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It is a large and spacious Gothic edifice, supported by two rows of stone pillars. At the east end are several steps, which lead to a large platform, on which is placed a long table with seats against the wall, and forms round, for the use of the holy communion, and the windows on the side have painted on them in several places the word Jesus Temple. On the west end over the screen is a library thus inscribed, Ecclesia Londino Belgice, Bibliotheca, ertructa sumptibus Marie Dubois 1659. It contains several valuable manuscripts, among which are the letters of Calvin, Peter Martyr, and other foreign reformers.
Many persons of rank were interred in the church, from the opinion that the ground was more sanctified on account of the peculiarly religious lives of the possessors. A few only can be named here: Edmund Guy de Meric, earl of St. Paul. This nobleman was sent over by Charles VI. of France on a complimentary visit to Richard II. and his queen. He insinuated himself so greatly into the king's favour as to become a chief confidant; and it was by his advice that Richard was guilty of the murder of his uncle the duke of Gloucester. Lucie, wife of Edmund Holland, lord admiral, and one of the heirs and daughter of Barnabas lord of Milan.She left very considerable legacies to the church, and in particular to' the canons of our Lady de la Scala, at Milan, Richard Fitzalan, the great earl of Arundel, beheaded in 1397 on Tower Hill. John Vere earl of Oxford, a firm ad. herent to the house of Lancaster, beheaded by Edward IV. in 1463, at the same place, with his son and several others. Numbers of the barons who fell in the battle of Barnet, were also buried here. Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, the victim to the pride of cardinal Wolsey, * close this as his
place Dod in his Church History of England, vol. I, p. 165, informs us, that Wolsey, who longed to supplant his rival favourite, either from vanity or insolence, dipped his fingers in the bason which the duke had just before held to the king, while he washed his hands; upon which he poured the water into the cardinal's shoes. This so provoked the haughty prelare, that he threatened to sit upon his skirts; which menace occasioned his having no skirts to his coat, when he next appeared
place of rest. When the emperor Charles V. heard of the duke's execution, he exclaimed “ that a butcher's dog (meaning the cardinal, who was a butcher's son) had devoured the fattest buck (alluding to the name of Buckingham) in all England.” A number of other noble and eminent persons were buried here, a list of whom is given in Stow's Surver.
In the south-west corner of Winchester Street are the remains of
WINCHESTER HOUSE. The upper part of this fabric is more modern than the lower, yet appears in a decayed state; the old walls still retain their mullioned windows,* surrounded with quoins.Strong bars of iron are inserted in the bricks, which prevent the several parts of the building from separating. The whole is enclosed by a wall, and a large gateway. It was lately occupied by Mr. Le Souef, a merchant, and afterwards by a packer; many of similar professions have been the occupiers.
In London-Wall Street, opposite Little Winchester Street, stands the parish church of in the royal presence. The king asking him the reason of his singular appearance, he, with an air of pleasantry, told him, that it was only to disappoint the cardinal, by putting it out of his power to do as he had threatened. The pour duke was, however, some time after accused of treasonable practices, with a view of succeeding to the crown; in consequence of a prophecy of one Hopkins, a monk, who foretold that Henry should die without issue male. He was, of course, declared guilty, and executed on Tower Hill, May 17,1521, So that Wolsey succeeded too fatally in sitting u'on his shirt,
Moulions are the short upright posts that divide the several lights in window frames,
THE space appropriated for the church-yard to this structure is very contracted, and in the exact shape of a wedge, the north side of which is formed by buildings standing on the city wall, and the south by a raised wall and iron railing. The east end. is the broadest part, on the side of which is a very handsome house for the rector; the west point is within a few paces of the wall at the back of Bethlehem Hospital. The centre of this space is occupied by the church, built against the wall, and a narrow passage on the south side, which serves as a foot pavement for that side of the street.
