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Let's kill him boldly, but not wrathfiilly;

What you have said, and show yourselves true Let's carve him as a dish fit for the gods,

Romans. Not hew him as a carcase fit for hounds :'

Bru. Good gentlemen, look fresh and merrily ; And let our hearts, as subtle masters do,

Let not our looks put on our purposes;
Stir up their servants to an act of rage,

But bear it as our Roman actors do,
And after seem to chide them. This shall make With untir'd spirits, and formal constancy:
Our purpose necessary, and not envious :

And so, good-morrow to you every one.
Which so appearing to the common eyes,

(Ereunt all but BRUTUD. We shall be call'd purgers, not murderers. Boy! Lucius !-Fast asleep ?- It is no matter; And for Mark Antony, think not of him;

Enjoy the honey-heavy dew of slumber : For he can do no more than Cæsar's arm,

Thou hast no figures, nor no fantasies, When Cæsar's head is off.

Which busy care draws in the brains of men Cas.

Yet I do fear him : Therefore thou sleep'st so sound.
For in the ingrafted love he bears to Cæsar,-

Bru. Alas, good Cassius, do not think of him:
If he love Czesar, all that he can do


Brutus, my lord ! Is to himself; take thought, and die for Cæsar : Bru. Portia, what mean you? Wherefore riso And that were much he should ; for he is given

you now? To sports, to wildness, and much company. It is not for your health, thus to commit

Treb. There is no fear in him ; let him not die; Your weak condition to the raw-cold morning. For he will live, and laugh at this hereafter.

Por. Nor for yours, neither. You have ungently, (Clock strikes.

Brutus, Bru. Peace, count the clock.

Stole from my bed : And yesternight, at supper, Cas.

The clock hath stricken three. You suddenly arose, and walk'd about, Treb. 'Tis time to part.

Musing, and sighing, with your arms across Cas.

But it is doubtful yet, And when I ask'd you what the matter was, Whe'p Cæsar will come forth to-day, or no: You star'd upon me with ungentle looks: For he is superstitious grown of late ;

I urg'd you further ; then you scratch'd your head, Quite from the main opinion he held once

And too impatiently stamp'd with your foot : Of fantasy, of dreams, and ceremonies : 4

Yet I insisted, yet you answer'd not ; It may be, these apparent prodigies,

But, with an angry wafiure of your hand, The unaccustom'd terror of this night,

Gave sign for me io leave you : So I did; And the persuasion of his augurers,

Fearing to strengthen that impatience, May hold him from the Capitol to-day.

Which seem'd too much enkindled; and, withal, Dec. Never fear that: If he be so resolv'd, Hoping it was but an effect of humour, I can o'ersway him : for he loves to hear,

Which sometime hath his hour with every man. That unicorns may be betray'd with trees,

It will not let you eat, nor talk, nor sleep ; And bears with glasses, elephants with holes, And, could it work so much upon your shape, Lions with toils, and men with flatterers :

As it hath much prevail'd on your condition," But, when I tell him, he hates flatterers,

I should not know you, Brutus. Dear my lord, He saye, he does; being then most flattered. Make me acquainted with your cause of grief. Let me work :

Bru. I am not well in health, and that is all. For I can give his humour the true bent;

Por. Brutus is wise, and were he not in health, And I will bring him to the Capitol.

He would embrace the means to come by it. Cas. Nay, we will all of us be there to fetch him. Bru. Why, so I do:-Good Portia, go to bed, Bru. By the eighth hour : Is that the uttermost? Por. Is Brutus sick ? and is it physical Cin, Be that the uttermost, and fail not then. To walk unbraced, and suck up the humours

Met. Caius Ligarius doth bear Cæsar hard, or the dank morning ? What is Brutus sick
Who rated him for speaking well of Pompey ; And will he steal out of his wholesome bed,
I wonder, none of you have thought of him. To dare the vile contagion of the night?

Bru. Now, good Metellus, go along by him : And tempt the rheumy and unpurged air
He loves me well, and I have given him reasons ;

To add unto his sickness ? No, my Brutus ;
Send him but hither, and I'll fashion him.

