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Gen. xxii. 1. But ordinarily it is taken in an evil sense ; and so it is here meant of temptation to sin, which is the plying of a man with some engine or other to draw him into sin. So in temptation four things are to be considered.

1. The party tempted or liable to temptation.

2. The parties tempting, the black instruments of temptation.

3. The bait wherewith the hook of temptation is busked. 4. The mischievous design.

First, The party tempted, or liable to temptation, viz. ourselves and others, who live in this world of pits and snares, Cant. iv. 3. Those who are in the upper house are beyond the reach of temptation; no hissing serpent is there; they are not within bow-shot of Satan. But here he rang th up and down, i Pet. v. 8. here he has the length of his chain. Adam in paradise was tempted *, and the second Adam too; the one able to have stood, the other one who could not fall. What wonder then that he attack us, in whom he has bosom friends!

were hereby threatened to be quite overthrown and buried in oblivion. The word, he tried, is also emphatically pointed to shew it to have been a most exquisite trial, far surpaffing all that Abraham had met with before. Nillah, he tried. It is of the form Phiel, and doth not clearly appear to be used in Kal at all. It notes an attempt, or essay, as David had not tried, viz. to go with Saul's armour, 1 Sam. xvii. 39. whether more full, as God tried Ifrael, Jud. jii. 1. and the queen of Sheba did Solomon, 1 Kings x. l. or more flight, as the delicate woman bad not tried the fole of her foot, to set it on the earth, Deut: xxviii. 56. made by fome means, as by the nations, Jud. ii. 1. by hard quellions, 1 Kings x. i. for dif. covering and laying open the object to view, as God tried the people, whether they would go in his law or not, Exod. xvi. 4. and Hezekiah, for to know all in his heart, 2 Chron. xxxii. 31. even as a banner displayed is set forth to view, for it is akin to Nasa; to lift up, and to Nasas, whence Nes, a banner or standard, It differs from Bahhan, to prove, as an action incomplete from itself as completed: Niffah, importing only the discover. ing or laying open of the object : Bahhan, not only that, but also the judgment formed upon the discovery, made. Hence, Psal. xcv. 9. Your fathers tried me : they proved me, &c. From all which, the formal notion of Niflah appears to be to try.”

* The temptation and seduction of our first parents is justly consider ed as the devil's master piece, and a most glaring demonftration of that infernal spirit's implacable malice and desperate hatred against God and his jonocent creatures. It was at the same time attended with the most interesting confequences to the guilty pair, and their descendants. It may not therefore be improper to give here several particulars relating to this remarkable event, selected from the author's notes on part of the second and third chapters of Genesis. As the essay on this book was written posterior to this illạftration, and as these remarks contain many striking and important things concerning the grand temptation, and the effects thereof,

Secondly, The parties tempting, the black instruments of temptation.

it was judged expedient to insert them here, though not the most proper place, rather than omit them altogether, as they were not adverted to when the discourses on the fall of our first parents, and on the first sin in particular, vol. i. were printing. And it is presumed, their getting a place in this work will not only be a valuable addition to it, but of no small advantage to the reader, as the extracts undoubtedly contain several observa. tions new and uncommon, and which appear to have escaped the notice of former commentators, all tending to fhew the evil and horrid nature of fin, and the riches of sovereign grace in the salvation of ruined man, discovered to him inmediátely after his fatal transgression; as well as they afford ng mean fpecimen of the author's learning and skill in facred criticism.

“ Gen. ii. 25. Now they two were naked. Here begios the history of the fall of man; and this should have been the beginning of the third chapter. Though the division into verses is of divine authority, the divifion into chapters is not fo. The man, and his wife. They were naked, not dily in presence of one another, but separately wherever they were.But they would not have been ashamed of themfelves, not withftanding of thetr nakedness. The inanner of expreffioni bears, that so it was during the happy hate they were in, but that it latted not, that was soon over, and now is gone. The diftin&tive in these words is emphatical, q. d. But they would not have, &c. i. e. they would not at all, in the leal, have been; &c. Bosch is to be ashamed. "If therefore, it were used in Pih. i. would be to shame, act, as the root in Kal is neuter. Here it is in Hithp: the relative of Pih. and thereföre fignifies formally to fhame one's self. It is no where else used in this form, which is here purposely chosen, not only to intimate that our shame arifeth froñi a certain secret motion withia our own breafts, but also, and chiefly, in oppofitioü to Satan's endeavouring to shame them, on the account of their nakedness, which will appear by the sequel.