The history of this church is enveloped in obscurity. The building is represented in Toms's print, 1736, to consist of two aisles, with pointed windows of two bays *, ornamented with trefoils at the east end. On the south side the windows were of the same description, but square. The tower was low, and boarded with timber along the south wall; and a projecting porch over the street, and exhibited a very poor exterior.
* Bay windows are such as, being composed of an arch of a circle, of consequence will stand without the stress of the building.
The church was probably built about the reign of Henry IV. In the year 1478, it was repaired, towards which "my lady Stockton” bestowed the sum of twenty shillings; it received another repair in the year 1627, which amounted to the sum of 2201. and it was again beautified in 1699.The height of that fabric was only twenty-one feet, and the tower fifty fect.
However, in spite of all these repairs, the church became so decayed, that in 1764, it seemed past all hope of further asa sistance, and Messrs. Holden and Ware, eminent surveyors, were employed to state their opinion; who declared that the walls were in a state of decay, and out of the perpendicular, owing to the moisture of the soil; the foundation of a new church was therefore fixed upon; an act of parliament was proeured, and the present structure erected by Mr. Joseph Tay: lor, from plans by Mr. Dance, at the expence of 29411.
The exterior of the church is constructed with brick, and has all the appearance of a riding house; having high walls and semi-circular windows on the sides of the building; the east end is a circular blank wall. At the west end is the only entrance for the congregation, under a handsome stone tower, surmounted by a light cupola supported by arches and pillars.
The inside is extremely simple; a plain wall, without eithet pillars or divisions. The object of attention, however, which decidedly arrests the beholder's notice, is the extreme richness of the east end, consisting of an arch adorned with a beautiful arrangement of stucco, directing the eye to the recess for the altar, which contains a picture of Ananias restoring St. Paul to sight. This painting is a copy from ani antient master, by Nathaniel Dance, Esq. president of the Royal Academy, and by him presented to the church. We do not take upon us to criticise minutely the excellence of paintings; nor ought it particularly to be done respecting this painting; therefore the appearance of a Benedictine father, holding a burning taper in the most conspicuous part of the picture, is not mentioned in derogation to the judge ment of the copyist; but certainly does no credit to the con. sistency of the original. The frame is elegantly carved and Vol. III. No. 51.
gilt, and a handsome curtain of green silk preserves the whole from injury. At the west end is a gallery in which is placed a small organ, erected by subscription.
Rector of eminence. William Beloe, an elegant poét, translator of the works of Herodotus, and Aulus Gellius; and one of the librarians of the British Museum.
In this precinct was formerly the residence of an anchorite ; for in the parochial annals is recorded that the “ ankers” were benefactors to the church. How changed, since the days of Henry VIII. in the year 1521, is this now populous parish! Mr. Malcolme, to whose work we are obliged for the notice of the anchorite, imagines that his dwelling might be formed under the city wall, between this church and St. Mary Axe; for from several circumstances it may be inferred that gardens and open spaces, rather than houses, faced the inner surface of the wall.
It may not be irrelevant to our subject, if we give a few hints for the information of our readers, concerning the origin and principles of this state of seclusion.
The word Anchorite is derived from the Greek A'vexwçut" (anachoretes), which implies living in seclusion and solitude. This was originally an act of necessity, when the first christians werc compelled to resort to mountains and forests to avoid the persecutions which followed them and their doctrines. Seclusion from human intercourse, however, in process of time, was resorted to from inclination; and devotees, taking for their warrant the promise in Isaiah, “ that the desart where nothing grew but thorns and thistles, should be converted into a most pleasant and delightful garden," and the text in the epistle to the Hebrews, ch. xi. v. 38, “Whom the world was not worthy of; they travelled in wil. dernesses and mountains, and dens, and caves of the earth ;" despised intercourse with their fellow crcatures, and lived to themselves alone.
The most famous of these were St. Anthony and Paul the Hermit, the extravagant history of whom is very fully recorded by father Ribadeneira, in his “ Lives of the Saints.” Novelty, aided by superstition, increased this class of