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continued till his death. His son Richard was one of the discontented barons in the reign of king John, and of the twenty-five to whom the government of the realm was int trusted, and sailed, in company with baron Robert FitzWalter, to obtain succours from France. This nobleman refused to return to his loyalty as the others had done, but continued rebellious during John's reign, the beginning of the next; and in the battle of Lincoln, i Hen. III. He afterwards made his peace with government; but being of a turbulent spirit, he appeared at a tournament, contrary to the king's prohibition, for which he forfeited his lands; his return to his allegiance procured a restoration of his possessions, and king Henry, in the twentry-first year of his reign, constituted him justice of the king's forests, and ultimately sheriff of Essex, and governor of Hertford castle, He died without issue male, and the lands of his barony were divided among his three sisters.
In consequence of his disaffection, king John demolished this castle, which, on his return to duty,, was again repaired; but in the year 1276, was totally destroyed and disposed of in the following manner;
“ Gregory Rokesly, lord mayor, and the barons of London, granted and gave to the archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Kilwarby, two lanes or ways, lying next the street of Baynard's Castle, and the Tower of Mountfiquet, or Mountfichet to be destroyed. In which place, the said Robert built the late new church of the Black Friars, with the rest of the stones that were left of the said tower. For the best and choice stones the bishop of London had obțained of king William the Conqueror, to re-edify the upper part of St. Paul's church, which was then (by chance of fire) decayed *.”
* Stow. It appears by the above extract, that this castle must have been in a state of delapidation for many years; and king John vented his rage upon the remains of a ruined fortress, and evinced more inalice than he accomplished injury to this portion of Montfichet's inheritance,
A tower was also situated on the river Thames, near the west part of the church belonging to the Black Friars. This was constructed at the expence of the city, by the licence and command of Edward I. The tower was so magnificent and spacious, that it was appointed as a royal palace; and the above monareh gave orders concerning it to the following purport : “ Whereas we have granted you, (the mayor, &c.) for aid of the work of the walls of our city, and the closure of the same, divers customs of vendible things, coming to the said city, to be taken for a certain time, we command you, that you cause to be finished the wall of the said city, now begun near the mansion of the Friars Preachers, and a certain good and comely tower at the head of the said wall within the water of Thames there. Wherein we may be received and tarry with honour, to our case and satisfaction of our comings there, out of the pence taken, and to be taken of the said customs, &c. Witness myself at Westminster, the 8th day of July, An. 4. A. D. 1276."
Edward II. in the tenth year of his reign, granted an imposition towards building a new tower on the wall near the Friars Preachers, which stood till it was taken down by the order of Sir John Shaw, mayor of London, in the year 1502.
There was antiently a lane between Blackfriars and the Thames, which in the reign of Edward III. was called Castle Lane. In this lane was a spacious mansion, appropriated for the residence of the prior of Okeborn, in the county of Wilts; this priory, however, being suppressed as alien, by Henry V. it was given by his successor, Henry VI. with all its lands and appurtenances, towards the maintenance of King's College, Cambridge.
A large brewhouse joined Puddle WHARF, or Dock, a water gate to the Thames, “ which was so called,” says Stow, “ from the watering of horses, which occasioned filth and puddle by their trampling.”
Ascending St. Andrew's Hill, we arrive at the parish church of
THIS church is a rectory of very antient foundation, and was originally known by the name of St. Andrew, near Baynard's Castle; but that castle being afterwards de. stroyed, and the king's wardrobe built near the church, its name was changed to St. Andrew Wardrobe. From the above circumstance it may be presumed of equal antiquity with Baynard's Castle, and that it might have been founded by the same nobleman; for the patronage of it descended to the family of the Fitz-Walters, who were constables of Baynard's Castle after the attainder of its founder. From this family, after having passed into many hands, it came at Jength to the crown, and the kings of England have been patrons of this living from the reign of king Charles II. by the lord chancellor, who alternately presents with the patrons of St. Anne's Blackfriars, annexed to it.