Gen. iii. 1.." And the serpent, was subtil, from every wild beast of the field; which Jehovah God had made, i.e. And the old ferpent the devil, was subtil, nicely observing, and artfutly improving, what might make foć his wiféhievous delign against mankind; and in his attack be argued fubtilly, from the fate and case of the wild beálls; every one of which he obferved to have been made covered, none of them naked, though not of an ereet posture, a's man was ; and withal that they were left to range up and down in the field, at their pleasure. So Saran pitching upon the case of the wild beasts, as the great engine for the tuin of mankind, to be made effe&ual for that purpole, by a compärifon inftitured, with hellifh fubiilty, bet ween it and the case of our first parents, found in it a double topic, which he improved to the a&tual ruining of them, and of all their pofterity in their loins. The first of these was the nakednefs of our first parents, while the wild beast's were all covered and created fó. 'Their nakedness, he would perfuade them, was füameful and indecent ; and that she wild beafts

1. The grand tempter 'is the devil, Matth. iv. 3. He was an angel of light, but is now turned to a tempting devil. An apostate from God, for whom there is no hope; and being God's irreconcileable enemy, goes about withdrawing men from their allegiance to their sovereign Lord. He is an ex

were in that respect, in better case than they. This was the first temptation, as Moses shews us in these words, making up the first hemiftich of this verse. And this is the plain literal sense of the words, as thus pointed. Compare Job xxxv. 11. Teaching us, from beafts of earth: and from flying thing of the heavens, &c'; with which compare chap. xii. 7. • Come now alk thou beasts, and it (i. e. every one of them) will teach thee : and Aying thing of the heavens; and it will tell to thee.' Accordingly the context doth not obscurely intimate the nakedness of our firft parents to have been the firft topic Satan made use of in his attack on them. God himself asks Adam, ver. 11. Who told him of his nakedness? which is no obscure in. dication, that the devil told them of it. Moses takes notice, ver. 7. that after eating of the forbidden fruit, their eyes were opened, and they knew they were naked, really needing clothes to hide their shame, which Satan would have perfuaded them they were in need of before, and which they could not fee while they stood in their integrity, there being really no such thing as the tempter alleged. Thus the connection is natural : The two were naked.-And the serpent, was subtil from the wild beasts of the field, to improve their case against the saked pair. This is confirmed from the words used by the inspired penman. He tells us, chap. ii, ult. They two were Gnarummim (naked), and here the serpent was Gnarum (subtil), Thus also, the last clause, which Jehovah God had made affords a more efficacious sense than otherwise, viz. being understood, not of God's making them fimply, but of making them covered. And hereunto fitly agrees the

Lord's clothing the finful naked pair, with the king of bealts; which was a humbling memorial to them of the {pring of their ruin. Nahhafch the serpent. Whether it is from the verb Nahhafch. or the verb is from it, is all a case in this point. But the verb does import, fubtil observation, learning by observation particularly it is used of observing of omens, chap. XXX. 27. & xliv. 45. 2 Kings xxi. 6. And lince Nahhasch is not the only name of the serpent in Hebrew, it would seem that primarily and originally it was the name of the devil, the old serpent, given him from this fatal event, and communicated to that animal, as having been the instrument of the devil in this mischief. Gnarum, subtil ; for the word is indifferent, either to good, as Prov. xii. 16. 23. or evil, as Job. v. 12. Now, it is true the Hebrew forms its comparative phrases, by the preposition from, which in that case may be rendered above, as Judg. xi. 25. Good, good, [art] thou ; from (i. e above) Balak, i. e. [Art] thou better, better; than Balak? So Prov. viii. 11. Hag. ii: 9. Eccl. iv. 9. & vii. 1, 2, 3. 5 8. II. liv. 1. Plal. cxviii. 8, 9. Prov. xxv. 7. But the compa. rative sense cannot be admitted here. For, (1.) The reading offered is the primary and literal one, therefore not without necessity to give place to another. (2.) The comparative phrase is eliptical. And no elliptis is to be admitted without necessity neither. (3.) The word from all, doth not immediately relate to the adjective subtil, but to the substan, Yol. III.

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pert tempter ; and has now had the experience of several thousand years in the hellish trade. He has his devices for entrapping of poor mortals, and knows how to suit his temptations, as they may best take.