You have some sick offence within your mind, Cas. The morning comes upon us : We'll leave Which, by the right and virtue of my place, you, Brutus;

I ought to know of: And, upon my knees,
And, friends, disperse yourselves : but all remember I charm you,'' by my once commended beauty,

• Gradive, dedisti,
Ne qua manus vatem, ne quid mortalia bello

men in their sleepe do thinke they see ; but that phanLædere tela queant, sanctum et venerabile Diti

lasia is the seeing of that only which is in very deede." Funus erat.' Stalius, Theb. vil. 1. 696.

Ceremonies signify omens or signs deduced from sacri.

fices or other ceremonial rites. Thus in a subsequent The following passage of the old translation of Plus passage :tarch was probably in the poet's thoughts :- Cæsar turned himself no-where but he was stricken at by

"Cæsar, I never stood on cereinonies, some, and still naked swords in his face, and was

Yet now they fright me.' hacked and mangled among them as a wild beasl taken running behind a tree, eluded the violent push the ani

5 Unicorns are said to have been taken by one, whor of hunters.

2. To take thought, is to grieve, to be troubled in mal was making at him, so that his horn spent its forco mind. See note on Hamlet, Act iv. Sc. 5; aud Antony he was despatched by the hunter. This is alluded. 10

on the trunk, and stuck fast, detaining the animal til) und Cleopatra, Act iii. Sc. 2. or in good case ; but I take thought, or my minide is fui by Spenser, F. Q. b. li. c. 5; and by Chapman, in his of fancies and trouble.'- Baret.

Bussy d'Ambois, 1607. Bears are reported to have been 3 Whether.

surprised by means of a mirror, which they would gaze Quite from the main opinion he held onco

on, affording their pursuers an opportunity of taking or fantasy, of dreams, and ceremonies.?

the surer aim. This circumstance is mentioned by Muin opinion Thus in Troilus and Cressida :fired opinion, general estimation. Claudian. Elephants were seduced into pitfalls, lightly

covered with hurdles and turf, on which a proper bait to Why then should we our main opinion erush,

lempt them was placed. See Pliny's Natural History,

b. viii. In laint of our best man?"

6 i. e. by his house ; make that your way home. Fantasy was used for imagination or conceit in Shak. 7 'Let not our faces pul on, that is, wear or show speare's time; but the following passage from Lava our designs.' terus on Ghostes and Spirites, 1572, may elucidate its S Shapes created by imagination. meaning in the present instance ;--'Suidas maketh a 9 Condition is temper, disposition, demeanour. difference between phantasma and phantasia, saying | 10 | charm rou.' This is the reading of the old that phantasma is an imaginauon or appearance of a copy, which Pope and Hanmer changed to ' 1 charge sighi or thing which is not, as are those sights which you, without nce essity. To charm is to invoke or en


By all yotir vows of love, and that great vow Bru. Such an exploit have I in hand, Ligarms, Which did incorporate and inake us one,

Had you a healthful ear to hear of it. That you unfold to me, yourself, your half,

Lig. By all the gods that Romans bow before, Why you are heavy; and what men to-night I here discard my sickness. Soul of Rome ! Have had resort to you : for here have been Brave son, deriv'd from honourable loins ! Some six or seven, who did hide their faces Thou, like an exorcist, hast conjur'd up Even from darkness.

My mortified spirit. Now bid me run, Bru. .

Kneel not, gentle Portia. And I will strive with things impossible ; Por. I should not need, if you were gentle Brutus. Yea, get the better of them. What's to do? Within the bond of marriage, tell me, Brutus, Bru. A piece of work, that will make sick men Is it excepted, I should know no secrets

whole. That appertain to you? Am I yourself,

Lig. But are not some whole, that we must mako But, as it were, in sort, or limitation ;

sick ? To keep with you at meals, comfort your bed, Bru. That must we also. What it is, my Caius, And talk to you sometimes? Dwell I but in the I shall unfold to thee, as we are going suburbs

To whom it must be done. or your good pleasure? If it be no more,


Set on your foot ; Portia is Brutus' harlot, not his wife.'.

And, with a heart new-fir'd, I follow you, Bru. You are my true and honourable wife; To do I know not what: but it suffieeth, As dear to me, as are the ruddy drops

That Brutus leads me on, That visit my sad heart.2


Follow me, then. Por. If this were true, then should I know this

(Eseunt. secret.

