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Cotton Manufacturies in the Vicinity of Baltimore.
600 One of the factory houses was burnt some years
ago with all the machinery, but is now rebuilt and
No. 12 1-2.
150 In regular operation.
rior quality, consuming annually 300,000 lbs.cotton. 6 2,800
The Union Factory, which stands first on the list in the table, and is ten miles from the city, enjoys very great advantages, as described by General Harper. The canal, or mill race, is about a mile and a quarter in length, gaining a fall sufficient for two sets of wheels, one below the other; and the quantity of water is estimated to be sufficient for eight wheels to each set. This gives sixteen wheels, each of which can put in motion 5000 spindles with all the accompanying machinery. This makes 80,000 spindles upon one stream, and within the
of a mile and a half.' The table estimates the capacity of the works now built, when carried into full operation, to be 10,000 spindles.
The Savage Factory is an establishment recently erected, sixteen miles from the city, and half a mile from the bridge where the Washington turnpike crosses the Patuxent. In its local situation, water power, and ready intercourse with the city, it possesses uncommon advantages. The fall is 50 feet, and as the whole body of the river, if necessary, can be turned into the canal, the water is sufficient to carry several wheels. The machinery thus far used has been constructed with great care after the best models, embracing all the late improvements. In connexion with this factory a very extensive and complete bleaching establishment has been put in operation.
The Warren Factory employs six hundred persons, and is beginning to execute cotton prints. This factory and some others, of which we have not been able to obtain particular information, are represented as in a state of rapid prosperity.
There is a thriving woollen factory five miles from town, containing 650 spindles, and 22 power and hand looms, with every branch of machinery necessary for manufacturing superfine cloth and kerseymeres. The establishment employs 70 persons, and works 750 pounds of wool in a week.
A few miles from the town, and in different situations, are four extensive Iron Works; ore is abundant and they are carried on with a large profit to the proprietors. An establishment for manufacturing copper into a great variety of articles, works annually about 600,000 pounds of raw copper. In Frederick County, Maryland, there are coppermines of considerable promise, which produce a rich sulphuret; they have been but partially wrought, and their extent and imVOL. XX.-NO. 46,
portance are not fully known. The copper, which covers the great dome of the Capitol at Washington, was manufactured from the ore of these mines. In the city a chemical laboratory on a large scale is in operation, and manufactures almost all kinds of chemical preparations used in the arts and in medicine, such as alum, vitriol, aqua fortis, chrome yellow, and the acids generally. Chrome in its crude state, so rare in most parts of the world, is found in great quantities in Baltimore county.
A white lead manufactory works about 250 tons of the raw material annually, some of which is brought from Missouri, and the remainder from a mine recently discovered in Wythe county, Virginia, which is the best, and of an uncommonly pure quality. Glass, shot, iron casts, printers' types, pottery, sugar refining, distilling, saddlery, leather, hats, house furniture, oilcloth carpeting, agricultural implements, and various other manufactures, which we cannot here enumerate, are prosecuted in Baltimore, give employment to a large number of persons, and add to the wealth of the town.
In looking over the brief historical and statistical sketch here given, it will be seen that the rapid and prosperous growth of Baltimore may be referred to three or four prominent causes, in many respects peculiar to that city. In the first place, the local situation of the town ensured to it extraordinary advantages, in presenting the nearest market to the western country, and especially in concentrating to one point' a great proportion of the trade of the Chesapeake, which was before divided among several small ports. Wealthy planters formerly shipped their produce, and imported European and West India supplies in their own names. As the city increased, they found it more convenient to seek a market there, both to dispose of their produce and make their purchases. This gave employment to agents, brokers, mer. chants, shipbuilders, and seamen, whose wages and profits, derived from this business of effecting the exchange between the planter and foreign manufacturer, helped to build up the town. . Secondly, the fast sailing vessels built in the Chesapeake, and nowhere else, contributed more than any one cause, probably, to the unexampled prosperity of trade at tinies, when other commercial cities of the Union were eitlier languishing, or making but a slow progress.
