical memoir of the countries visited, which is branched into nine chapters. Much of the geographic information, scattered chronologically in the tour, and there given in the order in which it was acquired, is here digested under heads, and repeated with neater condensation; while the historical matter is concise, but new. A summary account of the
province of Sinde occupies the eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth chapters; it is somewhat episodical, and relates an especial mission to Sinde, of which the author was not the chief personage.
Sinde is described as the Ægypt of the east; and perhaps it furnished to the African Ægypt its first civilized inhabitants. Its form of government is very singular, and is thus characterized :
After the decease of Meer Futtuh Allee, his three brothers divided the revenues of their branch of the family into four quarters, two of which were allotted to Meer Gholam Allee, as the principal Umeer, and one to each of his younger brothers. The sum thus disposed of then amounted to thirty-four lacs, and thirteen thousand rupees, but it is greatly increased since that period; and in consideration of the extra allowance granted to Meer Gholam Alee, he was bound to defray the permanent civil and military expences, which are, however; very trifling, beside providing a double share of the tribute due to the King of Kabool, in the event of payment being enforced.
* At the same time that these regulations were framed, with the concurrence of the three brothers, they entered into the most extraordinary compact, of governing the province conjointly; under the designation of the Umeers or rulers of Sinde; and on the death of Meer Gholam Allee, the senior of the three that were on the Musnud when the mission was at their court, his eldest son took the lowest seat in the triumvirate, while his two brothers each
ascended a step. It is impossible to conjecture how long this curious system will be preserved; it seems at present very firmly established, but its basis is in such direct opposition to every
idea that the experience of ages has taught us to form of Asiatic governments, that we may justly presume it cannot be of long endurance; and in all human probability it will eventually terminate in the ambitious projects of one of its members, who may be tempted to usurp the unconditional supremacy by the imbecility of his colleagues in power.'
The court of Hyderabad is represented as being very splendid.
An appendix preserves an abstract of Captain Christie's journal after his separation from Lieutenant Pottinger at Nooshky; of which the description of Heerat forms the most prominent and valuable segment.
'18th April. — We mounted early and marched twenty-five miles before we breakfasted at a small Zearutgah, after which eight miles more brought us to the city of Heerat, the intermediate country bare except in the vicinity of the different villages.
The road from Furrah to Unardurru being good, and not hilly, it is an easy stage of twenty-one miles although no water intermediate. From Unardurru to Okul is one long and very tedious march, and usually made by Karwans in two;
the road is rough and lies between hills, and though Okul is out of the way, by going that route we had less to fear from robbers. From Okul the road is tolerable, but the water very brackish at the first stage, and none farther on till you come to Plessy; thence to Heerat you have no water except a little salt well at six miles; this last is a long stage, being thirty miles to the Zearutgah, and eight from thence to the city.
* The city of Heerat is situated in a valley, surrounded by lofty mountains, and contiguous to the northern ridge, which separates it from the country of Bokhara. The valley extends at least thirty miles, from east to west, and is about fifteen broad, watered by a river rising in the mountains and running through the centre; it is highly cultivated, and the whole face of it is covered with villages and gardens. The approach to Heerat from the Zearutgah, lies four miles between orchards, with a capital road; at the end of this road we came to the river, over which there is a very ancient bridge, four hundred yards in length, built of burnt brick, and said to have been erected by an oil woman at her own private expence; it is now, however, miserably decayed, and will soon tumble to pieces unless the government repair it. Previous to the building of this bridge the communication between the city and country was yearly cut off, on the melting of the snow in the mountains, and the consequent swell of the river. When we had passed the bridge, we rode four miles through the suburbs along a good road, to the city gate.
• The city covers an area of four square miles, and is fortified by a lofty mud wall, with towers and a wet ditch ; in the northern
face is à citadel elevated on a mound above the wall; this is a small square castle with towers at the angles, built of burnt brick, the whole in line with the wall, and encompassed by a wet ditch, over which is a draw-bridge. Beyond this, there is also a recently constructed outer wall and dry ditch. The city has a gate in each face, and two in the northern one; but on the whole it is very contemptible as a fortification.
• From each gate bazars lead to the “ Char Soobh," or marketplace, in the centre of the town, which are spacious and well lined with shops; the principal one extends from the south gate to the Gunjee Bazar, or cattle-market, in front of the citadel, and is covered in with a vaulted roof the whole length. These streets and the Char Soobh are so filled with the crowd of people on Thursday (the bazar day) as to be almost impassable. On either side as you go along are large spacious Suraés, where the merchants have their Kothees, or factories; the city is well supplied with water, every Suraé having a Houz, or cistern, independent of the public ones on either side of the bazar streets. The meanest building, in appearance, is the residence of the prince, of which you see no more than a common gate-way, over which is a wretched building, and in front an open square, with galleries in the centre, for the Nukurah Khana, or kettle-drums.
