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devotees so amazingly, that there were few remote corners but exhibited its cell and its anchorite. In England are noticed the Hermit of Warkworth, the Hermit of Dale Abbey, and the Anker of Alhallows, London Wall, besides many others in this and the neighbouring counties. This, we conceive to be the most condemnable of all superstitious illu. sions; for the monks, &c. who were associated into communities, certainly were benefactors to their several neighbours; and they were esteemed, as they certainly deserved, the most learned and polished of ecclesiastical institutions; they clothed the naked, they instructed the ignorant, they afforded assistance to the sick, and abounded in other works of charity and benevolence, agreeably to the dispositions of those early and ignorant times; but the lives of anchorites, eremites, &c. were as fallacious, as uninteresting, as idle, and as selfish as the former were liberal and praise-worthy. The dissolution of the monastic orders was a circumstance, in some instances, regretted, though necessary; but the dispersion of anchorites and hermits was as useful to mankind, as the profession was obnoxious to society and the rational enjoyment of the blessings which Divine Providence constantly and freely dispersed.

To the west of this church, on the opposite side of the

way, stands


The entrance to this building is under a large and hand. some arch, adorned by four Corinthian pillars, a bust, and the arms of the company. Within this is an area, divided by iron railing, and intersected by gravelled walks, which are overhung by trees, and completed by grass plots.

The antient hall is rented as a carpet and rug warehouse; the front of this building consists of a neat Daric basement with arches, windows, and porticos at the east and west ends. On the basement is a rustic story, ornamented with cornices, pediments, &c. and the armorial bearings of the city and company.

The roof of this hall, originally of oak, has been disfigured by a stuccoed ceiling. Nine divisions of the old

D 2


castern windaw, with pointed tops, exhibit the arms of the company, and the names of the masters and wardens during the reigns of Charles I. and II. in coloured glass.

The present hall, is fronted in the Ionic stile, with a per diment and Venetian window; within this hall are the por traits of WILLIAM PORTINGTON, Esq. “ master carpenter in the office of his majesty's buildings; who served that place forty years, and departed this life the 28th of March, 1628, aged eighty-four years; who was a well-wisher of this society. This being the gift of Matthew Banks, who served him fourteen years, and is, at this present, master of the said company, August 13, !637.” Mr. Portington is described as an aged person, in a ruff, with one hand putting a compass upon a rule held by the other. Under the other picture is inscribed; " This picture of John Scot, Esq. carpenter and carriage maker to the office of ordnance, in the reign of king Charles II. was placed here by bis apprentice, Matthew Banks, Esq. master carpenter to his majesty, and master of this company, this present year, 1698." A table also is inscribed to the memory of “ RICHARD WIAT, Esq. thrice master of this company of carpenters, Annis Dom. 1604, 1605, 1616, and a good benefactar. thereunto. Among other gifts he gave 5001. to build an almshouse near Godalmin, in Surrey, for ten poor men, and 701. a year to maintain them; and his wife added some. thing for the company to go down and visit it.”

The Company of CARPENTERS were incorporated by letters patent, bearing date July 7, 1478, granted by Edward IV. by the name of “ Master, Wardens, and Commonalty of the Mystery of Freemen of the Carpentry of the City of London."

Sir William Staines, lord mavor of London in 1801, is a member of this company. This excellent magistrate will be further mentioned in our account of St. George's parish, Southwark.

The side of the street on which the hall stands, was for. merly called Currier's Row, on account of the residence of many persons of that profession.

The entrance to the Broker Row, Moorfields, is nearly facing Winchester Street. This forms the east, and part of the north side of a plat, formerly called The Quarters. These were part of a marsh in the time of Fitz Stephen, an historian of London in the reign of Henry II. His description of it is; " when that vast lake, which waters the walls of the city towards the north, is hard frozen, the youth in great numbers go and divert themselves on the ice; some taking a small run for an increment of velocity, place their feet at a proper distance, and are carried sliding sideways a great way. Others will make a large cake of ice, and seating one of their companions upon it, they take hold of one's hands and draw him along, when it happens, that moving swiftly on so slippery a plain, they all fall headlong. Others there are who are still more expert in thesc amusements on the ice; they place certain bones, the leg bones of animals, under the soles of their feet, by tying them round their ankles, and then taking a pole shod with iron into their hands, they push themselves forward by striking it against the ice, and are carried on with a velocity equal to the fiight of a bird, or a bolt discharged from a cross bow *."

In the year 1415, Thomas Falconer, mayor, caused the city wall to be broken near Coleman Street, and built a postern, afterwards called Moorgate, upon the Moor-side. This gate was erected for the ease of the citizens, to pass upon causeways into the fields for recreation. In the year 1511, Roger Achely, mayor, caused dykes and bridges to be made, and the ground to be levelled and inade more commodious for passage. The ground was afterwards raised, so that the dykes and bridges were covered ; " and it seemeth to me,” says Stow, “that if it be made level with the battlements of the city wall, yet will it be little the drier, such is the moorish nature of that ground." In 1605, during the mayoralty of Sir Leonard Halliday, this unhealthy spot was converted into pleasant walks, and planted with trees, encompassed with brick walls, and Fitz-Stephen, translated by the Rev. Mr. Pegge.

made benevolence Mamyahine of finde

made convenient by means of subterraneous channels for the conveyance of water to the city. The expence of this undertaking to the city was 5000l. Some of the trees are still standing ; but the quarters have been thrown into open ground, in the front of Bethlem Hospital, which has lately been appropriated for the exercise of volunteer corps belonging to the City

BETHLEM HOSPITAL, Ecra In the preceding volume, mention has been made conCoacer cerning the conversion of Old Bethlem Hospital into a re6.13

ceptacle for lunatics. It appears, according to Stow, that another hospital for lunatics subsisted in the parish of St. Martin in the Fields; but that a certain monarch disliking that persons under such unhappy circumstances should be so near the palace, caused them to be removed to Bethlem without Bishopsgate.

There is no doubt but that the city of London having felt great inconvenience from the want of a proper receptacle for those unhappy objects, who were afflicted by the most deplorable malady incident to the human frame, considered that the retired situation of the hospital of Bethlem, and its contiguity to the city pointed it out as a fit place for the desired purpose ; in the year 1523, Stephen Gennings, Merchant Taylor, gave forty pounds by will towards the purchase of this hospital, the mayor and commonalty taking steps to procure the purchase, a very short time before they derived their right to it from royal munificence.The revenues, however, were inadequate to the necessities which they were intended to remedy; for, within five years after the royal grant had passed, letters patent were issued to John Wbitehead, proctor to the hospital of Bethlem,

to solicit donations within the counties of Lincoln and Cambridge, the city of London, and the isle of Ely.”

In the infant state of this charity, no other provision was made for the unfortunate patient, besides confinement and medical relief. His friends, or the parish, were obliged to contribute to his support; 'and it remained for the judicious

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