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THE canonized prelate to whom this church is dedicated was bishop of Winchester, and afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. He was put to death by the Danes at Greenwich, on the 17th of April, 1014; soon after which a church was dedicated to his memory, near the wall by Cripplegate. At the Dissolution that fabric was pulled down, and converted to a carpenters' yard. The south aisle of the priory church belonging to Elsing-spital, was appropriated as the parish church of St. Alphage; the north aisle having been pulled down), and a frame of four houses set up in its stead. This structure escaped the fire of London, but had nothing to recommend it to notice.

In the year 1774, the church was declared to be in such a decayed and dangerous state, that a committee was appointed for rebuilding it. Mr. now Sir William, Staines, offered to take down the old fabric, and construct the new, for the sum of 13501. ; his offer was accepted, and the new church was opened in 1777. It consists of two fronts, one in Aldermanbury, the other facing London Wall; the former consists of a pediment, supported by pillars, a Venetian and other windows. The latter of a lofty pediment, supported by oval pillars; a plain window and door case. The interior is without pillars, and devoid of ornament. It is however very neat.

The only particular worth notice in the church is the monument of Sir Rowland Haywood, Clothworker, lord mayor of London, in 1570, and 1590, and a benefactor to the parish, on the north wall. VOL. III. No. 62,

His

His effigy is carved in a kneeling posture, with one wife and eight children in the same posture at his right hand, and his second wife and eight children at his left; and under the image of Sir Rowland, is the following inscription:

Here lyeth the Body of Sir Rowland Hayward, Kt twice Lord Mayor of this City of London; living an Alderman the space of 30 years, and at his Death the ancientest Alderman of the said City. He lived beloved of all good men, and died in great Credit and Reputation the 5th day of Dec. Ann. Dom. 1593, and the 36 year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lady Queen Elizabeth: He had 2 virtuous Wives, and by them many happy Children.

The arms of the Clothworkers company are under the figures.

The monument has this additional inscription :

“ On rebuilding this church, in 1777, this monument was repaired and beautified at the expence of the parish. Sir R. Hayward having been a liberal benefactor, this monument was again erected to perpetuate his memory." A tablet, on the same wall, is dedicated

To Benjamin Russell, common council man, 1715, aged 48, Mrs, Christian Russell, his widow, 1724. And Mr. William Molyneux, of Liverpool, her nephew, 1722, aged 38.

Mrs. Russell, surviving her husband, disposed of her estate to pious and charitable uses. To the repair of this church, 1001. To the charity-school, 201. To the corporation for the relief of clergy. men's widows, 1001. To the Wire-drawers company, a silver salver. 1001. to relieve poor widows. And to Bethlehem Hose pital, 501. Besides a great number of private charities. Grant them, O Lord, a blessed resurrection.”

Among the eminent ministers of St. Alphage, was THOMAJ DOOLITTLE, A, M. a native of Kidderminster. Mr. Richard Baxter, who thought him a promising youth, sent him to Pembroke Hall, in Cambridge; where he made such a proficiency in learning, as fully answered his expectation. Having succeeded Mr. Samuel Fawcett, in this living, in the year 1643, he continued till he was expelled for nonconformity in the year 1662, " a serious, useful, and awak. aning, preacher, and was very assiduous in catechising."

After

After his expulsion he kept a private academy in Monk. well Street, which afterwards rose to be, as it still con. tinues, a respectable meeting-house ; here he continued to preach, and trained up several ministers of considerable pote. He published books of practical divinity to almost the time of his death, which happened on the 24th of May, 1707. He is said to have built the first meeting, house in London, and to have been the last that survived of the ejected ministers. His “ Treatise on the Sacrament," has, perhaps, been oftener printed than any other book on that subject; and his “ Call to delaying Sinners," has gone through many editions. His funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Daniel Williams. At the eastern entrance to Addle Street, is

BREWERS' HALL. The entrance to this handsome structure is through a large paved court, with the front of the hall on the north side, composed of a rich basement approaching to the Tus. can order. The upper story of red brick.

