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successors.

The civil war in Switzerland is terminated I received it full and entire from my predecesby the complete overthrow of the Sonderbund. sors, so shall I transmit this sacred deposit to my After the capture of Fribourg, the Federal army

I have three millions of subjects as advanced against Lucerne, and after some

witnesses, and I have hitherto accomplished sharp fighting on the 22d and 23d of November, much to unite my subjects with me, and to asin which their superiority in artillery gave them certain and provide for their necessities. It was great advantage, this stronghold of the Son particularly to ascertain those wants and to proderbund was reduced, and the war virtually vice, that I have assembled a pernianent coun

vide better for the exigencies of the public ser• concluded. The number of the Federal troops cil. It was to hear your opinions, when necesengaged in the war was about 94,000, while sary, and to aid me in my sovereign resolutions, their opponents did not muster above one third in which I shall consult my conscience, and con. of that number. The Jesuits are entirely ex fer on them with the ministers and the Sacred pelled from Switzerland, and their establish- College. Anybody who would take any other ments and property forfeited. The cantons of view of the functions you are called to fulfil, the Sonderbund are to pay collectively and sep

would materially err, as well as they that would arately all the expenses of the war, to make

see, in the Council of State I have created, the good all damages done by their troops, and to

realization of their own Utopias, and the germ of pay the expenses of the occupation of the Fed

an institution incompatible with the Pontifical eral forces. The total cost of the war on the

sovereignty." side of the Federal government is estimated at

His holiness having pronounced these last 3,163,000f. and it is supposed the cost of oc

words with some vivacity and some heat, stop, cupation will be nearly two millions more. The result has created a great sensation in ped a moment, and then resuming in his usnal Austria, to which kingdom a considerable por

mild manner, continued in the following terms : tion of the Jesuits have retired. The proposed intervention of the great European powers was

“ This warmth, and these words are not ad

dressed to any of you whose social education, rendered abortive by the termination of hostili. Christian and civil probity, as well as the loy. ties. The canton of Neufchatel is in rather alty of your sentiments and the rectitude of an anomalous position. From 1707 to 1805, it your intentions, have been known to me since was a principality of the crown of Prussia. the moment I proceeded to your election. NeiIn the latter year it was ceded to France and ther do those words apply to the majority of my granted by Napoleon to Berthier, as a fief of subjects, for I am sure of their fidelity and their the French empire. In 1814 the king of obedience. I know that the hearts of my subPrussia resumed possession, and gave to Neuf- jects unite with mine in the love of order and of chatel a constitution, and it was, with his maj- persons (and though few, they still exist) who,

But there exist, unfortunately, some esty's consent, admitted into the Helvetic confederation ; without, however, any cession of volt, and even abuse the concessions made to

having nothing to lose, love disturbance and rethe rights of the king of Prussia. In the late them. It is to those that my words are ad. civil war, that canton, with the approbation of dressed, and let them well understand their sig. the king, decided on a strict neutrality, and his nification. In the co-operation of the Deputies majesty declared, in precise terms, to the Diet I see only the firm support of persons who, dethat every violation of this neutrality by the void of every personal interest, will labor with Diet would be regarded as a breach of the me, by their advice, for the public good, and who peace against himself. The Diet insisted that will not be arrested by the vain language of restNeufchatel, as a member of the confederacy, less men devoid of judgment. You will aid me

with your wisdom to discover that which is most was bound to furnish its contingent for the war, and has declared that it reserves to itself full happiness of my subjects."

useful for the security of the throne and the real liberty of action against the defaulting state. Thus between its loyal and conservative predi

The deputies were afterwards admitted to lections, and its Federal relations, Neufchatel pay their homage to the Pope, and, having reis in a most awkward dilemma. On the 15th of November the Pope on the expressed their intention of inquiring, among

ceived his benedictions, withdrew. They have throne, at the Quirinal, received the members others, into the following subjects : of the consulta, and, to an address from their President, replied in the following terms: “ As to an equal division of taxes; the dimi.

