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SCENE II.-Before Brutus' Tens, in the Camp SCENE III.-Within the Tent of Brutus. Lucius
near Sardis. Drum. Enter Brutus, Lucilius, and TITINIUS at some distance from it, Enter
Cas. That you have wrong'a me, doth appear in
this : Luc. Give ihe word, ho! and stand.
You have condemn'd and noted Lucius Pella, Bru. What now, Lucilius? is Cassius near?
For taking bribes here of the Sardians; Luc. He is at hand; and Pindarus is come Wherein, my letters, praying on his side, To do you salutation from his master.
Because I knew the man, were slighted off.
Bru. You wrong'd yourself, to write in such a
Cas. In such a time as this, it is not meet
Bru. Let me tell you, Cassius, you yourself
Are much condemn'd to have an itching palm;
To sell and mart your offices for gold,
To undeservers. Such as he is, full of regard, and honour.
I an itching palm?
Or, by the gods, this speech were else your last.
Cas. Chastisement !
Bru. Remember March, the ides of March re-
member! When love begins to sicken and decay,
Did not great Julius bleed for justice sake ? It useth an enforced ceremony.
What villain touch'd his body, that did stab, There are no tricks in plain and simple faith : And not for justice ? Whal, shall one of us, But hollow men, like horses hot at hand,
That struck the foremost man of all this world,
But for supporting robbers; shall we now
For so much trash, as may be grasped thus ? Luc. They mean this night in Sardis to be quar- I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon, terd;
Than such a Roman. The greater part, the horse in general,
Brutus, baynot me, Are come with Cassius.
(March within. I'll not endure it: you forget yourself, Bru. Hark, he is arriv'd:
To hedge me in ;''I am a soldier, I,
Older in practice, abler than yourself
To make conditions.
Bru. Cas. Stand, ho!
Go to; you're not, Cassius.
Cas. I am. Bru. Stand, ho! Speak the word along.
Bru. I say, you are not." Within. Stand.
Cas. Urge me no more, I shall forget myself; Within. Stand.
Have mind upon your health, tempt me no further. Within. Stand.
Bru. Away, slight man! Cas. Most noble brother, you have done me
Car. Is't possible?
Hear me, for I will speak.
Shall I be frighted, when a madman stares ? Cas. Brutus, this sober form of yours hides
Cas. O ye gods'! ye gods! Must I endure all
this? wrongs; And when you do them
Bru. All this? ay, more: Frot, till your proud
heart break; Bru.
Cassius, be content, Speak your griefs softly, I do know you well:
Go, show your slaves how choleric you are, Before the eyes of both our armies here,
And make your bondmen tremble. Must I budge? Which should perceive nothing but love from us.
Must I observe you ? Must I stand and crouch Let us not wrangle: Bid them move away;
Under your testy humour ? By the gods,
You shall digest the venom of your spleen, Then in my tent, Cassius, enlarge your griefs
Though it do split you: for, from this day forth, And I will give you audience.
I'll use you for my mirth, yea, for my laughter, Car
When you are waspish. Bid our commanders lead their charges off
Is it come to this?
Bru. You say, you are a better soldier :
1 lt having been thought that alteration was requisite
in the same sense, and as the repetition of the word used
by Brutus seems to add spirit to the reply, I have conA hot friend cooling.'
tinued it in the text. This is the change which Brutus complains of.
6 j. e. to limit my authority by your direction or cen
Cas. Brutus, I am.
Cas. You wrong me every way, you wrong me, Who, much enforced, shows a hasty spark,
And straight is cold again.
Hath Cassius liv'd Did I say, better?
To be but mirth and laughter to his Brutus, Bru.
If you did, I care not. When grief, and blood ill temper'd, vexeth him? Cas. When Cæsar'liv'd, he dúrst not thus have Bru. When I spoke that, I was ill temper'd too. mov'd me.
Cas. Do you confess so much? Give me your Bru. Peace, peace ; you durst not so have tempt- hand. ed him.
Bru. And my heart too. Cas. I durst not ?
O, Brutus Bru. No.
What's the matter ? Cas. What? durst not tempt him ?
Cas. Have you not love enough to bear with me, Bru.
For your life you durst not. When that rash humour, which my mother gave me, Cus. Do not presume too much upon my love, Makes me forgetful? I may do that I shall be sorry for.
