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rebellion, and demolished this castle* John afterwards tes stored bim to his barony, gave him liberty to repair his castles, and appointed him governor of the castle at Hertford; the inhuman monarch however, finding he could not accomplish his purpose, is said to have dispatched the young lady by poison. The ill-treatment thus received, and the criminal conduct of the king, induced Fitz-Walter to join the barons, and he was the chief of the twenty-five who were appointed for the government of the kingdom; the king afterwards refusing the servile conditions to which they had limited him, the barons raised an army, of which that nobleman was appointed general, and he was stiled the Marshal of the army of God and the Church.” He af. terwards accompanied the Crusades to the Holy Land, and was present at the famous siege of Damietta. He died 19 Henry III. leaving his son Walter, and Christian married to William de Mandeville, earl of Essex. Walter FitzWalter bad summons to attend Henry III. in the forty-third year of his reign, at Chester, to repel the incursions of the Welch. His son Robert was knighted by Edward I. and an active subject in assisting the king in his wars, against the Welch and Scots. This family continued in high ho. nour and reputation till the reign of Henry VI. when the male branch having ceased, Anne, the daughter and heiress, married into the Ratcliffe family, in which the title of FitzWalter was revived.

This family, in right of the castle, held the office of Castellan and standard bearer of the city of London. The following is a curious declaration of the rights appertaining to the office, exhibited in the person of the above Robert Fitz-Walter, in 1303, before John Blonden or Blunt, custos of the city of London :

The said Robert and his heirs ought to be and are chief ban. ners of London, in fee for the castelary, which he and his ancestors had by Castle Baynard in the said city. In time of war the said Robert and his heirs oug!t to serve the city in nianner as followeth : that is, • See Vol. I. p. 66.

" The

“ The said Robert ought to come, he being the twentieth man of arms, on horseback, covered with cloth or armour, unto the great west door of St. Paul's, with his banner displayed before him of his arms. And, when he is come to the said door, mounted and apparelled as before is said, the mayor, with his aldermen and sheriffs, armed in their arms, shall come out of the said church of St. Paul unto the said door, with a banner in his hand, all on foot; which banner shall be gules, the image of St. Paul, gold; the face, hands, feet, and sword, of silver: and as soon as the said Robert shall see the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs, come on foot out of the church, armed with such a banner; he shall alight from his horse and salute the mayor, and say to him, Sir mayor, I am come to do my serrice which I owe to the city.

" And the mayor and aldermen shall answer, We give to you, as to our banneret of fee in this city, the banner of this city, to bear and govern the honour of this city to your power.

“ And the said Robert and his heirs shall receive the banner in his hands, and go on foot out of the gate, with the banner in his hands; and the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs, shall follow to the door, and shall bring an horse to the said Robert, worth 201. which horse shall be saddled with a saddle of the arms of the said Robert, and shall be covered with sindals of the said arms,

“ Also they shall present to him 201. sterling, and deliver it the chamberlain of the said Robert, for his expences that day. Then the said Robert shall mount upon the horse which the mayor presented to him, with the banner in his hand; and, as soon as he is up, he shall say to the mayor, that he must cause a marshal to be chosen for the host, one of the city ; 'which being done, the said Robert shall command the mayor and burgesses of the city to warn the commons to assemble, and all go under the banner of St. Paul; and the said Robert shall bear it himself to Aldgate, and there the said Robert and mayor shall deliver the said banner of St. Paul to whom they think proper. And, if they are to go out of the city, then the said Robert ought to chuse two out of every ward, the most sage persons, to look to the keeping of the city after they are gone out. And this counsel shall be taken in the priory of the Trinity near Aldgate. And before every town or castle which the host of London shall besicge, if the siege continue a whole year, the said Robert shall have, for every siege, of the commonalty of London, one hundred shillings, and no more.” Vol. III. No. 70,



The rights belonging to him and his heirs in the city of London, in time of peace, were as follow:

“ That is to say, the said Robert Fitz-Walter had a soke or ward in the city, where was a wall of the canonry of St. Paul, which led down, by a brewhouse of St. Paul, to the Thames, and so to the side of the mill which was in the water coming down from Fleet Bridge, and went by London Wall betwixt the friars preachers and Ludgate, and so returned by the house of the said friars to the wall of the canonry of St. Paul; that is all the parish of St. Andrew, which was in the gift of his ancestors by the said seniority; and so the said Robert had appendant unto the said soke all the things underwritten :

“ That he ought to have a sokeman, and to place what sokeman he will, so he be of the sokemanry, or the same ward: and if any of the sok emanry be impleaded in the Guildhall of any thing that toucheth not the body of the mayor that for the time is, or that toucheth the body of no sheriff, it is not lawful for the sokeman of the sokemanry of the said Robert Fitz-Walter to demand a court of the said Robert; and the mayor and his citizens of London ought to grant him to have a court; and in his court he ought to bring his judgments, as is assented and agreed upon in the Guild. hall, that shall be given him.