nution or suppression of all charges which fall “I thank you for your good intentions, and as on the poor classes, or which impede the develregards the public welfare, I esteem them of val. opment of national prosperity; the re-establish: ue. It was for the public good that since my el ment of public credit; the destruction of mo. evation to the Pontifical throne I have, in accord | nopoly, and the extension of commercial liberty ; ance with the councils inspired by God, accom. the introduction in the prisons of a regimen plished all that I could; and am still ready, with which may render the penalty not a punishment the assistance of God, to do all for the future, which degrades, but a measure which may pro. without, however, retrenching in any degree the mote the regeneration of the culprit; the ex: sovereignty of the Pontificate; and, inasmuch as tension throughout the provinces of the munici

pal system, such as it is at Rome ; and lastly, the | ukase which involves a great question of inadoption of a system of education and public in ternational law, having for its object to susstruction, and of a just and moral policy." pend the exercise of the right of fishing along

the coast of the Black Sea, from Anapa as far There is no news of importance from Spain as Batoumi, in order to prevent assistance to or Portugal, except that in the former the in- the Caucasus. By this measure the Emperor surgents appear to have been almost entirely appears to arrogate to himself an exclusive put down; and, in the latter, the elections have property in the Black Sea. greatly preponderated in favor of the Cabral Appalling accounts of famine have been party; the ministerial candidates at Lisbon hav. received from the Polish provinces of Austria. ing all been withdrawn, and those at Oporto de- Out of 328,611 inhabitants no less than 60,820 feated.

have died. The cholera has almost disappeared from Accounts from the East Indies show a state Constantinople, and is now so slight there as of unusual tranquillity, and in Bombay the to be little regarded. It still continues to greatest commercial confidence prevails. It is spread in Russia, but has lost its force in Mos- said that not a single house there has suspended

From the appearance of the disease up payment. to the 22d of November, the number of

persons

În a council of state of the united kingdoms attacked at the etter place was 2360, of who of Sweden and Norway, held on the 28th ult., 1097 died. It has made its appearance, but in the King ratified the treaty of commerce and a milder form, at Dunaburg, within forty miles navigation between China and those two kingof the Prussian frontier. The St. Petersburg doms. The treaty was signed at Canton, the Journal of the 18th of November, publishes an 20th of March last, by M. Lillienvalch, counimperial ukase for contracting a loan of sellor of commerce, on behalf of Sweden and 14,600,000 silver roubles, for the works of the Norway, and by the Imperial Commissioner KiSt. Petersburg and Moscow railroad. The

Yng, on the part of China. Emperor of Russia has lately published a

COW.

CRITICAL NOTICES.

Don Quixole de la Mancha. Translated from same minute observation and much of the same

the Spanish of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, vigor, but in comparison with Cervantes he by CHARLES JARVIS, Esq. Carefully revised writes like an old battered voyager. In Don and corrected, with Ilustrations, by Tony Quixote we find all that cool self-possession Johannot. In two volumes. Philadelphia : and confident reliance on the reader's creduLea and Blanchard. 1847.

lity that appears in Mrs. Veal's Ghost and the

History of the Plague, joined to the most This is a very respectable new edition of a hearty humor, the most unfailing vivacity, and book that can never grow old. The illustra- indeed, all qualities that make an overflowing tions, however, which are either the copies or bodily and mental health. In respect of the the worn-out originals of those given in a Paris bodily part, out of Cervantes, Shakspeare, John edition some years since, are not much to our Bunyan, De Foe and Sir Walter Scott, all good taste. Tony Johannot, the Leach of the French stomachic writers, any reader of delicate perillustrators, is hardly equal to the task of pro- ception would surely choose the former; Shakviding scenery for Cervantes; and to those speare's digestion was so good that he appears who have seen the elegant engravings of never to think of dining; Bunyan must have Smirke, these sketchy wood-cuts will possess had a powerful organ for solid viands; De Foe little attraction.

could 'relish the same dinners all the year The translation is by Jarvis, and it appears, round, with a few grapes of his own rearing; and probably is, more exact than that of Smol- Scott would have been tremendous at a venison let, though to those who were early accustomed pasty after a long ride; but to read Cervantes to that version it cannot but seem less spirited is of itself a cure for dyspepsia. The bodily and more artificial.