SCENE 11. The same. A Room in Cæsar's I grant, I am a woman; but, withal,

Palace. Thunder and Lightning. Enter CÆSAR, A woman that Lord Brutus took to wife :

in his Night-gown. I grant, I am a woman; but, withal,

Cæs. Nor heaven, nor earth, have been at peace A woman well reputed ; Cato's daughter.

to-night: Think you, I am no stronger than my sex,

Thrice hath Calphurnia in her sleep cried out, Being so father'd, and so husbanded?

Help, ho! they murder Cæsar!

-Who's within ? Tell me your counsels, I will not disclose them : I have made strong proof of my constancy,

Enter a Servant. Giving myself a voluntary wound

Serv. My lord ?
Here, in the thigh: Can I bear that with patience, Cæs. Go bid the priests do present sacrifice,
And not my husband's secrets ?

And bring me their opinions of success.
Oye gods, Serv. I will, my lord.

[Esit. Render me worthy of this noble wife!

Enter CALPHURNIA. (Knocking within. Hark, hark ! one knocks : Portia, go in a while ;

Cal. What mean you, Cæsar? Think you to And by and by thy bosom shall partake

walk forth? The secrets of my heart.

You shall not stir out of your house to-day. All my engagements I will construe to thee, Cæs. Cæsar shall forth: The things that threalAll the charactery of iny sad brows :Leave me with haste.

(Exit PORTIA. Ne'er look'd but on my back; when they shall see Enter Lucius and LIGARIUS.

The face of Cæsar, they are vanished.

Cal. Cæsar, I never stond on ceremonies, Lucius, who is that knocks? Yet now they fright me. There is one within, Luc. Here is a sick man, that would speak with Besides the things that we have heard and seen, you.

Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch. Bru. Caius Ligarius, that Metellus spake of.- A lioness hath whelped in the streets ; Boy, stand aside.-Caius Ligarius! how?

And graves have yawn'd, and yielded up their dead: Lig. Vouchsafe good morrow from a feeble tongue. Fierce fiery warriors fight upon the clouds, Bru. O, what a time have you chose out, brave In ranks, and squadrons, and right form of war, Caius,

Which drizzled blood upon the Capitol : To wear a kerchief? 'Would, you were not sick! The moise of battle huriled' in the air,

Lig. I am not sick, if Brutus have in hand Any exploit worthy the name of honour.*

him by the right hande, sayed unto him, Brutus, if thou

hust any great enterprise in hande worthie of thy selfe, treat by words or other fascinatiog means. Thus in I am whole, Lord Sierline has also introduced this Cymbeline :-

passage into his Julius Caesar. Shakspeare has givens 'uis your graces

to Romany the manners of his own time. It was a comThat from my mutest conscience to my tongue mon practice in England for those who were sick to Charms this report out.'

wear a kerchier on their heads, and still continues among | The general idea of this part of Portia's speech is the common people in inany places. If (says Fuller) taken from the old translation of Plutarch. Lord Ster. this county Cheshire) hath bred no writers in that jne, in his Julius Cæsar, 1607, uses similar language:- faculty (physic), the wonder is the less, if it be true ** I was not, Brutus, match'd with thee, to be what I read, that if any there be sick, they make him a A partner only of thy board and bed :

posset and tye a kerchief on his id, and if that will Each servile whore in those might equal me, not mend him, then God be merciful to him.'-Worthies,

That did herself to bought but pleasure wed. Cheshire, p. 180.
No ;--Portia spous'd thee with a mind l'abide 5 Here and in all other places Shakspeare uses erot.
Thy fellow in all fortunes, good or ill,

cist for one who raises spirits, not one who lays them With chains of mutual love together tied,

But it has been erroneously said that he is singular in As those that have two breasts, one heart, two this use of the word. souls, one will.:

6 Never paid a regard to prodigies or omens. The 2 These glowing words have been adopted by Gray adjective is used in the same sense in The Devil's Char. in his celebrated Ode :

ter, 1607 :* Dear as the ruddy drops that warm my heart.

• The devil bath provided in his covenant 3 Charactery is defined writing by characters or I should not cross myself at any time, strange marks." Brutus therefore means that he will I never was so ceremonious.' divulge to her the secret cause of the sadness marked 7 Shakspeare has adverted to this again in Hamlet :on his countenance.' In The Merry Wives of Windsor, A little ere the mighty Julius fell, Act v. Sc. 1, it is said, “Fairies use flowers for their The graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted dead charactery.