· The Musjidé Jooma, or Friday's Mosque, was once a grand building, comprizing an area eight hundred yards square, but this is fast going to decay. The private buildings in Heerat are by no means in this state, for no city has less ground unoccupied, and none, for its extent, can boast of a greater population. Heerat and its suburbs are computed to contain above one hundred thousand inhabitants, of whom ten thousand are Uffghans, the rest are Moghuls, a few Jews, and six hundred Hindoos. The Hindoos are here highly respected, and alone possess capital. The government is sensible of their value, and they have in consequence much influence. They live in the best Suraés, and have gardens outside, but do not venture to bring their families with them to this city.
• Heerat is a city of more trade than perhaps any other in Asia under a native government; it is called by distinction the Bunder, or port, and is the emporium between Kabool, Kandahar, Hindoostan, Kashmeer, and Persia, Bagdad, &c. From the four former it receives shawls, indigo, sugar, chintz, muslin, bafta, kincob, hides, and leather, which are exported to Mushid, Yezd, Tehraun, Bagdad, and Kirman ; receiving in return, dollars, tea, sugarcandy, china-ware, broad-cloath, chintz, silk, copper, pepper, and all kinds of spices, dates, shawls, numuds, and carpets. The hides which are imported from Hindoostan return a profit of one hun
per cent. nett; indeed, the whole trade is uncommonly advantageous to any one possessing capital. The currency here is that of Muhmood Shahee rupees, but accounts are kept in Kureem Khanee, at one hundred and twenty-five per hundred Mubmood Shahees.
· The staples of Heerat are silk, saffron, and assafætida, which are exported to Hindoostan ; the silk cloths are not equal to the manufacture of Persia. The gardens are full of mulberry trees reared solely for the sake of the silk worm, and all the plains and hills round Heerat, particularly to the westward, produce assafo. tida. It grows to the height of two or three feet, the stem two inches in diameter, and the head, when ripe, is yellow and resembles a cauliflower; the Hindoos and the Belooches are fond of it, they eat it by roasting the stem in the ashes, and stewing the head of it like other greens. It still, however, preserves its fætid taste and smell.
• The gardens of Heerat are extensive; the Oordooé Bagh, belonging to the Prince and Baghé Shahee, planted by Tymoor Shah, (this being his favourite seat,) are the only public ones, and now only attended to for their annual produce, which is sold in the Bazar. Leading to the latter is an avenue one mile in length, between fir trees; and adjoining are four minarets of a mosque that was intended for the tomb of the Imam Moosa Allee Reza, who, however, was disappointed of his visit to Heerat by dying at Mushid.
The villages in the neighbourhood of Heerat are numerous, and nothing can exceed the fertility of this valley ; wheat and barley are most abundant, and fruit of all kinds amazingly cheap. When I was at Heerat, the horses were all at Bagh, up a place one stage over the mountains, for the benefit of the fine grass procurable there. They are generally half bred, but the merchants from Bokhara bring Toorkumanee horses, that sell in proportion to their height. The most celebrated breeder in this country is Booniad Beg of the tribe of Huzaree; he resides in the mountains towards Mushid, and has large herds of horses and mares: his colts are highly prized, and are often sold for from one to four thousand rupees each. The tolls at Heerat are two rupees on every camel load going out of the city, and one anna, or sixteenth of a rupee on every twenty rupees' worth of merchandize sold in it. This is levied from the purchaser by the Suraédar or tax-gatherer, who farms the tolls from government. Although the toll on camels appears so very trivial, it is avoided by every means, to a large extent, of which I had an opportunity of knowing two or three instances. The revenues are estimated at four and a half lacks of rupees, and are levied on the Suraés, shops and gardens; a part is taken in kind, or grain and cattle; and from the total amount the prince pays fifty thousand rupees annually to the King of Persia.
• The government of Heerat is in the hands of the Shahzadah Hadjee Fejroozoodeen Khan, third son of the late Tymoor Shah, and full brother to the present Muhmood Shah. He is about fifty years of age, appears to take little active participation in public affairs, but leaves every thing to Hadjee Aga Khan, his minister. In the present distracted state of Khorasan, he endeavours to remain neutral, without incurring the displeasure of either of the contending parties. The prince has two wives, the one a Moghul lady, the other a daughter of Shakoor Khan Douranee, by each of