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for him this house near the Tower in which the king lodged at that time, for his greater safety, in the heart of the city.
Robert earl of Glocester, brother to the empress, being taken prisoner, was committed to the custody of William de Ipres, to be kept in the castle of Rochester; where he continued till king Stephen being also made prisoner, they were both exchanged.
When Henry II. assumed the government, this William and his adherents, apprehensive of the resentment of the new monarch, for the part they had taken against his succession, departed from the realm; but Henry, impelled by nobler motives, recalled them, and restored them to his favour and their possessions; and the family of De Ipres continued residents in the city of London for many years.
In the year 1377, the citizens were severely oppressed by the tyrannic measures of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster; he had attacked the magistracy and church, imprisoned William of Wickham bishop of Winchester, deposed the mayor and otherwise by arbitrary proceedings, excited the rage of the people; the lower classes of citizens were resolved to destroy him and his coadjutor Sir Henry Percy, whom he had lately appointed earl-marshal; fortunately for the duke, he and his companion had gone to dinner with John de Ipres, at his mansion in St. Thomas Apostles; of which the populace being ignorant, posted to the duke's palace of the Savoy. One of the duke's knights, upon seeing the tumult, basted to the city to apprize the duke of his danger; “ and after he had knocked and could not get in, he said to Haverland theporter,
• If thou love my lord and thy life, open the gate;' with which words he got entry, and with great fear he tells the duke, that without the gate were infinite numbers of armed men, and unless he took great heed, that day would be his last.' With which words, when the duke heard them, he leaped so hastily from his oysters, that he hurt both his legs against the form: wine was offered to bis oysters, but he would not drink for haste; he fied with his fellow Sir Henry Percy, no man following him, and entering the Thames, never stinted rowing until they came to a house near the manor of Kennington (besides Lambetb) where at that time the
princess * was, with the young prince, before whom he made his complaint. The princess having heard their talk, comforted them, promising that she would make a final end of all those matters.
“ The common people disappointed of their prey, returned to the Savoy palace, and being asked by a priest what they demanded, they answered, the persons of the duke and Percy, who had unjustly detained in prison Sir Peter de la Mere: the priest immediately replied, Sir Peter was a traitor,', which so incensed the mob, that, insisting on the priest being Sir Henry Percy, the marslial, in disguise, they dragged him forth, and knocked bim on the head."
During this tumult, William Courtenay, bishop of London, arrived at the Savoy, where, in a most pathetic speech, he exhorted them to forbearance, urging that it was the holy time of Lent, and promising that their grievances should be redressed; which so gained upon the minds of the populace, that they desisted, otherwise in all probability they would have razed the duke's palace to the ground.
The citizens very shortly after received a message from the princess dowager of Wales, persuading them to beg pardon of the duke for the outrages they had committed; which they, out of respect to her, consented to, at the same time begging she would use her influence to have Sir Peter de la Mere brought to a fair and legal trial.
The mayor and aldermen being apprehensive of the king's displeasure, resolved, if possible, to avert it; and accordingly, a number of the principal citizens waited on his majesty, but were kept back by the duke; at length he told them that the king was “ evil at his ease,” and that his sickness might be encreased, if he were moved to anger by their speech. But the citizens, whose chiefest man and speaker was John Philpot, answered the duke “ that they were not come by any means to augment the king's sickness, but ra. ther to mitigate his grief, that he might be strong to defend them. Moreover, they were charged not to communicate those matters which they had in commission from the city unto any other than unto their liege lord and king." Widow of Edward the Black Prince and her son, afterwards Richard II.
Having, contrary to the duke's inclinatión, obtained an audience of the king, they explained to his majesty,“ it had been published in parliament, as his will, that, contrary to their liberties, the mayor should be deposed, and a captain created : they declared themselves innocent of the late insura rection, protesting that they had done every thing in theit power to suppress the same, though they had unfortunately been unsuccessful in their endeavours."
The king told them “not to be uneasy; he had never meni tioned any resolutions to their disadvantage; and that so far from infringing their liberties, he most earnestly desired on all occasions to enlarge them."
The citizens, highly pleased with the behaviour of their monarch, returned to the city; where they were received by their brethren with every demonstration of joy, who most heartily congratulated them on their good success.
Though the mayor had very wisely taken every precaution to preserve the publie peace, he could not prevent a few se. ditious persons sticking up papers in different parts of the city, tending to inflame the minds of the populace against the duke of Lancaster; it therefore was judged necessary to pronounce the sentence of excommunication upon such per. sons as should, in future, presume to write or disperse any paper derogatory to the duke's character; and this was ac cordingly done by the bishop of Bangor, assisted by the mayor and aldermen.
Affairs remained in this situation till the dissolution of the parliament, when the resentment of the duke of Lancaster against the citizens began to be more apparent than ever ; for the mayor and aldermen being summoned to attend the king at Shene, near Richmond, they were severely reprimanded, and urged to ask pardon of the duke: but instead of so doing, they asserted their innocence, and promised to use their utmost endeavours to apprehend the offenders, and compel them to make a retaliation proportioned to their crimes.
This, however, was thought insufficient; whercupon the mayor and several of the aldermen were discharged from VOL. III. No. 57.
their offices, and others, more attached to the duke of Lan. caster, were appointed in their stead, by virtue of a writ which the king issued on the occasion.
The citizens being informed that the king lay at the point of death, they deputed several of the most eminent of their body to wait on prince Richard, who was then with his mo. ther at the palace of Kennington; when John Philpot, in the name of his fellow-citizens, acquainting the prince with the advices they had received of the king's extreme danger, besought his favour to the inhabitants of London, assured him of their readiness to devote their lives and fortunes to his service, and requested that he would come and reside among them.
There is no doubt but the citizens long perceived that the duke of Lancaster had designs upon the crown; and that for this purpose he had endeavoured to sow dissention between them and the young prince, the son of their beloved Edward, prince of Wales. The tyrannous exactions by the duke undoubtedly fomented Wat Tyler's rebellion, and ultimately his ambition set on foot the treason, which was accomplished by his son Henry, to the deprivation of the crown and life of his lawful sovereign.
Garlick Hill is divided from Bow LANE, by Basing Lane, on the west, and Turn-base Lane on the east, though now the latter name is involved in Basing Lane.
Bow LANE, was originally called CORDWAINER STREET, and when it was left by the Cordwainers, it was inhabited by dealers in hose, and thence called Hosier LANE; this trade also being interrupted by the residence of persons of different occupations, the street again changed to its present name, from the church of St. Mary le Bow.
On the east side of Bow Lane stands the parish church of
THIS church is called Aldermary, or Older Mary, on account of being the oldest church denominated St. Mary, and therefore of a very antient foundation. St. Mary le Bow was standing in the days of William the Conqueror; this church must therefore have been of more remote date. The building which was burnt by the fire in 1666, had its foundation laid hy Henry Keeble, grocer, mayor of London, in the year 1510, who also gave 10001. to finish it, with a steeple, which was not done in the year 1627. This worthy founder died in the year 1518, and was buried here.
- The present structure was built at the charge of Henry Rogers, Esq. who gave 50001. to the like pious use, as appears by the inscription in gold letters over the west door:
Ædes hæc Deo O. M. jam olim Sacra,
Integris quinq; Librarum millibus
Surrexit denuò multo magnificentior.
EDWARDS Rogers de Canington, Militis,