2. Men are tempters to one another. Satan so prevails with

tive verb was, as the principal word of the part referred to: so the con. Atruction is not, The serpent was subtil ; [subtil] from, &c. but, The fer. pent, was subtil; Che was so] from, &c. If the comparative phrase had been designed, I conceive the adjective would have been set before the subltantive-verb; that so it might have related immediately to the word from-all: thus, The serpent, subtil was ; from, &c. i. e, subtil from, that is more subtil than. And in all the above cited texts, bearing the comparative phrase, the adjective is so posted; being either the only, or the firl, word of the clause, or part of the clause, in which it is found: by which fituation it plainly relates to the word that hath the proposition. And he said yoto the woman, then, how hath God said, Ye shall got eat of all, tree of the garden? The phrase not all is used for not any. Thus the wo. man understood it, as appears from the following verse. And so Satan was a liar, in the strictest sense from the beginning. Here is the second topic Satan made use of, viz. the restraint our firkt parents were laid under id respect of their food, while the wild beacts were at liberty in that point. In what words he proposed this second temptation, is here recorded ; though his speech on the first is not. But that he did speak on this mifchievous defigny and unco the woman too, before he uttered the words here recorded, the text itself doth plainly intimate. The words Then how q. d. More than that, in the next place, shew that there was a foregoing speech he had to her. Accordingly the text faith, He said unto the woman, b. d. unto the woman unto the woman ; i. e. he said unto the woman words agreeable to the narration foregoing, and he said unto the woman the words following. Accordingly the word He said, is by the dis. tinctive fitted to be constructed after this manuer. Comp 2 Sam. xi. 8. Aud said David, to Uriah ; Go down to thy house. And it is generally owned, that Aph ki, the first words of the devil which are here recorded, is never put in the beginning of a speech ; and that some words of the tempter


go before these. I conceive, then, the holy text itself intimates to us, that the devil in the serpent spoke to the woman to this pure pose: • What can be the design of God in this ! How is it, that when every wild beast of the field bath a covering put upon it by his own hand, though they do withal look downward; yet ye are daked, and that in an erect polture, in the which there is a shameful indecency, that ye would manifeftly see if your eyes were opened: Then, in the next place, How is it, that, whereas they are at full liberty, in the open fields, ranging up and down at their pleasure, eating freely whatever is before them, ye are under a notable restraint as to your food, that ye may not eat of any tree of the garden?' Thus food and raiment were early quares to mankind.

Ver. 2. And the woman said, unto the serpent: ofthe fruit of trees of the garden, we may eat.' Thus she repels this temptation, directly contradieing what Satan advanced concerning the restraint laid on them as to their them, as to act his part one against another. Sometimes they set themselves to drive others into sin by force, Acts xxvi. 11. sometimes gently to draw them into it, Gen. xxxix. 7. And Satan gets not only wicked men, but many

food: and she also had repelled the other, continuing unshamed of her nakedness.

Ver. 3. “ But of the fruit of the tree which [is] in the midst of the garden.” This part of the woman's answer is elliptical: and the elliptis is of that fort, which is caused by horror arising from the subject mentioned,


d. • But of the fruit of the tree which [is] in midit of the garden! Supply, for the sense, we may not eat, of it 'tis faid lett ye die.” The last member of this verse, by the pointing, refers to both the preceding : and that points us to the latter part of the words understood, as the foregoing words, to the former part of them. “God hath said, Ye shall not eat, of it; and shall not conch on it, viz the fruit of the forbidden tree." They were forbid. den, not only to eat of it, but even to touch it at all, though never fo lightly. From thefe words, directed to a plurality of persons, it appears, that God repeated, in the hearing of Adam and Evé together, the law concerning the forbidden fruit, together with the grant of the fruit of the relt of the trees of the garden; and consequently, that Eve had the reve. lation of the divine will and pleafure, in this matter, from the mouth of God himself. And the repetition of this law and grant, which were first given to Adam alone, chap. ii. 16, 17. feems to have been made at the solemnity of God's bringing in the woman unto the man: for it natively takes place, in connection with chap. i. 29. - Lelt ye die. These words inport po doubting, being the Lord's own words repeated by Eve.

Ver. 4." And the serpent said unto the wonian : Ye shall not dying, die; i. e. Ye shall not at all, die.” Satan Aatly contradi&s the divine threatena ing; and that with an air of great confidence, for the flop between these

wo words is emphatic. 'Fhat this is the senfe of the phrafe, appears from Pfal. xlix. 8-7ths, He cannot redeeming redeem, i. e. He cannot at all, or by any means, redeem. The negative here doth primarily and directly affea but one of the verbs, as Exod. v. 23. and xxxiv. 7 In the phrase respecting the certainty of the thing, it affects them both in conjunction equally, as Jer. xxxviii. 15. Will ye not, putting me to death put me to death, i. e, furely put me to death.

Ver. 5. But God he knoweth, viz. very well. Compare the last claufe of this verfe. . Satan pretends to open up the mystery of the restraint put upon man, as to the fruit of the forbidden tree. “ That in the day of your eating of it; then they fhall be opened, viz. your eyes, q. d. Your eyes are now shut to the fameful indecency of your nakedness :" but if once eat of that fruit, it will open your eyes, make you fu fharp-lighted, that ye faall clearly see the truth of what I say. And therefore it is, ye are forbidden to meddle with it ; that ye may still be kept in a milt

. Thus Satan chains together the two temptations, ver. 1. and so makes an attack with both at once. And thus, from the beginning, he sported himself with his deceivings, the cheats pat upon man, by him “ And ye shall be, as God, a's God himself, appears from ver. 21 ; whereas now ye are in fome refpe& worse than the wild bealts. Kaowing, of good and evil;"


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