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Opposite the north end of St. Peter's Hill is the handsome house built for the town residence of the late Sir Robert Ladbroke, alderman of Castle Baynard Ward, 1740; sheriff in 1744; lord mayor 1748 ; father of the city from 1758 to 1773, ayd a member in several parliaments.
In Thames Street, opposite this hill, stood BEAUMONT'S INN, belonging to the noble family of that name in the reign of Edward IV. Of whom John, in consideration of his own merit, and the many services of his ancestors, was raised to t?e dignity of viscount, by Henry VI. a title not till then used in England ; with precedence over all barons. In the twenty-third of the same reign he had a grant of place and precedence above all viscounts, thenceforth to be created; and to take place next the earls in all parliaments and public meetings. He was also knight of the Garter. Being slain at the battle of Northampton, fighting for the house of Lancaster, his son William, who was also Lord Bardolf, in right of his mother, succeeded. This nobleman adhering also to the Lancastrian party, as the benefactors of his family, participated in the hard fate of that unfortunate house, and was taken prisoner at the battle of Towton, and attainted in parliament. He recovered his title and dignities at the union of the two houses by Henry VII. On the attainder of this nobleman, Beaumont Inn was bestowed by Edward IV. on William, Lord Hastings, who appears in a prominent character in our tragedies; the paramour of the fair penitent Jane Shore, and was himself treacherously beheaded in the Tower, by order of Richard, duke of Gloucester; because by his loyalty he resisted Richard's traiterous designs to obtain the crown of England. From this nobleman the house became the inheritance of the noble family of Huntingdon, and was denominated HUNTINGDGN HOUSE.
Bennet's Hill. This steep street is famous for two eminent colleges.
VOL. III. No. 69.
THE COLLEGE OF ARMS, COMMONLY CALLED
THE HERALD'S OFFICE. This college was erected on the site of DERBY HOUSE ; so called on account of its being built by Thomas Stanley, first earl of Derby, and father-in-law to Henry VII. afterwards granted by Mary I. “ to Gilbert Dethick, Garter principal king at arms of Englishmen; Thomas Hauley, Clarencieux, king at arms of the south parts; William Harvy, alias Norroy, king at arms of the north parts; and the other heralds and pursuivants of arms, and to their successors, all the capital messuage or house, called Derby House, with the appurtenances, situate in the parishes of St. Bennet and St. Peter ; then being in the tenure of Sir Richard Sackville, knight, and lately parcel of the lands of Edward, earl of Derby, &c. To the end that the said kings at arms, heralds, and pursuivants of arms, and their successors, might, at their liking, dwell together; and at meet times to congregate, speak, confer, and agree among themselves, for the good government of their faculty, and their records might be more safely kept, &c. Dated the 18th day of July, 1551, Philip and Mary, the first and
The old building where this office was kept was de. stroyed by the fire in 1666; and, by the act for rebuilding the city, the present edifice was to have been begun in three years after. The estimate of the expence for building it amounted to 50001. but the corporation not being able to discharge that sum, petitioned Charles II. for a commission to receive the subscriptions of the nobility and gentry. This petition was referred to the commissioners for executing the office of earl-marshal; and, upon their report, was granted the 6th of December 1672. But the commission directing the money so collected to be paid to such persons, and laid out in such a manner as the earl marshal should appoint, so disgusted the officers, that it caused a coolness in them to promote the subscription; in conse-, quence of which, though they had reason to hope for large
contributions, little more than 5001. was raised. What sums were farther necessary, were made up out of the general fees and profits of the office, or by the contribution of particular members.
The north-west corner of this building was erected at the sole charge of Sir William Dugdale; and Sir Henry St. George, Clarencicux, gave the profits of some visitations, made by deputies appointed by him for that purpose, amounting to 5301. The houses on the east side, and southeast corner, were erected upon a building lease, agreeably to the original plan; by which means the whole was made one uniform quadrangular building as it now appears. It is a very handsome and well designed edifice; and the honow arch of the gateway is esteemed a great curiosity.
The college part of the building being finished in the month of November, 1683, the rooms were divided anongst the officers according to their degrees, by agreement between themselves, and afterwards confirmed by the earl marshad; which apartments have been ever since annexed to their respective offices. The inside of the apartments were finished at different times by the officers to whom they belonged.
