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but, though these provincials have existed time immemorial, they were not constituted to their offices by those titles till the reign of Edward III.

CLARENCEUX is thus named from the duke of Clarence, the third son of king Edward III. It is his duty, according to his commission, to visit his province, to survey the arms of all persons, &c, and to register their descents, mar. riages, &c. to marshal the funerals of all persons within his province not under the direction of Garter; and in his province to grant arms, with the consent of the earl marshal. Before the institution of Garter, he was the principal officer of arms, and, in the vacancy of Garter, he executes his office. Exclusive of his fees he has a salary from the Exchequer of 401. per annum.

The duty and office of Norror, or North Roy, that is, North king, is the same on the north of the Trent as that of Clarenceux on the south.

The kings of arms were formerly created by the sovereign with great solemnity, upon some high festival ; but, since the ceremonies used at the creation of peers have been laid aside, the kings of arms have been created by the earl marshal, by virtue of the sovereign's warrant. Upon this occasion he takes his oath; wine is poured upon his head out of a gilt cup, with a cover; his title is pronounced ; and he invested with a tabard, or mantle of the royal arms richly embroidered upon velvet; a collar of SS. with two portcullices of silver gilt; a gold chain, with a badge of his office; and the earl marshal places on his head the crown of a king of arms, which formerly resembled a ducal coronet ; but, since the Restoration, it has been adorned with leaves resembling those of the oak, and circumscribed, according to antient custom, with the words, Miserere mei Deus secundum magnam misericordiam tuam. Garter has also a mantle of crimson satin, as an officer of the order; with a white rod or scepter, with the sovereign's arms on the top, which he bears in the presence of the sovereign; and he is sworn in a chapter of the Garter, the sovereign investing him with the ensigns of his office.



The kings of arms are distinguished from each other by their respective badges, which they may wear at at all times, either in a gold chain or a ribbon, Garter's being blue, and the provincials purple *.

The six heralds are Windsor, Chester, Lancaster, Somers set, York, and Richmond; who take place according to seniority in office. They are created with the same ceremonies as the kings, taking the oath of an herald, and are invested with a tabard of the royal arms, embroidered upon satin, not so rich as the kings, but better than the pursuivants, and a silver collar of SS. They are esquires by creation, and have a salary of 261. 13s. 4d. per annum, and fees according to their degree.

The kings and heralds are sworn upon a sword as well as the book, to show that they are military as well as civil officers.

The four pursuivants, who are, Rougecroir, Bluemantle, Rougedragon, and Portcullis, are also created by the earl marshal, when they take their oath of a pursuivant, and are invested with a tabard of the royal arms upon damask. They have a salary of twenty pounds a year, with fees according to their degree. It is the duty of the heralds and pursuivants to attend in the public office, one of each class together, by a monthly rotation.

Besides these particular duties of the several classes, it is the general duties both of the kings, heralds, and pursuivants, to attend his majesty at the House of Peers, and, upon certain high festivals, to the Chapel Royal; to make proclamations, to marshal the proceedings at all public processions ; to attend the installation of the knights of the Garter, &c.

All these officers have apartments in the college, annexed to their respective offices. They have likewise a public hall, in which is a court for the earl marshal, where courts of chivalry are occasionally held, and the officers of

* In the twenty-sixth year of the reign of queen Elizabeth, one Daukins, for usurping the office of a king of arms, was whipped, pilJoried, and deprived of his ears.


arms attend in their tabards, the earl marshal being presenti Their public library contains a large and valuable collection of original records of the pedigrees and arms of families; funeral certificates of the nobility, and other evidences of a similar nature.

Higher up the hill near Paul's Chain, was the Paul's Head Tavern, which with the appurtenances had been antiently St. Paul's Brewhouse. In the thirty-eighth of Henry III. one William Hilary, watched the going out of John de Codington, clerk, being then in Rracina Sri. Pauli in Warda Barnard Castle. When the said John was gone out, presently the said William made an insult upon him. And, as à clerk convict, he was delivered to the bishop." This clerk, it seems, had fled thither for sanctuary; so that ihe very brewhouses belonging to religious foundations were deemed sanctuaries!

On the opposite side of the street was a large old build. ing, called St. Paul's Bakehouse, on account of being employed for that purpose by the officers of the cathedral.

