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". mangle our British names abroad; what tref“ pass were it if we in requital should as much "s neglect theirs? And our learned 'Chaucer did “ not stick to do so, writing Semyramus for “ Semiramis, Amphiorax for Ampbiaraus, K. Seies “ for K. Ceyx the husband of Alcyone, with many
other names strangely metamorphis'd s from true orthography, if he had made any
account of that in these kind of words." Milton's observation is exceeding true; and to this affectation of the Romans is owing the difficulty of antiquarians tracing the original names and places. Our Cafwell, Bowdich and Gotes, in a Roman mouth are Caffvellanus, Boadicia and Cotiso. The Portus Itius mention'd in Cae
i Chaucer's transcribers have plainly corrupted some words, as AE they have turned into G. In the house of Fame. p. 466. y. 116. Edit. Urry.
“ Ysatte the Harpir Orion,
One may venture I think to write
Æacides, and Chirion."
1. Achilles and Chiron : both famous for their skill in Mu. fick. Again Senior they have changed into Semor. In the Chanon's Yeman's tale. 1471. p. 127. edit. Urry.
• As in his boke Semor [r. Senior] will bear witness." Senior de Chemia. viz. Senior Zadith.
far was a port below Calais called · Vitsan or Whitfan. The old German words wat Awe ; i. e. fat or fruitful earth, the Romans called Batavia. When the north-east part of Scotland was pronounced by the natives Cal dun, i. e. a hill of hazel, the Romans soon gave it their Latin termination, and called it Caledonia. Many other names of places our antiquarians and etymologifts easily trace, if they can get but the radical word. This rule then is universally true, that all nations make foreign words submit to their manner of pronunciation. However our Shakespeare does not abuse proper names like Chaucer or Spencer, tho' he has elegantly suited many of them to the English mouth.
In his Midsummer-Night's Dream, Act II. he hints at a story told by Plutarch in the life of Theseus, of one legszévn, daughter of the famous robber Sinis, whom Theseus new : he, true hero-like, killed the father and then debauched the daughter. Her he calls very poetically Perigenia.
Cleopatra had a son by Julius Caesar, whom Plutarch tells us was called Kassagíwr, Shakespeare in Antony and Cleopatra very properly writes it Cefario, not Cefarion : Irátwr, does not
2 Camden's Brit. p. 254.
make in Latin or English Platon, but Plato. And 3 Priscian the Grammarian observes that the Latins omit the n at the latter end of proper names. So * Cicero in his Tusculan disputations : Hinc ille Agamemno Homericus. And Virgil. Aen. VIII, 603. “ Haud procul hinc Tarcho, et Tyrrheni tuta
From whence Aen. X, 290. Instead of
Speculatus litora Tarcbon, we must write Tarcho.
Perhaps to avoid the meeting of two vowels, be followed the Grecian spelling, in Aen. VII, 327
Odit et ipfe pater Pluton, odere forore
Tartareae monstrum. The Jews name in the Merchant of Venice Scialac, he makes English and calls Sbylock. In Romeo and Juliet, Montecchi and Capello, are Montague and Capulet. Sir Joban of Boundis, in Chaucer's legend of Gamelyn, he changes into, Sir Rowland of Boys, in his play called As you 3 Prisc. 1. 6. p. 690. 4 Cic. Tnsç. difp. III, 26.
like it. Amleth, he writes Hamlet; and Cunobeline or Kymbeline, he calls Cymbeline,
Macbeth's father is variously written in the Scotish chronicles. Macbeth fil. Findleg : Innes of Scotland p. 791. Macbeth Mac-Finleg : Ibid. p. 803. Machabeus Filius Finele : Johan. de Fordin Scot. L. IV. c. 44. Salve, Maccabaee Thane Glammis ; nam eum magiftratum defun£to paulo ante patre Synele acceperat. Hector Boeth. Scot. hist. L. XII.
Sinell tbane of Gammis : Holingsh. p. 168. By Sinel's death, I know, I'm thane of Glamis.”
So our author, in Macbeth, Act I.
$ In Cicero's offices B. II. c. ix. is the following passage, Itaque propter aequabilem praedae partitionem, et BARGULUS ILLYRIUS LATRO, de
5. 'Tis very plain if the plays called ift, zd, &c. parts of Henry VI. were written by our poet, that he had red Cicero's offices. I wonder this passage should escape the diligent search of Mr. Theobald. I lately turned to the edition printed at Oxford, where I found Bardylis had taken poffeffion of the copy, but no mention made of Ci. çero. In the last edition indeed I found THE TRUE Pl. RATE.—But Shakespeare seems to me to have had his eye on other passages of Cicero's offices. In the IIId part of Henry VI, A& I.
quo eft apud Theopompum, magnas opes babuit. Thus the editions in Shakespear's time ; and thus I found it in two manuscripts. In the second part of K. Henry VI. Act IV. Suffolk says,
" This villain here, Being captain of a pinnance, threatens more “ Than Bargulus the strong Illyrian pirate.' In some later editions 'tis printed in Cicero, Bardylis Illyrius latro. For my own part, I really imagine that Cicero gave this Illyrian name a Roman pronunciation and turn : but why the editors of Cicero print it Bardylis, I don't know; Plutarch in the life of Pyrrhus writes it Βάρδυλλις.
' In “ York. I took an oath that he should quietly reign.
“ Edw. But for a kingdom any oath may be broken." Cicero de Off. L. III. f. 21.
“ Nam fi violandum eft jus, regnandi gratia
• Violandum eft."
“ I measuring his affections by my own,
“ Persu'd my humour." Cic. Lib. III. f. 1. Nunquam fe minus otiofum eft, quam cum otiofus ; nec minus folum, quàm em folus elit.