The front of this building is ornamented with rustic, on which are placed four Ionic pilasters that support an angular pediment; the sides, which are conformable to this, haying arched pediments, which are also supported by Ionic pilasters. Within is a large room for keeping the Court of Honour; as also a library, with houses and apartments for the king's heralds and pursuivants.
This corporation consists of thirteen membess, viz. three kings at arms; six heralds at arms; and four pursuivants at arms. They are nominated by the earl marshal of England, as ministers subordinate to him in the execution of their offices, and hold their places by patent during their good behaviour. They are all the king's servants in ordinary; and therefore, in the vacancy of the office of earl marshal, have been sworn into their offices by the lord chamberlain.
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Though these officers are of great antiquity, little menstion is made of their titles or names before the time of Edward II. In his reign heraldry was in high esteem, as appears by the patents of the kings of arms, which refer to that period. Edward IIl. created the two provincials, by the titles of Clarencicus and Norroy: he also instituted Windsor and Chester beralds, and Bluemantle pursuivant; besides several others by foreign titles. From this time we find the officers of arms employed abroad and at home, both as military and civil officers: as military, with our kings ad generals in the army, carrying defiances, and making truces, or attending tils, tournaments, or duels: as civil officers, employed in negotiations, and attending our ambassadors in foreign courts : at home, waiting on the king at court and parliament, and directing all public ceremonies.
In the fifth year of the reign of Henry V. arms were regulated, soon after which that prince instituted the office of Garter King of Arms; and at a chapter of the kings and heralds, held at the siege of Rouen in Normandy on the 5th of January 1420, they formed themselves into a regular society, with a common seal, receiving Garter as their chief.
Their first charter of incorporation was granted by king Richard Ul. who assigned them the fair house of Sir John Poultney, forfeited to the crown, for their office and resi. dence. From this house they were ejected on the accession , of Henry VII. and could get no redress during his reign, or that of his successor. Edwird VI. however, made them ample amenils, and, by charter, in the third year of his reign, exemplified and confirmed unto them all their antient privileges. “ To be free and discharged from all subsidies, tolls, taxes, customs, impositions and demands; from watch and ward, and from the election to any office of mayor, sheriff, bailit, constable, scavenger, churchwarden, or any other public office, of what degree, nature, or condition wilusoever.” His majesty also designed to grant them Derby Place, and the necessary deeds were making out,
when death deprived this monarch of that honour which was left to be fulfilled by his successor queen Mary, who not only incorporated them again, but also granted them the messuage or house aborementioned.
Their meetings are termed chapters, which they hold the first Thursday in every month, or oftener if necessary, wherein all matters are determined by a majority of voices of the kings and heralds, each king having two voices.
The kings are GARTER, CLARENCEUX, and NORROY. GARTER was instituted by king Henry V. in the year 1417, for the service of the most noble order of the GARTER; and, for the diguity of that order, he was made sovereign, within the office of arms, over all the other officers, subject to the crown of England, by the name of Garter, king of arms of England. By the conftitution of his office he must be a native of England, and a gentleman bearing arms, To him belongs the correction of arms, and all ensigns of arms usurped or borne unjustly; and the power of granting arms to deserving persons, and supporters to the nobility and knights of the Bath. It is likewise his office to go next before the sword in solemu procession, none interposing except the marshal; to administer the oath to all the officers of arms; to have a habit like the register of the order; with baron's service in the court, and lodgings in Windsor castle; he bears his white rod; with a banner of the ensigns of the order thereon, before the suvereign: when any lord enters the parliament chamber, it is his post to assign him his place, according to his dignity and degree; to carry the ensigns of the order to foreign princes, and to do, or procure to be done, what the sovereign shall enjoin relating to the order; for the execution of which he has a salary of 1001. a year, payable at the Exchequer; and 1001. more out of the revenue of the order; besides his fees.
The others are called provincial kings, and their provinces together comprise the whole kingdom of England ; that of CLARENCEUX comprehending all to the south of the river Trent, and that of Norroy allto the north of that river;