Did squeak and gibber in the streets of Rome.' 4 This is from Plutarch's Life of Brutus, as translated 8 Visæ per celum co currere acies, rutilantia arma, by North : Brutus went to see him being sicke in his et subito nubium igne collucere,'&c.-Tacitus, Hist. b. v. bedde, and sayed unto him, O Ligarius, in what a time 9 To hurtle is to clash, or move with violence and art thou sicke? Ligarius, rising up in his bed and taking noise.

en'd me,

Horses did neigh, and dying men did groan : Cæs. And you are come in very happy timo,
And ghosts did shriek, and squeal about the streets. To bear my greeting to the senators,
o, Cæsar! these things are beyond all use, And tell them that I will not come to-day:
And I do fear them.

Cannot, is false ; and that I dare not, falser:

What can be avoided, I will not come to-day: Tell them so, Decius. Whose end is purpos'd by the mighty gods? Cal. Say, he is sick. Yet Cæsar shall go forth; for these predictions Cas.

Shall Cæsar send a nie ? Are to the world in general, as to Cæsar.

Have I in conquest stretch'd mine arm so far, Cal. When beggars die, there are no comets To be aseard to tell gray-breads the truth; seen,

Decius, go tell them, Cæsar will not come. The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of Dec. Most mighty Cæsar, let me know some princes.'

cause, Cæs. Cowards die many times before their Lest I be laagh’d al, when I tell them so. · deaths ;'

Ces. The cause is in my will, I will not come;
The valiant never taste of death but once. That is enough to satisfy the senate.
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard,

But, for your private satisfaction,
It seems to me most strange that men should fear; Because I love you, I will let you know;
Seeing that death, a necessary end,

Calphurnia here, my wife, stags me at home : Will come, when it will come.

She dreamt to-night she saw my statua,&
Re-enter a Servant.

Which, like a fountain, with a hundred spouts,

Did run pure blood; and many husty Romans What say the augurers ? Came smiling, and did bathe their hands in it. Serv. They would not have you to sur forth And these doth she apply for warnings and portents to-day.

And evils imminent; and on her knee Plucking the entrails of an offering forth,

Hath begg'd, that I will stay at home to-day. They could not find a heart within the beast. Dec. This dream is all amiss interpreted;

Ces The gods do this in shame of cowardice: It was a vision, fair and fortunate : Cæsar should be a beast without a heart,

Your statue spouting blood in many pipes, If he should stay at home to-day for fear.

In which so many smiling Romans bath'd, No, Cæsar shall not : Danger knows full well,

Signifies that from you great Rome shall suck That Cæsar is more dangerous than he.

Reviving blood : and that great men shall press We were two lions litter'd in one day, And I the elder and more terrible;

For tinctures, stains, relics, and cognizance."

This by Calphurnia's dream is signified. And Czesar shall go forth."

Cæs. And this way have you well expounded it. Cal. Alas, my lord,

Dec. I have, when you have heard what I can say; Your wisdom is consum'd in confidence.

And know it now: The senate have concluded Do not go forth to-day: Call it my fear,

To give, this day, a crown to mighty Cæsar. That keeps you in the house, and not your own. If you shall send them word, you will not come, We'll send Mark Antony to the senate-house ; Their minds may change. Besides, it were a mock And he shall say, you are not well to-day: Apt to be render'd, for some one to say, Let me, upon my knee, prevail in this.

Break up the serate till another time, Cæs. Mark Antony shall say, I am not well ; When Cæsar's wife shall meet with better dreams. And, for thy humour, I will stay at home. If Cæsar hide himself

, shall they not whisper, Enter Decius.

Lo, Cæsar is afraid ? Here's Decius Brutus, he shall tell them so.

Pardon me, Cæsar; for my dear, dear love
Dec. Cæsar, all hail! Good morrow, worthy And reason to my love is liable."

To your proceeding bids me tell you this ;
Cæsar :
I come to fetch you to the senate-house.