If any therefore be taken in sokemanry, he ought to have his stocks and imprisonment in his soken; and he shall be brought from thence to the Guildhall before the mayor, and there they shall provide him his judgment that ought to be given of him; but his judg. ment shall not be published till he come into the court of the said Robert, and in his liberty.

" And the judgment shall be such, that, if he have deserved death by treason, he to be tied to a post in the Thames, at a good wharf, where boats are fastened, two ebbings and two flowings of the water.

“ And if he be condemned for a common thief, he ought to be led to the elms, and there suffer his judgment as other thieves, And so the said Robert and his heirs hath honour, that he holdeth a great franchise within the city, that the mayor of the city and citizens are bound to do him right; that is to say, that, when the mayor will hold a great council, he ought to call the said Robert and his heirs to be with him in council of the city ; end the said


Robert ought to be sworn to be of council with the city against all people, saving the king and his heirs. And when the said Robert cometh to the hustings of the Guildhall of the city, the mayor, or his lieutenant, ought to rise against him, and set him down near unto him; and so long as he is in the Guildhall, all the judgments ought to be given by his mouth, according to the record of the recorders of the said Guildhall: and so many waifes as come so long as he is there, he ought to give them to the bailiffs of the town, or to whom he will, by the council of the mayor of the city."

It is not ascertained how this castle came into the hands of the crown; but upon its being consumed by fire in the year 1428, it was rebuilt by Humphrey, duke of Gloucester. On his death it was granted by Henry VI. to his cousin Richard, duke of York, who lodged here during the convention of the great men of the kingdom preparatory to the dreadful civil wars which followed. The attendance of the duke on this occasion, besides his noble partizans with their warlike suites, amounted to a train of four hundred men.

In Baynard Castle, his son Edward, duke of York, assumed the name and dignity of king in 1460, which was confirmed by a number of his dignified adherents, after it had been first conferred by a mixed, tumultuary multitude.

Richard III. assumed the same dignities in this place. Here it was that he was waited on by his creature Buck. ingham; and here the hypocrite seemed reluctantly to receive what he had waded through the blood of his relatives to obtain. The scene is inimitably painted by SHAKESPERE.

The castle was substantially repaired by Henry VII. who changed it from a fortress to a palace. He often resided here, and hence made several of his solemn processions; and in 1505, lodged Philip of Austria, king of Castile, who was driven to England by a tempest.

It was the residence of Sir William Sydney, chamberlain and steward to Edward VI. And in this place the gloomy, superstitious Mary, maintained her right to the crown of England; and hence her partizans issued to proclaim her Oo 2


title. The castle at this time was the residence and pro perty of William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, a particular favourite of that sovereign.

Queen Elizabeth did this earl the honour to sup with him; after which she went on the water to shew herself to her subjects. Her barge was instantly surrounded by boats; whilst acclamations, music, fireworks, and every testimony of joy was exhibited to testify to their sovereign the happiness her subjects felt at the sight of the mother of her people. “ Early hours were then the fashion, for, though this scene was exhibited on the 25th of April, the queen retired to her palace at ten o'clock."

The last inhabitants were the earls of Shrewsbury, and their families, who resided in it till it was burnt in 1666.

Adjoining Baynard's Castle was a tower, built by king Edward II. which his son in the second year of his reign, gave to William de Ros, of Hamlake, in Yorkshire, and his heirs, for a rose yearly to be paid, in lieu of all other services. This William, baron Ros or Roos, of Hamlake, bad been serviceable to the government, in the wars of France and Scotland, as well as a negociator of peace tween the several powers. This tower afterwards was called LEGATE'S INN.

Another castle of consequence was the Tower or MOUNTFIQUET, or MontFITCHET, which was built by William, a descendant of Gilbert Mountfiquet. Gilbert was a Roman by birth, and kinsman to William I. whom he supplied with a considerable force towards his invasion of England, and greatly assisted him in his successful battle againșt king Harold. For his services William I. granted him very considerable possessions in this country; all which he left to his son Richard, and returned to Rome. William de Mountfiquet was married to Margaret, daughter of Gil. bert Fitz-Richard, earl of Clare, and left issue, Gilbert Mountfiquet, whom Henry II. constituted forester of Essex; which office was confirmed to his son Richard, who attended Richard I. into Normandy, and was appointed by that monarch sheriff of Essex and Herts, in which office he



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