« PreviousContinue »
The Black Friars monastcry was equally unfortunate for cardinal Wolsey, as it had been for the oppressed and innocent queen.
In the month of October, during the same year, commenced here the parliament which condemned him in a premunire.
And as though the spot had been doomed to misfortune, Henry dissolved the monastery in the thirtieth year of his reign, when its revenues were valued at 10+1. 15s. 5d.
Edward VI. in the fourth year of his reign, granted to Sir Thomas Çawarden, knight, the whole house, site or circuit, compass, and precinct, of the yearly value of 191.; but the hall, and the site of the prior's lodgings, within the precinct, had been sold in the first year of this reign to Sir Francis Brian, at the yearly value of forty shillings.
On account of its spaciousness and conveniences, it was inhabited by noblemen and persons of quality to the time of queen Elizabeth, as will be further noticed.
This, like other religious houses, claimed privilege of sanctuary, but the nuisances occasioned to the peaceable inbabitants on that account becoming notorious, government interfered ; and depriving them of felonious privileges, procured those that were more beneficial, by incorporating the district within the city of London; and it now forms part of the ward of Farringdon Within.
ST. ANNE, BLACKFRIARS: ON the dissolution by Henry VIII. tbe grand church of the priory, and other buildings, were demolished. The parishioners being thus deprived of a place of worship, made great complaint of it in the reign of queen Mary; and the above Sir Thomas being obliged to find a church for the inha. bitants, he allowed them a lodging chamber for a place of worship, which fell down in the year 1597. After this the parishioners purchased an additional piece of ground to en. large their church, which they rebuilt by subscription. This church was consecrated and dedicated to St. Anne on tbe 11th of December 1595, and it was ordained thenceforth to be called “the church or chapel of St. Anne, within the
precinct precinct of Blackfriars.” This precinct increased so much with inhabitants, that, in the year 1613, they found it necessary to enlarge their church, which they effected by purchasing a large piece of ground of Sir George Moore, on the south side.
This church being destroyed by the fire of London, and not rebuilt, the parish was annexed to St. Andrew Wardrobe; and the spot of ground on which St. Anne's stood is now used as a burial place for the inhabitants of the precinct of Blackfriars.
In the reign of Elizabeth, after this place had become the re. sidence of persons of fashion, the queen honoured lord Herbert, son of William, earl of Worcester, with her presence in 1600, on occasion of his nuptials with the daughter and heiress of John, lord Russel, son of Francis, earl of Bedford. Her majesty was met at the waterside by the bride, and carried to her house in a litter by six knights; she dined there, and supped in the same neighbourhood with lord Cobham ; when there was " a memorable maske of eight ladies, and a straunge dawnce new invented. Their attire is this : each hath a skirt of cloth of silver, a rich wastcoat wrought with silkes, and gold and silver; a mantell of carnacion taffete, cast under the arme; and there haire loose about there shoulders, curiously knotted and interlaced. Mrs. Fitton leade; these eight ladys maskers choose eight ladies more to dawnce the measures. Mrs. Fitton went to the queen, and woed her dawnce: her majesty (the love of Essex rankling in her breast) asked what she was? Affection, she said : Affection! said the queen, Affection is false. Yet her majesty rose up and dawnced."*
Pennant remarks on this occasion, that " at this time the queen was sixty ;" surely, as Mr. Walpole observed, it was at that period as natural for her to be in love! it must not be forgotten, that in her paffage from the bride's to lord Cobham's, she went through the bouse of Dr. Puddin, and was presented by the doctor with a fan. We often see ber highness drawn with a feather fan."
* Sydney's Papers, ii. 263.
During the residence of count De Tillier, ambassador from France, at the Blackfriars, the dreadful accident named from the circumstance, the Fatal Vespers, happened here. A celebrated Jesuit preacher, father Drury, gave a sermon to a large congregation of English subjects, in a spacious room three stories high. In the midst of the discourse á rafter gave way, the room sell, and ninety-four persons, besides the preacher, perished. The uncharitable disposition of the times was scandalously exercised on this occasion." “ The Protestants considered the accident as a judgement on the Catholics, for their idolatry: the, Catholics attributed it to a plot of the Protestants, to bring destruction on their dissenting brethren."*
This precinct is rendered famous also for the residence of Sir ANTHONY VANDYKE, the admirable painter, who died here, and was buried in St. Paul's cathedral ; Sir SaMUEL LUKE, the model of Butler's Hudibras; Sir SyMONDS D'Ewes, an eminent collector of history and state papers; Sir ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER, afterwards the famous earl of Shaftesbury; the excellent divine, Dr. WilLIAM Gouge; and Isaac Oliver, the unrivalled miniature painter, in the seventeenth century.