Cæs. How foolish do your fears seen now, Cal

phurnia ? 1 This may have been suggested by Suetonius, who forgotten his classics strangely, as he has shown by relates that a blazing star appeared for seven days to several extracts from Virgil and Ovid. gether during the celebration of games, instituted by 4 The old copy reads, We hcare,' &c. The emenda. Augustus, in honour of Julius. The common people linn was made by Theobald. Upton proposed to read. believed that this indicated his reception among the We are,' &c. cols, his statues were accordingly ornamented with its

• Steevens observes, that any speech of Cæsat, igure, and medals struck on which it was represented; throughout this scene, will appear to disadvantage, il one of them is engraved in Mr. Douce's Mustrations, compared with the following, put into his mouth by vol. ii. p. 82 ; from whence this note is taken. Henry May in the seventh book of his Supplement to Lu Howard, Earl of Northampton, in his Defensative can :against the Poison of supposed Prophesies, 1583, says, • Next to the shadows and pretenices of experience

Plus me Calphurnia luctus, (which have been met with all at large,) they seem to

Et lachrymæ movere tuæ, quam tristia vatum brag most of the strange events which follow (for the

Responsa, infaustæ volucres, aut ulla dierum most part) after blazing starres ; as if they were the

Vana superstitio poterant. Ostenta timere summonses of God to call princes to the seat of judg.

Si nunc ínciperem, quæ non mihi tempora posthac ment. The surent way to shake their painted bulwarkes

Anxia transirent quæ lux jucunda maneret? of experience is, by making plaine that neither princes

Aut quæ libertas ? frustra servire timori always dye when comets blaze, nor comets ever (i. e.

(Dum nec luce

frui, nec mortem arcere licebit) always) when princes dye. In this work is a curious

Cogar, & huic capiti quod Roma veretur, aruspex anecdote of Queen Elizabeth, 'then lying at Richmond,

Jus dabit, et vanus scmper dominabitur augur. being dissuadod from looking on a comet; with a cou. 6. The old copy reads statue ; but it has been shown rage equal to the greatness of her state she caused the by Mr. Reed beyond controversy that statua was prowindowe to be selle open, and said, jacta est alea-che nounced as a trisyllable by our ancestors, and hence ge. dice are thrown'

nerally writen statua. Thus in Lord Bacon's Advance. 9 When some of his friends did counsel him to have ment of Learning, ed. 1633, p. 88:- It is not possible to • guard for the safety of his porson, he would never con have the true pictures or statuaes of Cyrus, Alexander, Rent to it; but said, it was beuer lo die once than always Cæsar, no, nor of the kings or great personages of lo be afraid of death.'-North's Plutarch.

much later years.' Again: without which the Lord Essex in a letter to Lord Rutland, observes, history of the world seems to be as the statua of Poly. • That as he which dieth nobly doth live for ever, so he phemus, with his eye out.' that doth live in fear doch die continually.'-And Mars. 7 At the execution of several of our ancient nobility, ton, in his Insatiate Countess, 1613 :

martyrs, &c. we are told that bandkerchiefs were tino Fear is my vassal; when I frown he flies : tured with their blood, and preserved as affectionate or A hundred times in life a coward dies.'

salutary memorials of the deceased. 3 Johnson remarks, ' That the ancients did not place 8' And reason, or propriety of conduct and language. courage in the heart. Mr. Douce observes, that he had is subordinate to my love.'

with me;

I am ashamed I did yield to them.

What Cæsar doth, what suitors proud to him. Give me my robe, for I will go:

Hark, boy! what noise is that?
Knter Publius, Brutus, LIGARIUS, METELLUS,

Luc. I hear none, madam.

Prythee, listen well;
Casca, TREBONIUS, and Cinna.

I hear a bustling rumour, like a fray, And look where Publius is come to fetch me.

And the wind brings it from the Capitol.
Pub. Good morrow, Cæsar.

Luc, Sooth, madam, I hear nothing.
Welcome, Publius.-

Enter Soothsayer."
What, Brutus, are you stirr'd so early too ?-
Good morrow, Casca.-Caius Ligarius,


Come hither, fellow: Caesar was ne'er so much your enemy,

Which way hast thou been ? As that same ague which hath made you lean.- Sooth.

At mine own house, good lady, What is't o'clock?

Por. What is't o'clock ?
Cæsar, 'tis strucken eight.


