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mourt of the congregation in the sides of the north. Jer. i, 15. Out of the North an evil fall break forth, &c. iv, 1. Evil appeareth out of the

Hence Milton, V, 688.


" Where we possess " The quarters of the North."

And B. V, 754.

" At length into the limits of the North
“ They came ; and Satan to his royal seat
“ High on a hill, &c.”

In Measure for Measure, Act III. “ Claud. Ay, but to die, and go we know not

66 where : e. To lye in cold obstruction, and to rot : " This sensible warm motion to become « A kneaded clod ; - and the delighted Spirit


" To

Supposuique ferox imis mea terga cavernis ; “ Sollicito manes, totumque tremoribus orbem.”

4. This reading is undoubtedly right ; its being capable of delight ; or its formerly being delighted ; not the actual possession of delight, is the Idea intended to be raised by the Poet; and this the opposition requires. So Virgil G. III, 364. Cæduntque fecuribus humida vina.


“ To bathe in fiery floods, or to reside “ In thrilling regions of thick-ribb’d ice, “ To be imprison'd in the viewless winds " And blown with restless violence round about « The pendant world; or to be worse than worst

Of those, that lawless and incertain thoughts

Imagine howling :-'tis too horrible !" Milton has something very like this, B. II, 596. “ Thither by harpy-footed furies hald « At certain revolutions all the damn'd “ Are brought ; and feel by turns the bitter

“ change « Of fierce extremes, extremes by change more

fierce! “ From beds of raging fire to starve in ice " Their soft ethereal warmth, &c.” Hierom in his comment on Matt. x, 28, writes, Duplicem ele gebennam, nimirum ignis et frigoris in Job pleniffime legimus. viz. s Job xxiv, 19. But let us hear our Milton again, B. II, 180.

" While

They hew with axes the higaid wine.-hould it not be folid wine ? 'Tis not what now is, but what its proper nature required, or heretofore was-wine heretofore liquid-this is what the poet means. 5

So Bede on Mat. c. xxiv. Quod dicit illic efle fletum et Aridorem gentiu, duplicem poenam gebermes exprimit, ignis

" While we perhaps, Designing or exhorting glorious war,

Caught in a fiery tempest shall be hurl'd “ Each on his rock tranfix'd, the sport and

prey “ Of racking whirlwinds, &c." These passages of Shakespeare and Milton will bear comparison with what Virgil has written of the punishment of the damned, from Plato's Phaedo, and from the verses of Orpheus, who brought these doctrines from Aegypt. That part of the punishment of being blown with rest


et frigoris : and afterwards cites the words of Job as rendered by the ancient interpreter, Ad calorem ignis transit ab aquis nivium. Mr. Whiston tells us that the Comets are so many Hells, which in their trajectories carry the damned into the confines of the Sun ; [to bathe in fiery floods ;] and then return with them beyond the orb of Saturn. [to refide in thrilling regions of thick ribbed ice.] very poetically imagined by a grave Divine !

6 And from hence Empedocles in Plutarch's Isis and Osiris ;

which I shall cite from the late learned editor, and his tranflation. 'Εμπεδοκλής δε και δίκας φησί διδόναι τες Δαίμονας ών αν εξαμαρλήσωσι και πλημμελήσωσιν,

Αιθέριον μεν γάρ σφι μένω πόν7ονδε διώκει,
Πόνο- δ' ες χθονός όδας απέπλυσε" Γαία δ' ΕΣ ΑΥΓΑΣ
'Ηελία ακάμαν@», ο δ' αιθέρG- έμβαλε δίνεις
"ΑλλΘ- δ' εξ άλλα δέχθαι, Συγίτσι δε πάθος

less violence round about the pendant world, the Sport and prey of racking whirlwinds, is more


έχεις και κολασθένες έτω και καθαρθένες, αύθις την καλα φύσιν χώραν και τάξιν απολάβωσι. .

“ It was moreover the opinion “ of Empedocles, that these Genii are obnoxious to punish

ment for whatever offences they may commit, for whatever crimes they may be guilty of,

• One while the air pursues them to the sea,
“ The sea again tosses them upon land,
« The land propels them on the scorching sun,
« The fun returns them to the whirling air
“ Thus are they tossed about objects of common hate.

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“ 'till having undergone the destin'd punishment, and “ thereby become pure, they are again placed in their pri“ mitive fituation, in that region where nature originally

designed them.” I cannot help proposing a correction of these verses of Empedocles ; instead of EE ATTAE, moft of the editions have EE ATOIE ; which with a trifling alteration I would read EΣ ANΘΟΣ. So that ΕΣ ΑΥΓΑΣ is the Gloss. And this is an expression used by old Homer and Aeschylus.

Το σόν γας ΑΝΘΟΣ, πανέχνα πυρός σέλας,
Ovohoi xnábas madu. Prom. *.7.
Αυταρ έπει πYPOΣ ANΘΟΣ απέπλαιο, σαύσαίο δε φλόξ.
So Homer as cited by the Scholiaft, and Lucretius : I, 899.

Donec flammaï fulferunt FLORE coorto.
From whence Horace. Epod. XVII.

Vịrens in Aetna flamma.

poetical than Virgil's ?, Inanes fufpenfae ad ventos. Beside St. Hierome in his comment on the epistle to the Ephesians mentions it as the opinion of the Jewish and Christian divines, that evil spirits have their residence in the space between the firmament and the earth; to which Jewish opinion St. Paul alludes, calling Satan the prince of the air. This is sufficient for a poet to give what allegorical turn he pleases to such opinions.

In the Winter's Tale. Act V.

" Her. You Gods, look down, " And from your sacred vials pour your graces

Upon my daughter's head.”

If Homer's copies have not this expression now, we may perhaps thank Aristarchus for this and many other alterations of the like nature.

7 Virgil's expression is literally from Orpheus, whom Virgil has minutely followed in his description of the Ægyptian initiation, as the Author of the life of Sethos learnedly informs.

“ In the three trials of Fire, Water “ and Air, are plainly discovered the three purifications " the Souls of Men were to go thro' before they returned

to life ; which the greatest of the Latin poets borrowed “ from him (viz. Orpheus) in the sixth book of his Æneid ; Infe£tum eluitur fcelus, aut exuritur igni : not to omit the “ circumstance of suspension in the agitated air, or in the “ winds : Sufpenfa ad ventos." I


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