The old church having been destroyed by the fire of Lon. don, the present structure was erected and finished in 1692, at the expence of 70601. It is a plain, but neat building of brick and stone ; the body well enlightened by two rows of windows, and supported by twelve Tuscan pillars. The
roof is divided into five quadrangles, within each is a circle, richly ornariented with fret work. The charch is handsomely perred and wainscoted, and the pillars cased. There are very good galleries, but no organ. The tower is also plain, except that at the top it is decorated with an open balustrade.
The most remarkable monument is to the memory of the Rev. William ROMAINE. It is one of the excellent performances of Bacon. The pedestal of dark veined marble, , the tablet and pyramid white. A bust of the deceased is accompanied by a spirited alto relievo, representing Religion and Faith, pointing with a telescope to the Rcdeemer, seated on a rainbow, and shewing his wounds. One of the females bears the cross, and a book, on which is inscribed, “ Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sins of the world !" Other emblems are a sacrificed lamb, the chalice and bread, and a fountain issuing from rock. The tablet is thus inscribed :
In a vault beneath lies the mortal part of the Rev. William ROMAINE, A. M. thirty years rector of these united parishes, and forty-six lecturer of St. Dunstan's in the West. Raised
of God for an important work in his church ; a scholar of extensive learning, a Christian of eminent piety, a preacher of peculiar gift and animation, consecrating all his talents to the investigation of sacred truth, during a ministry of more than half a century: He lived, conversed, and wrote only to exalt the Saviour. Mighty in the Scriptures, he ably defended, with eloquence and zeal, the equal perfections of the Triune Jehovah, exhibited in man's redemption; the Father's everlasting love; the atonement, righteousness, and complete salvation by the Son; the regenerating influence of the Eternal Spirit; with the operation and enjoyment of a purifying faith. When displaying these essential doctrines of the Gospel, with a simplicity and fervour rarely united, his enlivened couvtenance expressed the joy of his soul. God owned the truth; and multitudes raised from guilt and ruin to the hope of endless felicity, became seals to his ministry, the blessings and ornaments of Society. Having manifested the pasity of his principles in his life, to the age of eighty.one, July 26,
1795, he departed in the triumph of faith, and entered into glory. Many witnesses of these facts, uniting with the grateful inhabitants of these parishes, erected this monument.
Rectors OF EMINENCE. THOMAS MERKES, afterwards bishop of Carlisle, in the reign of Richard II. and the only peer who execrated the deposition of that unfortunate monarch *
WILLIAM ROMAINE, M. A. •
The parish church of St. Anne, Blackfriars, stood on the east side of Church Entry, Shoemaker Row, on the site formerly occupied by the priory church of
THE BLACK FRIARS. THIS order of friars was distinguished by four different names, Dominicans, Preaching Friars, Black Friars, and Jacobins. The first name was derived from Dominic, a Spaniard of the noble family of Guzman, who died in 1221, and was canonized by Pope Gregory in 1233, the founder of the order. He classed it into the three divisions ; preaching friars, who made it their business to apply themselves to the conversion of heretics; nuns, who lived inclosed in monasteries; and a military order, established by him against the Albigenses, named the Militia of Jesus Christ, or Brethren of St. Dominic.
They were called Preaching Friars from their office; which title was first bestowed on them by pope Innocent III. and confirmed by popes Honorius III. and Gregory IX.
'Their name Black Friars was derived from their habit, a black weed or garment with a white cassock, over which they wore a hood of the same colour; but in processions, and on public occasions, they covered these with a black cloak and hood..
They received the name of Jacobins, in France, because their first convent was in the street of St. James, in Paris.
T'he order has afforded to the church of Rome several popes, cardinals, and lesser dignitaries; and that cursed tribunal, the Inquisition, arose among and still continues in
See Vol. I. p. 89. Vol. III. No. 70.