About the ninth hour, lady. Cæs. I thank you for your pains and courtesy. Por. Is Cæsar yet gone to the Capitol ? Enter ANTONY.

Sooth. Madam, not yet; I go to take my stand,

To see him pass on to the Capitol. See! Antony, that revels long o' nights,

Por. Thou hast some suit to Cæsar, hast thou Is notwithstanding up :

not? Good morrow, Antony.

Sooth. That I have, lady: if it will please Cæsar Ant.

So to most noble Cæsar. To be so good to Cæsar, as to hear me, Cæs. Bid them prepare within :

I shall beseech him to befriend himself. I am to blame to be thus waited for.

Por. Why, know'st thou any harm's intended Now, Cinna:-Now, Metellus:-What, Trebonius!

towards him? I have an hour's talk in store for you;

Sooth. None that I know will be, much that I fear Remember that you call on me to-day:

may chance. Be near me, that I may remember you.

Good morrow to you. Here the street is narrow : Treb. Caesar, I will :—and so near will I be, The throng that follows Cesar at the heels,

(Aside. Of senators, of prætors, common suitors, That your best friends shall wish I had been further. Will crowd a feeble man almost to death : Ces. Good friends, go in, and taste some wine I'll get me lo a place more void, and there

Speak to great Cæsar as he comes along. (Erit, And we, like friends, will straightway go together. Por. I must go in.--Ah me! how weak a ihing

Bru. That every like is not the same, o Cæsar, The heart of woman is ! O, Brutus !
The heart of Brutus yearns to think upon! The heavens speed thee in thine enterprise !

(Ereuni. Sure, the boy heard me :-Brutus hath a suit,' SCENE III. The same. A Street near the Capitol. That Cæsar will not grant.-0, I grow faint :

Enter ARTEMIDORUS, reading a Paper. Run, Lucius, and commend me to my lord: Art. Cæsar, beware of Brutus ; take heed of Cas- Say, I am merry: come to me again, sius ; come noi near Casca; have an eye lo Cinna ;

And bring me word what he doth say to thee. trust not_Trebonius; mark well Metellus Cimber;

(Exeunt, Decius Brutus loves thee not; thou hast wronged Caius Ligarius. There is but one mind in all these

ACT III. men, and it is bent against Cæsar. If thou be'st not immortal, look about you : Security gives way to SCENE I. The same. The Capitol ; the Senate conspiracy. The mighty gods defend thee! Thy silting. A Crowd of People in the Street leading lover,

ARTEMIDORUS. to the Capitol; among them ARTEMIDORUS, and Here will I standi, 1. Cæsar pass along,

the Soothsayer. Flourish. Enter CÆSAR, BruAnd as a suitor will I give him this.

TUS, Cassius, Casca, Decius, METELLUS, My heart laments that virtue cannot live

TREBONIUS, CINNA, ANTONY, LEPIDUS, Popi Out of the teeth of emulation."

LIUS, Publius, and others.
If thou read this, O Cæsar, thou may'st live; Cæs. The ides of March are come,
If not, the fates with traitors do contrive. '[Exil

Sooth, Ay, Cæsar; but not gone.
SCENE IV. The same. Annther Part of the Art. Hail,' Cæsar! Read this schedulo,

same Street, hefore the House of Brutus. Enter Dec. Trebonius doth desire you to o'er-read, Portia and Lucilis.

At your best leisure, this his humble suit, Por. I pr'ythee, boy, run to the senate-house;

Årl. O, Czesar, read mine first; for mine's a suit Stay not to answer me, but get thee gone:

That touches Cæsar nearer: Read it, great Cæsar, Why dost thou slay ?

Ces. What touches us ourself, shall be last serv'd. Luc. To know my errand, madam.

Art, Delay not, Cæsar; read it instantly. Por. I would have had thee there, and here again,

Cæs. What, is the fellow mad ? Ere I can tell thee what thou should'st do there.


Sirrah, give place, O constancy, be strong upon my side!

Cæs. What, urge you your peticions in the streel?
Set a huge mountain 'ween my heart and longue! Come to the Capitol.
I have a man's mind, but a woman's might. Cæsar enters the Capitol, the rest following. AU
How hard it is for women to keep counsel !-

the Senators rise.
Art thou here yet ?
Madam, what should I do?