Bru. Yes, Cassius; and, from henceforth, Bru. You have done that you should be sorry for. When you are over earnest with your Brutus, There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats; He'll think your mother chides, and leave you so. For I am arm'd so strong in honesty,
(Noise within. That they pass by me, as the idle wind,
Poel. (Within.] Let me go in to see the generals ; Which I respect not. I did send to you
There is some grudge between them, 'tis not meet For certain sums of gold, which you denied me:- They be alone. For I can raise no money by vile means :
Luc. (Within.) You shall not come to them. By heaven, I had rather coin my heart,
Poel. [Within.) Nothing but death shall stay me. And drop my blood for drachmas, than to wring
Car. How now? What's the matter?
Poet. For shame, you generals ; What do you
mean? Which you denied me? Was that done like Cassius ? | Love, and be friends, as two such men should be Should I have answer'd Caius Cassius so ?
For I have seen more years, I am sure, than ye." When Marcus Brutus grows so covetous, To lock such rascal counters from his friends,
Cas. Ha, ha: how vilely doth this cynic rhyme!
Bru. Get you hence, siirrah; saucy fellow, Be ready, gods, with all your thunderbolts,
hence. Dash him to pieces!
Cas. Bear with him, Brutus ; 'tis his fashion, Cas. I denied you not.
Bru. I'll know his bumour, when he knows his Bru. You did.
I did not; he was but a fool
What should the wars do with these jigging fools ? my heart:
Cas, A friend should bear his friend's infirmities,
Away, away, be gone.
(Exit Poet. But Brutus makes mine greater than they are.
Enter Lucilius and TITINIUS.
Bru. Lucilius and Titinius, bid the commanders Bru.
I do not like your faults. Prepare to lodge their companies to-night, Cas. A friendly eye could never see such faults.
Cas. And come yourselves, and bring Messala Bru. A Aatterer's would not, though they do ap- Immediately to us.
pear As huge as high Olympus.
(Exeunt LUCINIUs and TITINIUI.
Bru. Cas. Come, Antony, and young Octavius, come,
Lucius, a bowl of wine. Revenge yourselves alone on Cassius,
Cas. I did not think you could have been so For Cassius is aweary of the world :
angry. Hated by one he loves ; brav'd by his brother;
Bru. O Cassius, I am sick of many griefs. Check'd like a bondman; all his faults observ'd,
Cas. Of your philosophy you make no use, Set in a note-book, learn'd, and conn'd by rote,
If you give place to accidental evils. To cast into my teeth. O, I could weep
Bru. No man bears sorrow better: Portia is dead.
Cas. Ha! Portia ?
Bru. She is dead.
Cas. How scap'd I killing, when I cross'd you If that thou be'st a Roman, take it forth; I, that denied thee gold, will give my heart :
O, insupportable and touching loss ! Strike as thou didst at Cæsar; for, I know,.
Upon what sickness? When thou didst hate him worst, thou lov*dst him and grief, that young Octavius with Mark Antony
Impatient of my absence ;' better Than ever thou lov'dst Cassius.
Have made themselves so strong:--for with her
Sheath your dagger : That tidings came ;-With this she fell distráci, Be angry when you will, it shall have scope; Do what you will, dishonour shall be humour.
And, her attendants absent, swallow'd fire.
Cas. And died so ? O Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb,
Bru. Even so. That carries anger as the fint bears fire;
Cas. O ye immortal gods ! · The meaning is this:--I do not lonk for your
Enter Lucius, with Wine and Papers. faules, I only see them, and mention them with vehe. Bru. Speak no more of her. Give me a bowl mence, when you force them into iny notice, by prac
of wine :tising them oni mr.'
In this I bury all unkindness, Cassius. (Drinks. 2 Shakspeare found the present incident in Plutarch. The intruder, however, was Marcus Phaonius, who diuy, as well as a dance. See note on Hamlet, Act ii. had been a friend and follower of Cato; not a poet, but Sc. 2. one whô assumed the character of a cynic philoso- 5 Companion is used as a term of contempe in many pher.
of the old plays; as we say at present sellor! Doli 3. This passage is a translation from the first book of Tearsheet says to Pistol :Homer's Iliad, which is thus given in Sir Thomas - I scorn you, scurvy companion,' &c. North's Plotarch:
6 This circumstance is taken from Plutarch. It is My lords I pray you hearken both to me,
also mentioned by Valerius
Maximus, iv. 6. Portia is For I have seen inore years than such ye thrée. however reported by Pliny to have died at Rome of a 4 i.e these silly poets. A jig signified a ballad ox) lingering illness while Brutus was abroad.
