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as you have books for good manners 12: I will name you the degrees. The first, the Retort courteous ; the second, the Quip modest; the third, the Reply churlish; the fourth, the Reproof valiant; the fifth, the Countercheck quarrelsome; the sixth, the Lie with circumstance! the seventh, the Lie direct. All these you may avoid, but the lie direct; and you may avoid that too, with an If. I knew when seven justices could not take up a quarrel; but when the parties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an If, as If you said so, then I said so; and they shook hands, and swore brothers. Your If is the only peace-maker; much virtue in If.

Jaq. Is not this a rare fellow, my lord ? he's as good at any thing, and yet a fool.

Duke s. He uses his folly like a stalking-horse 13, and under the presentation of that, he shoots his wit.

have in regard their Honours, touching the giving and receiving the Lie, whereupon the Duello and the Combat in divers Forms doth ensue; and many other inconveniences for lack only of true knowledge of Honour, and the right Understanding of Words, which here is set down. The eight following chapters are, on the Lie and its various circumstances, much in the order of Touchstone's enumeration; and in the chapter of Conditional Lies, speaking of the particle if, he says: Conditional lies be such as are given conditionally, as if a man should say or write these words: if thou hast said that I have offered my lord abuse, thou liest; or if thou sayest so hereafter, thou shalt lie. Of these kind of lies, given in this manner, often arise much contention in wordes, whereof no sure conclusion can arise. There are other works of the time on the same subject mentioned by the commentators; but this must suffice.

12 The Booke of Nurture; or, Schoole of Good Manners for Men, Servants, and Children, with stans puer ad mensam, 12mo. without date, in black letter, is most probably the work referred to. It was written by Hugh Rhodes, and first published in the reign of Edward VI.

A stalking-horse.' See note on Much Ado about Nothing, Act ii. Sc. 3, p. 152, note 6.

13

Enter HYMEN 14. leading ROSALIND in women's

clothes; and CELIA.

Still Musick. Hym. Then is there mirth in heaven,

When earthly things made even,

Atone 15 together.
Good duke, receive thy daughter,
Hymen from heaven brought her,

Yea, brought her hither;
That thou might'st join her hand with his
Whose heart within her bosom is.

Ros. To you I give myself, for I am yours :

[To Duke S. To you I give myself, for I am yours.

[To ORLANDO. Duke S. If there be truth in sight, you are my

daughter.
Orl. If there be truth in sight, you are my

Rosa-
lind.
Phe. If sight and shape be true,
Why then,—my love, adieu !
Ros. I'll have no father, if

you
be not he:-

[To Duke S. I'll have no husband, if you be not he:

[TO ORLANDO. Nor ne'er wed woman, if you be not she:

[To PHEBE.

14 Rosalind is imagined by the rest of the company to be brought by enchantment, and is therefore introduced by a supposed aërial being in the character of Hymen.

15 i. e. at one ; accord, or agree together. This is the old sense of the phrase, an attonement, a loving againe after a breach or falling out. Reditus in gratia cum aliquo.'— Baret.

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Hym. Peace, ho! I bar confusion :

'Tis I must make conclusion

Of these most strange events :
Here's eight that must take hands,
To join in Hymen's bands,

If truth holds true contents 16.
You and you no cross shall part:

[To ORLANDO and ROSALIND. You and you are heart in heart:

[To OLIVER and Celia.
You [To PHEBE) to his love must accord,
Or have a woman to your lord :-
You and you are sure together,

To TouchSTONE and AUDREY.
As the winter to foul weather.
Whiles a wedlock-hymn we sing,
Feed yourselves with questioning 17;
That reason wonder may diminish,
How thus we met, and these things finish.

SONG.
Wedding is great Juno's crown;

O blessed bond of board and bed!
'Tis Hymen peoples every town;

High wedlock then be honoured:
Honour, high honour and renown,

To Hymen, god of every town!
Duke S. O my dear niece, welcome thou art to me;
Even daughter, welcome in no less degree.

Phe. I will not eat my word, now thou art mine; Thy faith my fancy to thee doth combine 18.

[To Silvius. 10 i.e. unless truth fails of veracity; if there be truth in truth. 1? i. e. take your fill of discourse. 18 i.e. unite, attach.

Enter JAQUES DE Bois. Jaq.de B. Let me have audience for a word or two; I am the second son of old Sir Rowland, That bring these tidings to this fair assembly : Duke Frederick, hearing how that every day Men of great worth resorted to this forest, Address’d 19 a mighty power! which were on foot, In his own conduct, purposely to take His brother here, and put him to the sword : And to the skirts of this wild wood he came; Where, meeting with an old religious man, After some question with him, was converted Both from his enterprize, and from the world : His crown bequeathing to his banish'd brother, And all their lands restor'd to them again That were with him exil'd: This to be true, I do

engage my life. Duke s.

Welcome, young man; Thou offer'st fairly to thy brothers' wedding: To one, his lands withheld; and to the other, A land itself at large, a potent dukedom. First, in this forest, let us do those ends That here were well begun, and well begot : And after, every of this happy number, That have endur'd shrewd days and nights with us, Shall share the good of our returned fortune, According to the measure of their states. Meantime, forget this new-fall’n dignity, And fall into our rustick revelry :Play, musick;—and you, brides and bridegrooms all, With measure heap'd in joy, to the measures fall.

Jaq. Sir, by your patience; If I heard you rightly, The duke hath put on a religious life, And thrown into neglect the pompous court?

19 i.e. prepared.

Jaq. de B. He hath.

Jaq. To him will I: out of these convertites There is much matter to be heard and learn'd. — You to your former honour I bequeath: [T. Duke S. Your patience and your virtue well deserves it: You [TO ORLANDO) to a love, that your true faith

doth merit:You [T. OLIVER] to your land, and love, and great

allies :You To Silvius) to a long and well deserved bed:And you [To TouchSTONE] to wrangling; for thy

loving voyage Is but for two months victuald :-So to your plea

sures ; I am for other than for dancing measures.

Duke S. Stay, Jaques, stay. Jaq. To see no pastime, I :—what you would have I'll stay to know at your abandon'd cave 20. (Exit. Duke s. Proceed, proceed: we will begin these

rites, And we do trust they'll end in true delights.

[A dance. EPILOGUE. Ros. It is not the fashion to see the lady the epilogue: but it is no more unhandsome, than to see the lord the prologue. If it be true, that good wine needs no busha1, 'tis true that a good play needs no epilogue: Yet to good wine they do use good bushes; and good plays prove the better by the

20 The reader feels some regret to take his leave of Jaques in this manner; and no less concern at not meeting with the faithful old Adam at the close. It is the more remarkable that Shakspeare should have forgotten him, because Lodge, in his novel, makes him captain of the king's guard.

21. It was formerly the general custom in England, as it is still in France and the Netherlands, to hang a bush of ivy at the door of

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