vigor is so apparent throughout his pages that Of all the books in the world there is none it is impossible to read without insensibly getexcept Shakspeare's plays so full of the vigor ting an appetite. of youth as Don Quixote. De Foe had the But the inental vigor, the liveliness of fancy,

the air of mirth that pervades the whole, the a woman noble and poor, like himself; recalled range of observation, a dozen lives all over one moment to letters by love, and exiled from Spain crowded into one, and so alive that it them the next by distress ; recompensed for his appears the writer has much ado to keep him- services and talents by the magnificent appointself within proper bounds—these are qualities ment of clerk to a viciualling board ; accused on in which he must rank far below Shakspeare, thrown into prison by the king's ministers, re

malversation with regard to the public money ; yet still at the head of all other prose writers.

leased after proving his innocence ; subsequently No one has manifested himself to the world again imprisoned by mutinous peasants; become with more of the spirit of youth and apparent a poet by profession, and a general agent; transignorance of care and sorrow.

acting, to gain a livelihood, negotiations by comYet Cervantes could not have been a heartless mission, and writing dramas for the theatre ; gay man of mere animal life. The preface to discovering, when more than fifty years of age, his first volume and the prologue to the second the true bent of his genius ; ignorant what patron bear the tone of reflection. Indeed, some of he could induce to accept of the dedication of his episodes show that he had as keen a per: book at which they condescended to laugh, but

bis work; finding the public indifferent to a ception of the pathetic as of the comic, and could have written a serious novel bad be finding also jealous rivals, by whom he was ridi

did not appreciate, and could not comprehend; chosen to do so. Charles Lamb calls him culed and defamed; pursued by want even to “the most consummate artist in the book way old age ; forgotten by the many, unknown to all, the world has ever produced.”. This was the and dying at last in solitude and poverty ; such, secret of his success; he had infinite nerve ; during his life and at his death, was Miguel de his hand was so steady nothing could shake it. Cervantes Saavedra. It was not till alter the When he had conceived what, if it were not lapse of two centuries that his admirers thought now an old story, we should all consider the of seeking for his cradle and his tomb; that they most whimsical fiction that ever was thought adorned with a medallion in marble the last of, and requiring the most delicate touches, he house in which he lived; that they raised a set himself to work it out with such marvellous

statue to his memory in the public square ; and

thal, effacing the cognomen of some obscure but ease, such glorious cool strength, as amount

more fortunate individual, his countrymen inalmost to the power of a great epic poet. He scribed at the corner of a little street in Madrid himself always maintains the most dignified that great name, the celebrity of which resounds gravity ; only by an occasional twinkle of the through the civilized world." eye does the reader see that his author, like an old story-teller, is enjoying the fun internally as much as he.

And all this was done by him in advancing The Poetical Works of John Milton; with a age, aster a life of adventures and misadven Memoir, and Critical Remarks on his Genius tures enough to have bowed any less resolute and Writings, by JAMES MONTGOMERY ; spirit, and in humble circumstances. How and one hundred und twenty Engravings from like a true gentleman does he put down the Drawings by WILLIAM Harvey. In two man who had not only anticipated him by volumes. Harper & Brothers. writing a second part to Don Quixote, but had gone out of his way to revile him. -- What I With the exception of the engravings, which cannot forbear resenting is, that he upbraids are common-place in design, and by no means me with my age, and with having lost my delicately executed, this is one of the most elehand, as if it were in my power to have hin- gant editions of Milton ever issued. dered time from passing over my head, or as if per is excellent, and the type so beautifully fair my injury had been got in some drunken quar- that an hour's reading seems rather to refresh rel at a tavern, and not on the noblest occasion the eyesight. Bound in cloth, and with gilt that past or present ages have seen, or future edges, these two volumes make as desirable a can ever hope to see.