Here was also a PLAY-HOUSE ; but as we have already made mention of the nature of these antient places of amusement, in our seventh tour, in Golden Lane, and have in reserve, some remarks on the Globe Theatre, we shall dismiss our survey of Blackfriars, by adding that in Printing House Square was formerly His Majesty's PRINTING OFFICE, whilst the patent was held by the respectable family of BASKETT.
It was here, in the reign of Charles I. that, in consequence of the dreadful omission in tbe seventh commandment, of, “ Thou shalt commit adultery," that archbishop Laud levied a heavy fine on the Stationers' Company, to whom the printing of the sacred book had been committed by patent. Upon this occasion the Spectator wittily re
Vol. III. No. 70.
marks, “ that he fears that many young profligates, of both sexes, are possessed of this spurious edition, and observe the commandment according to that faulty reading."
In Water Lane is situated
APOTHECARIES' HALL. This is a handsome edifice, with a plain front to the street; a gate leads to an open court, which is pared with fat stones; at the upper end is an ascent by a grand fighe of stairs into the Hall Room, built with brick and sione, and adorned with columns of the Tuscan order. Thc ceiling of the Court Room and llall are elegantly ornamented with fret-work; and the wall is 'wainscoted fourtecn feet 'high.
At the east end of the hall is a bust of Gideox DE LAUNE, apothecary to James I. a French refugee, and the cause of the incorporation of this company. ROBERT Gower, Esq. master, 1726. Sir BENJAMIN RAWLINGS, sheriff, 1737. Peter GUELSTHORP, Esq. master, 1701 HENRY SMITH, Esq. master, 1727. WILLIAM PROWTING, 'master, 1773. GIDEON DE LAUNE, Esq. GEORGE PILE, M. D. Sir John CLARKE, master, 1694. Mr. Joux LoRIMER, 1654. Josiah HIGDEN, master, 1763. John AlLEN, Esq. CORNELIUS Dutch, Esq.
There is a handsome Corinthian screen at the south side, on which hang portraits of James I. Charles I. and Wiliam ill. and Mary II. There is also belonging to this company & representation of the fanding of William III.
The gallery was formerly proposed for a library; but has never been furnished to answer that good intention. The apartments for the officers and servants are well accoinmodated. Beneath are two large laboratories ; one chemical, and the other for Galenical preparations; where vast quadtities of the best medicines are prepared, after the drugs have been exposed a considerable time for the inspection of • such of the faculty of plıysic as chuse to view them, for the use of apothecaries and others; and particularly for the surgeons of the royal nary, who make up their chests here.
THIS COMPANY was incorporated at first with the Grocers in the year 1606 : but such a connection not answering the purposes of their incorporation, they were separated by another charter, granted by king James 1. in the the year 1617, and incorporated by the name of “ The Master, Wardens, and Society of the Art and Mystery of Apothecaries * of the City of London." And by this charter they are exempt from parish and ward offices.
It is a livery company, and is governed by a master, two wardens, and a court of assistants.
There is nothing worthy particular notice till we arrive in Ludgate Street, where, in HOLLIDAY YARD, Creed Lane, was discovered several Roman antiquities, which have been noticed in our first volume.
St. Paul's CHURCH YARD, south side. At the entrance from Ludgate Street, is a narrow entry, leading to St. Paul's COLLEGE, where are lodgings for such of the minor canons, as chuse to reside. Further on is Dean's Yard, in which is a large, handsome building. originally built by Sir Joseph Sheldon, but since and at present appropriated as the town residence of the Dean of St. Paul's.
In Carter Lane is WARDROBE COURT, so called on account of its being the antient wardrobe of the monarchs of England. Sir Johu Beaumont, knight of the Garter, son of Guido earl of Warwick, originally built the mansion, which was afterwards sold to Edward III. and converted to the KING'S WARDROBE.
In the Harleian MSS. No. 4780, is a curious account of the wardrobe of Edward IV. Some of the items are well worth inserting :
Feather beds and boltsters for “our sovereign lord the king,” were purchased for 16s. 8d,
Hose of divers colours, 13s. 4d. per pair.
Shoes of Spanish leather, double soled, and not lined, 16d. per pair; sloppes, lined with blue velvet, of green,
• At this time there were no more than one hundred and four apothecaries' shops within the city and suburbs, 3Q 2