Pop. I wish, your enterprize to-day may thrive.

Cas. What enterprize, Popilius? Run to the Capitol, and nothing else ?


Fare you well. And so return to you, and nothing else?

(Advances to CÆSAR. Por. Yes, bring me word, boy, if thy lord look Bru. What said Popilius Lena ?

well, For he went sickly forth: And take good note, Cal. First, mighty liege, tell me your highnesy' plcu

1 Emulation is here used in its old sense, of envious, What from your grace I shall deliver to him.' or factious rivalry. See Troilus and Cressida, Act ii. 4 Mr. Tyrwhitt says, 'The introduction of the SoothSc. 3.

sayer here is unnecessary, and improper. All that he ?' The fates join with traitors in contriving thy de- is made to say should be given to Artemidorus; who is struction.'

seen and accosted by Portia in his passage from his 3 Shakspeare has expressed the perturbation of King first star.d to one more convenient.' Richard the Third's mind by the same incident :- 5 These words Portia addresses to Lucius, to deceive "Dull unmindful villain !

him, by assigning a false cause for her present pert'ış Why stayent thou horo, and go'st not to tho duke? bation.

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Cas. He wish'd, to-day our enter prize might thrive. Cæs. What, Brutus! I fear our purpose is discover'd.

Cas, Pardon, Cæsar ; Cæsar, pardon : Bru. Look, how he makes to Cæsar: Mark him. As low as to thy foot doth Cassius fall,

Cas. Cascu, be sudden, for we fear prevention. To beg enfranchisement for Publius Cimber. Brutus, what shall be done? If this be known, Cæs. I could be well mov'd, if I were as you; Cassius or Cæsar never shall turn back,

If I could pray to move, prayers would move me: For I will slay myself.

But I am constant as the northern star, Bru.

Cassius, be constant : Of whose true-fix'd, and resting quality,
Popilius Lena speaks not of our purposes; There is no fellow in the firmament.
For, look, he smiles, and Cæsar doth not change. The skies are painted with unnumber'd sparks,
Cas. Trebonius knows his time ; for, look you, They are all fire, and every one doth shine;

But there's but one in all doth hold his place :
He draws
Mark Antony out of the way.

So, in the world ; 'Tis furnish'd well with men,
[Exeunt Antony and TREBONIUS. CÆSAR And men are flesh and blood, and apprehensive;

and the Senators take their seats. Yet, in the numher, I do know but one Dec. Where is Metellus Cimber? Let him go, That unassailable holds on his rank, And presently prefer his suit to Cæsar.

Unshak'd of motion; and, that I am he, Bru. He is address'do' press near, and second him. Let me a little show it, even in this; Cin, Casca, you are the first that rears your hand. That I was constant, Cimber should be banish'd, Cæs. Are we all ready? what is now amiss, And constant do remain to keep him so. That Caesar and his senate must redress?

Cin. O, Cæsar,Met. Most high, most mighty, and most puissant Cæs. Hence! wilt thou lift up Olympus ? Caesar,

Dec. Great Cæsar, Metellus Cimber throws before thy seat

Ces, Doth not Brutus bootless kneel ? An humble heart;

[Kneeling. Casca. Speak, hands, for me. Cæs,

I must prevent thee, Cimber. Casca stabs Cæsar in the neek. CÆSAR These couchings, and these lowly courtesies,

catches holl of his arm. He is then stabbed Might fire the blood of ordinary men;

by several other Conspirators, and at last And turn pre-ordinance, and first decree,

by MARCUS BRUTUS, Into the law of children. Be not fond,

Cæs. Et tu, Brute ?!--Then, fall, Cæsar. To think that Cæsar bears such rebel blood,

[Dies. The Senators and People retire in That will be thaw'd from the true quality

confusion, With that which melteth fools ; I mean, sweet words, Cin. Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead Low-crooked curt'sies, and base spaniel fawning.' Run hence, proclaim, cry it about the streets, Thy brother by decree is banished;

Cas. Some to the common pulpits, and cry out, If thou dost bend, and pray, and fawn for him, Liberty, freedom, and enfranchisement ! 1 spurn thee like a cur out of my way:

Bru. People, and senators! be not affrighted; Know, Cæsar doth not wrong; nor without cause Fly not; stand still :-ambition's debt is paid. Will he be satisfied.