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gift book as the season has produced, and one The introduction to this edition contains a which ought to be on every parlor table where memoir of Cervantes, from which the following there is not a Milton already. summary is worth extracting :

We cannot have the fathers of our literature

and poetry too much with us. Though the "Born of a family, honorable but poor; re number that read and relish Milton be few, yet ceiving in the first instance a liberal education, it is something to see him daily, and to feel the but thrown into domestic servitude by calamity; conservative influence of his presence : where page, valet de chambre, and afterwards soldier; he is there will continue still some esteem for Crippled at the battle of Lepanto ; distinguished learning, some reverence for sound thinking, at the capture of Tunis; taken by a Barbary corsair ; captive for five years in the slave-depots

some love of nobleness. Even where the only of Algiers; ransomed by public charity, after

use made of him is to dust him every morning every effort to effect his liberation by industry as he lies in gilt edges, with such companions and courage had been made in vain ; again a as the annuals and the Book of Beauty, the soldier in Portugal and the Azores; struck with I daily sight of his form will be like the presence

The pa

nature.

of a strong siding champion, so that Comus, are all marked by good sense, absence of Tennywho is the father of much of the light reading sonian and Transcendental affectation, and by of the hour, and his rabble of monsters, will an easy, natural and generally correct versifinot care approach.

cation. They cannot claim a high place for Mr Montgomery's preface, though not very depth of thought, power of passion, or strength profound, shows a true love of the poet, and of imagination, but it is refreshing to meet points out many of his excellencies very clearly. with a new bard, so unexceptionable in tone We are glad to learn that in his opinion the and sentiment, and with so loving an eye for poem of Comus • may claim the eulogium

The descriptive parts are generally which a critic of the purest taste, the late Dr. the best. The rhyme, Aiken, has passed upon it. IIe says : “The poem possesses great beauty of versification, “Drink, brothers! drink, brothers! let the goblet varying from the gayest Anacreontics to the go round,

Mankind ye have reddened with many a wound !" most majestic and sonorous heroics. On the whole, if an example were required of a work made up of the very essence of poetry, per

is not good. haps none of equal length in any language could be produced, answering this character in so bigh a degree as the Masque of Comus.'' This is truly admirable and satisfactory, and

A Tour to the River Saguenay, in Loirer Can

ada. By CHARLES LANMAN. Philadelphia : completely condenses and exhausts the whole subject.

Carey & Hart. 1818. There is an equally characteristic passage in Coleridge respecting Shakspeare and Milton, whether South Sea voyagers or summer tourists,

It ought to be an axiom with all travellers, which, for the instruction of youthful admirers that the first business of a describer of actual of what is commonly understood by genius, can never be too often quoted :

places and occurrences should be to give his

readers perfect confidence in his accuracy and “What shall we say? even this; that Shak- veracity. If they mix up fact and fiction, their speare, no mere child of nature ; no automaton writings can have neither the interest of tales, of genius; no passive vehicle of inspiration

nor of true narratives ; the acid and alkali neupossessed by the spirit, not possessing it; first tralize each other, and the result passes off in studied patiently, meditated deeply, understood a sudden gaseous effervescence. minutely, till knowledge, become habitual and in This little book is a very pleasant collection tuitive, wedded itself to his habitual feelings, of sketches, and will while away thirty or forty and at length gave birth to that stupendous pow. | minutes of time for one who is easily pleased er, by which he stands alone, with no equal or very agreeably. The author is good-humored second in his own class; to that power which and complacent. But why did he think it neseated him on one of the two glory-smitten sum

cessary to catch so many trout? Why need mits of the poetic mountains, with Milton as

he have killed rattlesnakes? We have been his compeer, not rival. While the former darts

in the hills of Catskill, have heard all Ethan himself forth, and passes into all the forms of human character and passion, the one Proteus of Crawford's bear stories, yea, have “ camped the fire and the food; the other attracts all out” a week together, and put ourselves to great forms and things to himself, into the unity of bodily inconvenience, in search of adventures, his own ideal. All things and modes of action but with such total failure of success that we shape themselves anew in the being of Milton; are hardened of heart, and will not believe that while Shakspeare becomes all things, yet for another can stumble upon them so readily. No ever remaining himself. O, what great men bast one can believe what contradicts his own exthou not produced, England, my country! Truly perience. indeed

But boys are a perpetual wonder to the “old ** We must be free or die, who speak the tongue folks." It is many years since we visited many Which SHAKSPEARE spake; the faith and morals of the scenes Mr. Lanman describes, and it

hold, Which Milton held. In everything we are sprung

may be that trout, rattlesnakes, pike, &c., may Of earth's first blood, have titles manifold. be more plenty now than they used to be. At

Wordsworth." all events we ought to consider charitably

the statements of a writer who has so much good feeling, and who, while he studies to

amuse the public, certainly does not, like some The Haunted Barque, and other Poems. By E. of the class, deliberately set himself to make it

Curtiss Hune. Auburn : J. C. Derby & Co.; New York, Mark H. Newman & Co. 1848.

