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pleads. If the judge and advocates be of Oxford, they, in court, wear scarlet robes and hoods lined with taffata ; but if they be of Cambridge, they wear white meniver and round black velvet caps.
The Proctors, otherwise Procurators, exhibit their proxies for their clients, and make themselves parties for them, and draw up and give pleas, or libels and allegations in their behalf; produce witnesses, prepare causes for sentence, and attend the advocates with the proceedings. They cannot act without the archbishop's fiat. And they wear black robes and hoods, lined with fur.
The terms, or times for pleading and ending of causes in the civil courts, differ very little from the term times of the common law. The court of arches sits first in the morning. The court of admiralty sits in the afternoon of the same day: and the prerogative court always sits in the afternoon.
To this account of Doctors Commons, we must add its library, which is a spacious room, well stocked with books, especially in civil law and history. Sir John Gibson, knight, chancellor to archbishop Grindal, and judge of the Prerogative Court, ancestor to James Gibson, Esq. town clerk of the city of London, gave his whole library for the use of the college; and the library, since his time, has been in a constant state of increase from the circumstance that every archbishop and bishop at their confirmation, present 201. and upwards for the purpose of buying books for this library.
The present college was built upon the ruins of the house given by Dr. Harvey, and burnt down in the general conflagration in 1666 : on which occasion the business of the institution was transferred to, and carried on at Exeter Change, in the Strand, till the new college was finished in a more convenient and elegant manner.
The site of the college, as originally belonging to the church of St. Paul, was conveyed by the dean and chapter to the civilians in 1783, and they vested the freehold and fee simple of Doctors' Commons in that body for 1051. per annum, clear of all taxes.
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Adjoining to the gate of this college on Bennet's Hill, was the CAMERA DIANÆ, of which we have made mention in the preceding part of this work *. At the bottom of this hill is situated the parish church of ST. BENEDICT, VULGARLY ST. BENNET,
THIS church in 1181, belonged to the canons of St. Paul's, and paid a rent to them of two marks, by the hand of Richard Chamberlain ; to the syndols twelve-pence, to the archdeacon twelve-pence, and had a cemetery.
It was consumed by the late fire in 1666; and again reedified and finished in the year 1682; built of brick and stone, the outsides having the ornament of several festoons carved in stone, round the church.
It is of the Corinthian order, the roof within is quadrangular, being supported by four pillars and seven pilasters, with their architrave, frieze and cantaliever cornice.
It is enriched with fret-work; well wainscoted eight feet high; on the north and west sides are galleries handsomely carved ; and the pews are of oak.
The altar-piece is lofty. Between the upper part of the Commandments is a seraph; and on each side a cherub;
* Voll. p. 28.
over the seraph on a facia is the word Jehovah in Hebrew characters in a glory, and above that upon the cornice a shield gilt, compartment and festoon ; the frieze is also well carved ; and over the arched pediment upon acroters are four spacious lamps, between which are the arms of England in relievo, and over them a smaller arched pediment, neatly carved.
Westward is a curious marble font, adorned with cherubims; and northward a very ornamental door-case, enriched with shield, compartment, festoon, cherubims, &c.
The length of the body of the church within is fifty-four feet, breadth fifty, height thirty-six ; and the steeple, which is of brick and stone, consists of a tower, dome and turret, the altitude of which is one hundred and eighteen feet.
The PRINCIPAL MONUMENTs are as follow:
A white marble monument on the south side of the church, with a bust, to the memory of Sir Robert Wyse. MAN, knight and baronet, seventh son of Sir Thomas Wyseman of Rivenal, in the county of Essex. king's advocate, dean of the arches, and vicar general to the archbishop of Canterbury, in the reign of Charles II.
A black marble convex shield, with a fine compartment of white marble, adorned with urn, voluta, and three cherubims, to the memory of STEPHEN BRICE, LL.D. of Whitney Park, advocate in Doctor's Commons, a very learned civilian, who died in 1688.
