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PROJEAN SQUARE, is so denominated from a knight of that name, who was the proprietor.

Turning out of the Old Bailey, eastward, we arrive at

LUDGATE.

We do not attempt to harrass ourselves, or our readers, in hunting out the etymology of this place; or whether or not there was such a king as Lud. The name of the gate, whilst it stood, was with great appearance of probability derived from the Flood, Flud, Vloat, Fleote or Fleet, which ran into Fleet Ditch.

In the year 1373, it was constituted a prison for poor debtors, who were free of the city; and it was afterwards greatly enlarged by Sir Stephen Forster.

This gentleman had been a prisoner, and was begging at the gate, when a rich widow passing by, asked him what sum would procure his discharge; and on his answering twenty pounds (which at that time was a considerable sum she generously advanced the money.

His liberty being obtained, his benefactress took him into her service, in which, by his indefatigable application to business, and bis obliging behaviour, he gained her affections, and married her; after which he had great success in trade, became lord mayor of London, and obtained the ho. nour of knighthood.

In the midst of his prosperity, Sir Stephen thought of the place of his confinement, and acquainting his lady with a design he had formed of enlarging the prison, she also determined to contribute to the execution of so benevolent a plan.

They caused several of their houses near the gate to be pulled down, and in their stead erected a strong square stone building, containing the porch, the paper house, the watch hall, the upper and lower lumberies, the cellar, the long ward, and the chapel; in the last of which were the following inscriptions :

“ This chapel was erected and ordained for the divine worship and service of God, by the right honourable Sir Stephen Foriter,

knight,

knight, some time lord mayor of this honourable city, and by dame Agnes his wife, for the use and godly exercise of the prisoners in this prison of Ludgate, anno 1454.”

Devout Soules, that passe this way,
For Stephen Forster, late Maior, heartily pray,
And Dame Agnes, his Spouse, to God consecrate,
That of pitie this house made for Londoners in Ludgate.
So that for lodging and Water prisoners here nought pay,

As their keepers shall all answere at dreadful doomes-day. These venerable founders not only settled a salary for a chaplain of this prison, but ordered that all the rooms in these additional buildings should be for ever free to all unfortunate citizens, and that they, on providing their own bedding, should pay nothing at their discharge for lodging or chamber rent: but the keepers have long since broke through this appointment, and for many years past took rent for the rooms built for the sole use of the poor, contrary to the express order of the generous donor.

Concerning the prison we have already made mention, The gate was taken down about the year 1760.

Close to where this gate stood is situated the parish church of

ST. MARTIN, LUDGATE.

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THE old church was built about the year 1437 ; when Sir John Michell, fishmonger, lord mayor, and the commonalty, granted to Mr. Down, then rector, a parcel of ground, containing in length twenty-eight, and in breadth twenty-four feet, to build their steeple on. It was repaired and beautified at the parish charge in the year 1623. And having had its unfortunate share of the calamitous conflagration in 1666, was rebuilt in 1684.

The roof of the church is camerated ; the walls and pil. lars are of stone, of the Composite order; the floor of the church is raised about three feet abore the street, and the plot of ground within the church is broader than long. The steeple consists of a handsome tower, cupola and spire, of the Tuscan order; above the cupola is a balcony.

The interior is adorned with four columns, near the four angles of the church ; and an entahlament consisting of four quadrangles, where the roof is lower than in the middle of church; and several pilasters.

It has a neat gallery of wainscot, on the south side of the church, and a gallery at the west end, in which is a good organ. It is also well pewed, and wainscoted with oak.

On the south side are two fine wainscot inner door cases, curiously carved.

The altar-piece is ornamental and spacious, with four pilasters and entablament. Above are two attic pilasters, entablature, and pediment, with the arms of England carved, gilt, and painted, standing between two carved lamps. The intercolumns are the Commandments, &c. Over these are a glory, painted on the figure of a holy lamb-skin, between two cherubims; and other enrichments of cartouches, palm branches, &c. The foot-pace under the communion table is black and white marble, inclosed with rail and banister.

The pulpit is veneered and enriched with cherubims, book displayed, &c. And the steeple is adorned with cartouches, pine-apples, festoons, and other ornaments,

The dimensions of the church are, length fifty-seven, breadth sisa-six, height fifty-nine feet, and the altitude of

the

the steeple, to the top of the spire, one hundred and sixtyeight feet, measured by a scale.

MONUMENTS noticed by Stow.

Sir William Sevenoke, mayor of London, 1418. Born at Sevenoke, in Kent, where he founded a free school and almshouses.

Sir Stephen Peacock, lord mayor in 1533, the year that queen Elizabeth was born.

RECTORS of eminence. THOMAS LUPSET, A. M. 1526; of whom we have made mention under St. Paul's school.

WILLIAM GLYN, D. D. 1549, bishop of Bangor. Samuel Purchas, S.T.B. author of The Pilgrimage, &c. MICHAEL GERMAN, D. D, a great sufferer during the

civil wars,

Thomas JACOMB, D.D. an eminent Non-conformist, for which he was ejected in 1662*.

* In digging a foundation at the back of the London coffee house, adjoining this church, by the remains of London Wall, a stone of the form of a sextagon was discovered in September 1806. The following inscription is cut on it;

D. O, M.
CL. MARTI
NAE AN. XI
ANONCLI

TUS
PROVINC
CONGRESSI
PIETISSIME

H. S. E.

DEO OPTIMO MAXIMO
CLAVDIÆ MARTINA

ANNO VNDECIMO
ANONCLITVS PROVINCIALIS CONGRESSVS
PIETISSIME HOC SEPVLCHRVM EREXIT.

“ To the All-glorious Deity

ANONCLITUS
In the eleventh year of his provincial government;
Has most piously erected this monument
To the Memory of his Wife,
CLAUDIA MARTINA."
4 I ?

LUDGATE

LUDGATE Hill is a broad street of stately houses. А large inn, denominated the Bell SAVAGE, Stow says, it received its name from one Arabella Savage, who had given the house to the company of Cutlers. The painter gave it a diverting origin, deriving it from a Bell and a Wild Man; and so painted a bell, with a savage man standing by it. The Spectator alone gives the real derivation; which is from La Belle Sauvage, a beautiful woman, described in an old French romance as being found in a wil. derness in a savage state.

The east side of New BRIDGE STREET is a pile of stately dwellings, with a crescent, which extend to CHATHAM SQUARE, and PITT's BRIDGE, VULGARLY BLACKFRIARS BRIDGE.

This beautiful structure was built to the honour of WILLIAM PITT, EARL of CHATHAM, as the names of the square and streets sufficiently testify.

It was constructed during the reign of George III. by the architectural ingenuity of Robert MYLNE, Esq. and is a most majestic fabric, consisting of nine arches, which being elliptical, the apertures for navigation are large, whilst the bridge itself is low : when a person is under one of these arches the extent of the vault overhead cannot be viewed without awe! The dimensions of the whole, are:

English Feet. Length from wharf to wharf

995 Width of the central arch

100

98 Width of the arches on each side,

93 reckoning from the central one towards

83 the shores

70

I.

respectively.

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Width of the carriage way

28 Width of the raised foot ways on each side 7 Total width of the passage over

42 Height of the balastrade on the inside 4

10 The upper 'surface of the bridge is a portion of a very large circle; so that the whole forıs one arch, and appears

a gently

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