Many of the pieces in this very neat little Teaching, a Science: the Teacher an Arlisi. By volume have considerable poetic merit, and they Rrv. BAYNARD R. HALL, A.M., Principal of

worse.

the Classical and Mathematical Instilute, New. • The difficulty in the way of the necessary burgh, and Author of " Something for Every brevity arises, in part, from the wish to make a body," foc. New York: Baker & Scribner. text-book for all sorts of schools at once If pri1848.

mary schools, academies and colleges could be,

either by compact or law, kept distinct, honest We have not had leisure to examine this

men could and would make suitable text-books. work longer than is necessary to discover that

But the insane spirit of an ultra-democratical it is written with force, ability and good sense

and abolition sentiment, is at war with distinc.

tions. It demands inexorably a dead level. It -qualities so obvious in it that it takes but

would have lands, houses, education, religion, very little time to discover them.

pleasure, all alike for the mass; and industry, The observations on the study of the classics

skill, and perseverance, that would naturally are worthy of remark. With a clear appre- place one above another, must be decried and ciation of the adaptedness of the old mode of insulted. It says nothing shall be special, pri. studying them to intellectual discipline, the au vate; everything shall be common, public. It thor is still of opinion that "if not used as a allows a community but not an individual. It is discipline, the dead languages should be wholly

as tyrannical, cruel and despotic as the most ababandoned as a school study.Perhaps, as ap

solute and barbarous monarchy; it will bend the plied to a mode of running over them in private

individual man to its will, or trample on all his luigh schools, this may be true; indeed, if they

sacred rights, sport with his tenderest feelings, are to be any more superficially taught than yea! stamp, with its iron heel upon a man's

very heart! · The people ! the people ! liberthey usually are in our colleges, we should be

ty! liberty ! is its watchword and cry; but it is disposed to assent to their abandonment as

the people as a mass, as an abstraction, as a soul. readily as he. Still any graduate who has been less body conventional, and liberty to live and many years in active life, knows whether he

act as a crowd! Individuals and individual libwould willingly be deprived of his “small Latin erties it abhors and destroys !" and less Greek,” and whether they have not contributed more largely to his happiness than he was, in the ignorance of his boyhood, accustomed to expect. For there is a certain refined beauty in the style of the classic authors

The Angler's Almanac for 1848. John J.

Brown & Co.: New-York. that is necessary to temper the dry Saxon strength; they are in writing what their cotemporaries were in sculpture-our best mod This is a good idea, and has been very well els-which we should study, not to imitate, but

carried out by the proprietors of the Angler's to enlarge our knowledge and educate our taste. Dépôt in Fulton street. The pamphlet before This, we apprehend, more than their intellect us contains a great variety of interesting and ual discipline, is a reason why we should en useful information, and is pleasingly illustrated deavor to know all we can of them, and why, with woodcuts representing the angler in the if we cannot have full galleries, we should en

enjoyment of his favorite pastime. The work deavor to possess such as we can obtain. Our is also neatly printed, and in every respect relegislators, we fancy, who should be familiar flects great credit upon the publishers as well with IIorace and Virgil, would be less liable to

as the editor. resort to the argumentum buculinum ; they could not, with the love of grace and propriety which such reading instils, suffer themselves to fall into coarseness: the Augustan polish would

TERRATA, have an effect upon their manners. On this account and many others, it is to be

In the number for January, page 19, nineteenth regretted that the study of the classics is more

line from bottom, for "such exceptions" read and more neglected in our colleges, and that

rule and exception : page 21, 12th line from top,

first paragraph, for • first” read last : 5th from of dry physical science usurping its place. top of same, for “ them” read three : 220 page,

The following paragraph deserves quoting 24 line from bottom, for “repetition” rcad for its suggestiveness :

refutation.

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