A third cause
was the almost exclusive intercourse with St Domingo for a long period, when commerce to that island was exceedingly profitable. Fourthly, the two great staples, flour and tobacco, for which the demand is always sure, and the supply unfailing. And lastly we may add, as by no means the least cause, the enterprising spirit of the people, much more energetic in its combined and continued action, than that of any
other city in the United States, for reasons already assigned.
These causes, some of them from their very nature, and others from the change of times and circumstances, do not any longer exist in the same force and bearing as formerly ; and in looking to the future progress of the city, no accurate predictions can be made from the results of the past. The trade of the Chesapeake, enough of itself to support a large city, will always centre there, but this trade will hereafter be steady and uniform, unmarked by such sudden changes as occurred in the early days of the rising capital. It will sustain itself, and increase, as the inhabitants multiply on the borders of the Bay, and in the country watered by the rivers flowing into it, and thus secure to Baltiinore permanently from this quarter the advantages already gained. As to swift sailing vessels, their superiority will no doubt continue to be felt in making quick voyages, but this superiority in times of peace and tranquillity is of comparatively little consequence. The great benefits of these vessels can be experienced only when commerce is shackled by the restrictions of war, and the seas are infested with hostile navies and privateers. The West India trade will always be profitable to Baltimore, as it takes off provisions, the supply of which is inexhaustible, and the demand large, and returns coffee and sugar, products of very extensive and increasing consumption in the United States.
Of all these and other ordinary sources of commerce Baltimore will retain a full proportion, but the advantages, which may be considered peculiar to this city, and on which its future prosperity will very much depend, are its uncommon facilities for manufactures, beyond those of any other place in the middle and southern States, and the profitable trade that will necessarily be kept up in manufactured articles with the western country and South America. By means of good roads the communication with the interior is direct and easy. Between the years 1805 and 1810 three turnpikes were made by chartered companies, leading from the city to different points in Pennsylvania and the western part of Maryland. These were called the York, Reistertown, and Fredericktown turnpikes, and were built in the most thorough and substantial manner, to resist the weight and wear of the enormous wagons in which four, wheat, and other produce are usually brought to market. The average cost of these roads was from 8,000 to 10,000 dollars a mile. More recently four other turnpike roads have been finished, the Washington, the Falls, Belle Air, and Havre de Grace, making in the whole, seven broad and well constructed avenues proceeding from the city to various parts of the country.
The great national road from Wheeling to Cumberland has been continued by the banks in Baltimore, and three other banks in the western districts of Maryland. They were required by the state to make fistyeight miles of this road on the same construction as the national road. This duty was imposed as a condition of the renewal of their charters in 1814, and the average cost was something more than 8000 dollars a mile. The banks are allowed to establish toll gates. A break of a few miles between the termination of this road and of the Fredericktown turnpike has since been finished, and now the line of communication between Baltimore and Wheeling is complete, over one of the best roads in the world.*
Notwithstanding the new direction, which steamboat navigation has given to the trade of the west, and notwithstanding the quick intercourse thus established between New Orleans and the upper country, yet the great states of Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana, will always look mainly to the east for their market. In addition to the distance of these states
* Some idea may be formed of the intercourse, which has existed between the tide waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware, and the Ohio, by the following statements. In the year ending May, 1818, there passed through the gate at Chesnut Ridge, on the road leading from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, 2698 teams of six horses, 2412 of five horses, and 281 of four horses, amounting in the whole to 5391 teams, none of which was less than four horses. During the same year it was calculated that 10 wagons a day left Philadelphia for the west, the freight of each averaging $200, making the annual amount for freight $730,000. In the month of October, 1817, there passed through the turnpik- gate near Bedford, Poonsylvania, 4419 persons going to the west, and 2979 coming east. This was before the road from Baltimore to Wheeling was finished.