Cas. My heart is thirsty for that noble plodge :- The enemy increaseth every day,,
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to kortare;
Omitted, all the voyage of their life Bru. Come in, Titinius :-Welcome, good Mes- Is bound in shallows, and in miseries." sala.
On such a full sea are we now afloat; Now sit we close about this taper here,
And we must take the current when it s-ryes, And call in question our necessities.
Or lose our ventures. Cas. Portia, art thou gone?
Then, with your will, go on; Bru.
No more, I pray you. We'll along ourselves, and meet them at Philippi. Messala, I have here received letters,
Bru. The deep of night is crept upon our talk, That young Octavius, and Mark Antony,
And nature must obey necessity; Come down upon us with a mighty, power,
Which we will niggard with a little rest. Bending their expedition toward Philippi.
There is no more to say ? Mes. Myself have letters of the selfsame tenour. Cas.
No more. Good night;
Early to-morrow will we rise, and hence.
well, good Messala ;Have put to death an hundred senators.
Good night, Titinius :--Noble, nobie Cassius
O, my dear brother! By their proscriptions, Cicero being one.
This was an ill beginning of the night :
Never come such division 'tween our souls !
Let it not, Brutus.
Every thing is well.
Good night, good brother,
Farewell, every one.
(Exeunt Cas. Tit. and Mes, Bru. Why ask you? Hear you aught of her in
Re-enter Lucius, with the Gown. Mes. No, my lord.
Give me the gown. Where is thy instrument ?
Luc. Here in the tent.
What, thou speak'st drowsily : For certain she is dead, and by strange manner.
Poor knave, I blame thee not; thou art o'erBru. Why, farewell, Porta.—We must die, Call Claudius, and some other of my men;
watch'd. Messala : With meditating that she must die once,'
I'll have them sleep on cushions in my tent. I have the patience to endure it now.
Luc. Varro, and Claudius ! Mes. Even so great men great losses should en
Enter VARRO and CLAUDIUS.
Var. Calls my lord ?
It may be, I shall raise you by and by Bru. Well, to our work alive, What do you on business to my brother Cassius. think
Var. So please you, we will stand, and watch of marching to Philippi presently ?
your pleasure. Cas. I do not think it good.
Bru. I will not have it so: lie down, good sirs ;
It may be, I shall otherwise bethink me.
This it is: Look, Lucius, here's the book I sought for so; "Tis better that the enemy seek us :
I put it in the pocket of my gown. (Servants lie down. So shall he waste his means, weary his soldiers, Luc. I was sure, your lordship did not give it me. Doing himself offence; whilst we, lying still, Bru. Bear with me, good boy, I am much forAre full of rest, defence, and nimbleness.
And touch thy instrument a strain or two?
It does, my boy For they have grudg'd us contribution:
I trouble thee too much, but thou art willing: The enemy, marching along by them,
Luc. It is my duty, sir.
Bru. I should not urge thy duty past thy might ;
Luc. I have slept, my lord, already.
Bru. It is well done ; and thou shalt sleep again;
Hear me, good brother. I will not hold thee long: if I do live,
A similar sentiment is found in Chapman's Bussy d'Am.
• There is a deep nick in time's restless wheel,
For each man's good, when which nick comes, it
strikes, ? In art, that is, in theory.
So no man riseth by his real merit, 3 Beaumont and Fletcher have more than once imi. But when it cries click in the raiser's spirit. tated this passage, but with very little success :
4 A mace is the ancient term for a sceptre : -• There is an hour in each man's life appointed
- proud Tarquinius To make his happiness, if then he seize it,' &c.
Rooted from Rome the sway of kingly mace.'
Marius and Scylla, 1594
Shakspeare probably remembered Spenser in his Faerie
When as Morpheus had with leaden mace
Arrested all that courtly company.'
That plays thee music?-Gentle knave, good night! They mean to warn us at Philippi hero,
With fearful bravery, thinking, by this face, Where I left reading? Here it is, I think. To fasten in our thoughts that they have courage ;
[He sits down. But 'tis not so.
Enter a Messenger.
Prepare you, generals :
Their bloody sign of battle is hung out, That shapes this monstrous apparition.