Casca. Go to the pulpit, Brutus. Met. Is there no voice more worthy than my own,


And Cassius too, To sound more sweetly in great Cæsar's ear, Bru. Where's Publius ? For the repealing of my banish'd brother?

Cin. Here, quite confounded with this mutiny. Bru. I kiss thy hand, but not in flattery, Cæsar; Met. Stand fast together, lest some friend of Desiring thee, that Publius Cimber may

Caesar's Have an immediate freedom of repeal. Should chance 1 i. e. he is ready.

8 Suetonius says, that when Cæsar put Metellus 2 According to the rules of modern grammar Shak. Cimber back he caught hold of Cæsar's gowne, ac speare should have written his hand;

but other instan- both shoulders, whereupon, as he cried out, This is ces of similar false concord are to be found in his com. violence, Cassius came in second, full a front, and positions. Steevens is angry with Malone for laying wounded him

a little beneath the throat. Then Cæsar, them to the charge of the poet, and would transfer them catching Cassius by the arme, thrust it through with his to the player-editors or their printer, Ritson thinks the stile or writing punches; and with that, being about to words Are we all ready? should be given to Cinna, leap forward, he was met with another wound and and not to Cæsar.

stayed. Being then assailed on all sides, with three 3 Pre-ordinance for ordinance already established. and twenty he was stabbed, during which time he gave

A The old copy erroneously reads the lane of chil. but one groan (without any word uttered), and that was dren. Lave, as anciently written, was easily con- at the first thrust; though some have written, that, ay founded with lane.

Marcus Brutus came running upon him, he said, and 5 Ben Jonson has shown the ridicule of this passage thou my sonne. Holland's Translation, 1607. Pluin the Induction to The Staple of News; and notices it in tarch says that, on receiving his first wound from Casca, his Discoveries as one of the lapses of Shakspeare's he caught hold of Casca's sword, and held it hard pen; but certainly without that malevolence which has and they both cried out, Cæsar in Latin, O vile traitor been ascribed to him: and be it observed that is almost Casca, what doest thou . and Casca, in Greek, to his the only passage in his works which can justly be con-brother, Brother, help me. The conspirators, having strued into an attack on Shakspeare. He has been ac- then compassed him on every side.hacked and mancused of quating the passage unfaithfully; but Mr. gled him, &c.; and then Brutus himself gave him

Tyrwhitt surmised, and Mr. Gisord is decidedly of one wound above the privities. Men report also, that opinion, that the passage originally saod as cited by Cæsar did still defend himself against the reste, running Jonson; thus

every way with his bodie; but when he saw Brutus Met. Cæsar, thou dost me wrong.

with his sworde drawen, in his hande, then he pulled Cæs. Cæsar, did never rorong, but with just cause.' his gowne over his heade, and made no more resistMr. Tyrwhitt has endeavoured to defend

the passage by ance. Neither of these writers, therefore, furnished observing, that wrong is not always a synonymous term Shakspeare with this exclamation. It occurs in The for injury; and that Cæsar is meant to say, that he True Tragedie of Richard Duke of York, 1600, on doth not inflict any evil or punishment but with just which he formed the Third Part of King Henry VI.:cause. The fact seems to be (says Mr. Gifford,) that Et tu, Brute? Wilt thou stab Cæsar too? this verse, which closely borders on absurdity, without And is translated in Cæsar's Legend, Mirror, for Magisbeing absolutely absurd, escaped the poet in the heat of trates, 1587 :composition; and being one of those quaint slips whichi And Brutus thou my sonne, quoth I, whom erst are readily remembered, became a jocular and familiar I loved best. phrase for reproving (as in the passage of Ben Jonson's The words probably appeared originally in the old Induction, the perverse, and unreasonable expectations Latin play on the Death of Cæsar. of the male or female gossips of the day.?

9 We have now taken leave of Casca. Shakspeare .6 1. e, intelligent, capable of apprchending.

knew that he had a sufficient number of heroes on his 1 i.e. sţill holds his place unshaken by suit or so-hands, and was glad to lose an individual in the crowd, licitation, of which the object is to move the person Casca's singularity of manners would have appeared to addressed.

little adyantage amid the succeeding war and lumult

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