The Hall Room has a square window, dated 1774, is bordered with ears of barley, inclosing the arms of Eng. land; of Richard Platt, Esq. benefactor, 1599 ; Henry, lord Willoughby, of Parham, twice master; an emblem of the branch of a fig tree, with red fruit, Dame Alice Owen, benefactress, 1614; and beneath, the arms of Samuel, lord Hawley, four times master.

The WITHDRAWING Room is ornamented by a large eastern window, in which are the arms of London, and of St. Thomas à Becket, impaling those of the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. Three oval windows on the north side, are also filled with painted glass,

On the south wall is an oval tablet, embellished with carved work, which declares, that " The right worshipful Sir Samuel Starling, knight, and alderman of London, a worthy member of the Brewer's Company, did wainscot this parlour in the year 1670; the said Sir Samuel Starling being then lord mayor of the city of London.”

In this room are the portraits of JAMES Hickson, Esq. in a scarlet gown and large ruff. RICHARD Platt, Esq. 1600, aged seventy-six. This gentleman, who was sheriff of London, founded a free grammar school and six almshouses for poor women, at Aldenham, Herts. "Dame ALICE OWEN, foundress of the school and almshouses at Islington, where we shall have occasion to make further mention of her. CHARLES I. and JAMES II.

The BREWERS COMPANY, were incorporated by Henry VI. in the year 1438, by the name of “ The Master, and Keepers or Wardens, and Commonaltv, of the Mystery or Art of Brewers of the City of London.” King Ed. ward IV. not only confirmed that charter ; but he granted them a further power, to make br-laws. They at that time bore the arms of St. Thomas à Becket, impaled with their own : but that saint's bones being taken up and burnt, and unsainted, by the powers in being, Clarencieux, king at arms, A. D. 1544, separated them, and gave the brewer's a crest in lieu thereof. It is now a livery company, governed by a master, three wardens, and a court of assistants.

It would exceed our limits to give a regular history of the London breweries, more especially as they have already been mentioned * ; but we think it necessary to put together a few notices for the illustration of this part of our subject :

During the reign of Henry VIII. the price of a quarter of

k. s. d. Wheat was

0 8 Malt from

45. to O 5 0 Oats Best hops per cwt.

0 6 In August 1806. Wheat

4 1 7 Malt

3 13 0 Oats

I 10 2 Farnham hops, per cwt.

8.00 Vol. II. page 1952

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In the beginning of king William's reign, the duty on strong beer or ale was lś. 3d. per barrel; on small beer, 3d. per barrel. The brewer then sold his brown ale for 165. per barrel, and the small beer, which was made from the same grains, at 63. per barrel. These were mostly carried from the brewhouse by the customers, and paid for with ready money ; so that the brewer entertained but few servants, fewer horses, and had no stock of ale or beer by him, but a trilling quantity of casks, and his money returned before he paid either his duty or his malt. The victualler then sold ale for 2d. per quart.

Soon after the wars with France, farther duties were imposed on this commodity ; in 1689, a tax of 9d. per barrel more was laid on strong, and 3d. per barrel on small; in 1690, the duty was advanced 2s. 3d. per barrel on strong beer, and 9d. per barrel on small; and in 1693, more duty was laid by 9d. per barrel on strong only.

At this period the brewer raised his price from 165. to 185. and 19s. per barrel, and the vietualler raised his price to 2. per quart.

In queen Anne's reign, during the French war, the malt tax, the duty on hops, and that on coals, took place; the duty on malt surpassing that on hops, the brewers endeavoured at a liquor wherein no more of malt and hops should be used. The drinking of Porter then became to be encouraged in preference to ale. This beer, when new, they sold for 22s. per barrel, and at the same time advanced their ale to 19s. and 20s. per barrel; but the people, not easily weaned from their heavy sweet drink. in general, drank ale inixed with beer from the victualler, at 2 d. to 2 d. per quart.

The gentry at this time residing in London, more than they had done in former times, introduced the pale ales, and the pale small beer, they were habituated to in the country ; and either engaged some of their friends, or the London brewers, to make for them these kinds of drink. Afluence and cleanliness promoted the delivery of them in the brewers own casks, and at his charge. Pale malt being

dearest,

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