And something to be done immediately.
Ant. Octavius, lead your battle sofily on,
Oct. Upon the right hand I, keep thou the left. Speak to me, what thou ari.
Ant. Why do you, cross me in this exigent? Ghost. Thy evil spirit, Brutus.
Oct. I do not cross you; but I will do so. Bru.
Why com'st thou ? Ghost. To tell thee, thou shalt see me al Philippi. Drum. Enter Brutus, Cassius, and their Army;
(March. Bru. Well; Then I shall see thee again ?
Lucilius, Titinius, Messala, and others, Ghost.
Ay, at Philippi.
Bru. They stand, and would have parley.
Cas. Stand fast, Titinius : We must vut and Bru. Why, I will see thee at Philippi, thon.
talk. Now I have taken heart, thou vanishesi :
Oct. Mark Antony, shall we give sign of battle ? Il spirit, I would hold more talk with thee.
Ant. No, Cæsar, we will answer on their charge. Boy! Lucius !--Varro! Claudius! Sirs, awake!- Make forth, the general would have some words. Claudius!
Oct. Stir not until the signal. Luc. The strings, my lord, are false.
Bru. Words before blows : Is it so, countrymen? Bru. He thinks, he still is at his instrument. Od. Not that we love words better, as you do. Lucius awake.
Bru. Good words are better than bad strokes, Lue My lord!
Octavius. Bru. Dídst thou dream, Lucius, that thou so Ant. In your bad strokes, Brutus, you give good cryd'st out?
words : Luc. My lord, I do not know that I did cry. Witness the hole you made in Cæsar's heart, Bru. Yes, that thou didst : Didst thou see any Crying, Long live! hail, Cæsar! thing?
Antony, Luc. Nothing, my lord.
The posture of your blows are yet unknown ;* Bru. Sleep again, Lucius.--Sirrah, Claudius! But for your words, they rob the Hybla beos, Fellow thou! awake.
And leave them honeyless. Var. My lord.
Not stingless loo.
Bru. O, yes, and soundless, too;
And, very wisely, threat before you sting. : Bru.
Ay; Saw you any thing? Ant. Villains, you did not so, when your vilo Var. No, my lord, I saw nothing.
Nor I, my lord. Hack'd one another in the sides of Cæsar : Bru. Go, and commend me to my brother Cas. You show'd your teeth like apos, and fawn'd like
hounds, Bid him set on his powers betimes before, And bow'd like bondmen, kissing Cæsar's feot;: And we will follow,
Whilst damned Casca, like a cur, behind, Var. Clau. It shall be done, my lord. Struck Cæsar on the neck. O, flatterers!
(Exeunt. Cus. Flatterers !-Now, Brutus, thank yourself
This tongue had not offended so to-day,
If Cassius might have rul'd.
Oct. Come, come, the cause : If arguing make
us sweat, SCENE I. The Plains of Philippi. Enter Oc- The proof of it will turn to redder drops, TAVIUS, ANTONY, and their Army.
Look; Oct. Now, Antony, our hopes are answered: I draw a sword against conspirators ; You said the enemy would not come down, When think you that the sword goes up again : But keep the hills and upper regions ;
Never, till Cæsar's three and twenty wounds It proves not so: their battles are at hand;
by Shakspeare and his contemporaries in an active 1 Shakspeare has on this occasion deserted his ori. sense, for producing
fear, or terrible, it may in this in: ginal. It does not appear from Plutarch that the ghost stance bear its usual acceptation of timorous, or, as it of Cæsar appeared to Brutus, but a wonderful straunge was sometimes expressed, salse-hearted. Thus in a and monstrous shape of a body. This apparition could passage, cited by Steevens, from Sidney's Arcadia, lib. not be at once the shade of Cæsar and the evil genius of hi.:- Her horse faire and lustie ; which she rid so as Brutus. See the story of Cassius Parmensis in Vale: might show a fearful boldness, daring to do that which rius Maximus, lib. i. c. vii.. Shakspeare had read the she knew that she knew not how to doe.' account of this vision in Plutarch's Life of Cæsar, as
4 · The posture of your blows are yet unknown." well as in that of Brutus ; it is there called the ghost, It should be is yet unknown;' but the error was proand it is said that the light of the lampe wared very bably the poet's: more correct writers than Shakspeare dimme." It is more than probable that the poet would have committed this error, where a plural noun immeconsult the Life of Cæsar, as well as that of Brutus, in diately precedes the verb, although ii be the nominative search of materials for his play. 2 To warn is to summon.
case by which it is governed. Steevens attributes the So in King John
error to the transcriber or printer, and would have it “Who is it that hath warn'd us to the walls." corrected; but Malone has adduced several examples of And in King Richard III. :
similar inaccuracy in Sbakspeare's writings. * And sent to warn them to his royal presence.'