Crossing Knight Rider Street, of which an account has *already been given, the next object of attention is

DOCTORS' COMMONS. This is a college for such as study and practice the civil law, and decide causes within its own limits. The addition of Commons is taken from the manner in which the civi. lians diet here, commoning together, as is practised in universities. The original foundation of this place arose from a public-spirited and learned divine, Dr. Henry Harvey, LL. D. master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, prebendary of Ely, &c. who purchased and fitted up the building for civilians and canonists, being then an old stone structure belonging to St. Paul's cathedral, but leased out to Lord Mountjoy. Before this period the doctors, &c. were lodged in a mean and contracted house near Paternoster Row, :which had been the residence of one of the canons residena tiaries of St. Paul's; and after its entire desertion by the

members of the church, was converted to the Queen's Arms stavern, as it still continues.


The causes cognizable in Doctors' Commons are, blaspahemy, apostacy from Christianity, heresy, schism, ordimations, institutions of clerks to benefices, celebration of divine service, matrimony, divorces, bastardy, tythes, oblations, obventions, mortmains, dilapidations, reparation of churches, probate of wills, administrations, simony, incests, fornications, adulteries, solicitation of chastity, pensions, procurations, commutation of penance, right of

pews, &c.

There are also several offices and courts kept here, viz. The registry of the archbishop of Canterbury, and the registry of the bishop of London. In which are recorded all wills, and other matters done in the ecclesiastical courts. of those sees. To which every one may have recourse, by paying an easy fee.

The Court of Arches has the pre-eminence of the rest, as being the highest court under the jurisdiction of the arch, bishop of Canterbury; taking its name of distinction from Bow Church, which church originally was built upon arches, and in which this court first sat for the dispatch of business. The judge of this court is stiled The Dean of the Arches, because he holds a jurisdiction over a deanery in London, consisting of thirteen parishes, exempt from the jurisdiction of the bishop of London. Under this judge there is a register or examiner, an actuary,'a beadle or crier, and an apparitor ; besides advocates and procurators or proctors. To this court lie all appeals in ecclesiastical matters within the province of Canterbury.

The Prerogative Court belongs also to the archbishop, and is established for the trial of civil causes: where, if the deceased has left goods, to the value of 51. out of the diocese; and being of the diocese of London, to the value of 101. the will is to be proved, and administration to be taken: here also the cause is to be debated and determined, when any contention grows touching such wills and administrations. In this court is a judge, stiled Juder Curie Prerogativæ Cantuariensis; a register, in whose office are Vol. UI. No, 69.

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deposited all original wills: and under him are a deputy and several clerks. This register office stands a little to the westward, behind the houses in the same street.

The Court of Faculties and Dispensations; empowers any one to do that which in law he could not otherwise do, viz. To marry without the publication of banns; to succeed a father in an ecclesiastical benefice; to hold two or more benefices, incompatible, &c. agreeable to an act of parJiament, passed 25 Hen. VIII. c. 21. The chief officer of this court is stiled Magister ad Facultates; under whom is a register and his clerks.

The Court of Admiralty, erected in the reign of king Edward III. and in former times kept in Southwark. This court belongs to the lord high admiral of England, and takes cognizance of the death or maihem of any person murdered on the high seas. Here also are cognizable all matters relating to seamens wages, &c. The judge of this court must be a civilian, and is called Supremæ Curiæ Admiralitatis Anglia Locum Tenens Juder; under whom is a register, and a marshal, who carries a silver oar before the judge ; besides an advocate and proctor. This court is held in the hall of Doctors Commons, where the other civil courts are kept; except in the trial of pirates, and crimes committed at sea ; on which causes the Admiralty Court sits at the sessions house in the Old Bailey.

To these may be added the Court of Delegates. In this court appeals lie from any of the former courts : whose sentence or decree is generally deemed to be final. But the king has it in his power to grant a commission of review under the broad seal, for the delegates to consider and judge again, what has been decreed in the court of delegates.

The practitioners in these courts are Advocates and Proctors.

The Advocates are doctors of the civil law, and are retained as counsellors or pleaders. To which practice they are admitted by a fiat from the archbishop, and then by the judge of the court, who assigns each advocate his place or seat in the court, which he is always to keep, when he


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