A tablet of white marble over the pew appropriated for the College of Arms, with the following inscription:
Sacred to the memory of John Charles Brooke, Esq. Somerset Herald; secretary to the Earl Marshal of England, and F.S.A. A descendant from the respectable family of Brooke, of Dodworth, in the county of York, and a person of unrivalled eminence in this antient and useful profession. When we are told that this valuable man to a moral and pious disposition united a most cheerful and lively humour; that, with a mind to comprehend, a judgment to select, and a memory to retain, every sort of useful and agreeable information, he was blessed with a temper calm, unassuming, and inofensive; that he lived in a strict intimacy with persons of the highest rank, and of the first literary character, without the smallest tincture of vanity; above all, that he enjoyed, with a happy constitution of body, an uncommon prosperity in worldly affairs; let us, instead of envying the possession, reflect on the awful uncertainty of those sublunary blessings; for, alas! he was in a moment bereaved of them, in the dreadful calamity which happened at the theatre in New Haymarket, on the 3d of February 1794, in the forty-sixth year of his age.
A fine large black marble tomb-stone in the church-yard, close to the north side of the church, to the memory of Sir RIGHARD LLOYD, knight, and LL. D. born in Shropshire, fellow of the college of All Souls, Oxon, official of the Court of Admiralty, and chancellor of the dioceses of Durham and Llandaff; who died June 28, 1686, aged fifty-two.
Lord Orford, in his “ Anecdotes of Painting," writes, that INIGO JONES was buried in this church..
The situation and conveniencies of St. Bennet's, formerly recommended it so much to those, who were either in a hurry to marry, or chose to keep their marriage private or concealed, that the fees, before the commencement of the Marriage Act, for marriages only, exceeded most of the livings in and about London; the reverend Mr. Cook, rector, having married, from the year 1708 to 1731, no less than thirteen thousand four handred and twenty-three couple.
RectorS OF EMINENCE. Dr. SAMUEL CLARK, afterwards rector of St. James, Westminster, an excellent divine, and an eminent writer.
John Thomas, S. T. P. afterwards bishop of Salisbury.
* This shocking accident was occasioned by the pressure of the crowd to sce the royal family, who had commanded a play at this theatre. Those who were unfortunately near the entrance of the pit door, were driven to the brink of a steep flight of steps, close to the door : several immediately fell, and others were precipitated over them; the consequence was the deaths of fifteen persons; besides other serious injuries by suffocation and bruises. Among the principal sufferers, besides Mr. Brooke, were Benjamin Pingo, Esq. York herald; and Capt. Pigot, of the navy. 5
Westward of Paul's WHARF was a structure, denominated Scroops's Inn, being the town residence of that noble family during the reign of Henry VI.
Near that was another mansion belonging to the alien abbey of Fiscampe; during the wars of Edward III. that monarch seized it into his own hands, and bestowed it on Sir Thomas Burley, knight of the Garter, of whom we have made mention *. From him it received the name of BURLEY House.
But the principal structure remarkable in this part of the city in antient times, was
BAYNARD'S CASTLE. This structure, whence the whole ward or aldermanty takes its name, was one of the two castles built on the west end of the city, with walls and ramparts, as mentioned by Fitz-Stephen. It received its denomination from Ralph Baynard, a follower of William I. who at the general survey possessed many other lordships in England. His descendant Henry Baynard +, taking part with Helias, earl of Mayne, who endeavoured to rob Henry I. of his Norman possessions, that monarch confiscated Baynard's lordships, and deprived him of his barony, which he bestowed on Robert Fitz-Richard, grandson of Gilbert, earl of Clare, steward and cupbearer to king Henry, who gave to him also the barony of Dunmow, in Essex. His son Walter, adhered to William de Longchamp, bishop of Ely, against John, earl of Moreton, brother of Richard I. Robert Fitz-Walter, bis son, in the fourteenth year of the reign of John, had a beautiful daughter named Matilda, of whom the king be. came violently enamoured, and used every means in his power to ruin her chastity ; but finding the daughter and her father too virtuous for his purpose, rage and vengeance succeeded, Fitz-Walter was accused of being a confederate with the discontented barons; and John would have secured him, but Fitz-Walter escaped the danger by retiring to France, on which the king charged him with treason and See Vol. I, p.157. + Stow calls him William. Annals.