6 The old copy reads, luo-and-thirty wounds. Theo.
bald corrected the error, which Beaumont and Fletcher s 'Feurful bravery. Though fearful is often used have also fallen into in their Noble Gendeman
Be well aveng'd; or till another Cesar
But I do find it cowardly and vile,
Bru. Cæsar, thou canst not die by traitors, The time of life :-arming myself with patience,
To stay the providence of some high powers,
So I hope;
That govern us below,
Then, if we lose this battle,
That ever Brutus will go bound to Rome;
He bears too great a mind. But this same day
Come, Antony; away. Must end that work, the ides of March begun;
For ever, and for ever, farewell, Cassius!
Cas. For ever, and for ever, farewell, Brutus!
If we do meet again, we'll smile indeed:
If not, 'tis truo, this parting was well made.
Brú. Why, then, lead on..0, that a man might
But it sufficeth, that the day will end,
What says my general ? And then the end is known.-Come, ho! away!
(Exeunt. This is my tirth-day; as this very day.
SCENE II. The same. The Field of Battle,
Bru. Ride, ride, Messala, ride, and give these
Unto the legions on the other side: (Loud Alarum.
Let them set on at once ; for I perceive
meanour in Octavius' wing,
And sudden push gives them the overthrow.
Ride, ride, Messala : let them all come down.
(Exeunt. Who to Philippi here consorted us;
SCENE III. The same. Another Part of the Field.
Alarum. Enter Cassius and TITINIUS.
Cas. O, look, Titinius, look, the villains fly!
Myself have to mine own turn'd enemy:
This ensign here of mine was turning back :
I slew the coward, and did take it from him.
Tit. O Cassius, Brutus gave the word too early:
Who having some advantage on Octavius,
Took it too eagerly; his soldiers fell to spoil,
Whilst we by Antony are all enclos'd.
Now, most noble Brutus, Pin. Fly further off, my lord, fly further off ;
Fly, therefore, noble Cassius, fly far off.
Tit. They are, my lord.
Titinius, if thou lov'st me,
Mount thou my horse, and hide thy spurs in him,
And here again : that I may rest assur'd,
I Hurl is peculiarly expressive. The challenger was between the sentiments Brutus expresses in this and in said to hurl down his gage when he thre his glove his subsequent speech; but there is no real inconsistency. down as a pledge that he would make good his charge Brutus had laid down to himself as a principle, to abido against his adversary.
every chance and extremity of war; but when Cassius * And interchangeably hurl down my gago reminds him of the disgrace of being led in triumph Upon this over.weening raitor's foot.
through the streets of Rome, he acknowledges that to King Richard II.
be a trial which he could not endure. Shakspeare, in Milton perhaps had this passage in mind, Paradise Lost, the first speech, makes that to be the present opinion of b. i. v. 669
Brutus, which in Plutarch is mentioned only as one he * Hurling defiance toward the vault of Heaven.'
formerly entertained, and that, being now in the midst 2 Almost every circumstance in this speech is taken of danger, he was of a contrary mind. 'rom Sir Thomas North's translation of Plutarch. 7 This, though censured as úngrammatical, was tho
3 i. e. fore ensign ; it probably means the chief ensign. phraseology of the poet's day, as might be shown by Baret has 'the former teeth (i. e. fore teeth,] denies numerous examples. But Dryden and Pope have used primores.
it, and Johnson has sanctioned it in his Dictionary : 4. So in King John:
Begin, o. n. I began, or begun.' The fact is, thai tho
8 This and much of the subsequent scene is from the 6 To prevent,' is here used for to anticipate. By old translation of Plutarch :-' In the meane cyme Brui time is meant the full and complete time; the natural cus, that led the right winge, sent little billes to the period. See note on King Henry IV. Part II. Act i. Sc. 2. collonels and captaines of private bandes, in which he It has been said that there is an apparent contradiction I wrote the order of the bautie.'