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highly as he ought. Educated in high ideas of his here- hearing of, called to have the gentleman brought to him, ditary right, he has been supposed to have held every ex saying, he would rather dispatch the business, whatever ertion and sacrifice made in his cause as too much the duty it was, himself, than have the gentleman wait, which be of the person making it, to merit extravagant gratitude did, by granting every thing that was asked. So inuch on his part. Dr King's evidence (which his leaving the affability in a young prince, flushed with victory, drew Jacobite interest renders somewhat doubtful) goes to encomiums even from his enemies. But what gave the strengthen this opinion.
people the highest idea of him, was the negative he gave The ingenious editor of Johnstone's Memoirs has quoted to a thing that very nearly concerned his interest, and upa story said to be told by Helvetius, stating that Prince on which the success of his enterprise perhaps depended. Charles Edward, far from voluntarily embarking on his It was proposed to send one of the prisoners to London, to daring expedition, was literally bound hand and foot, and demand of that court a cartel for the exchange of prisoners to which he seems disposed to yield credit. Now, it being taken, and to be taken, during this war, and to intimate a fact as well known as any in his history, and, so far as I that a refusal would be looked upon as a resolution on their know, entirely undisputed, that the Prince's personal en part to give no quarter. It was visible a cartel would be of treaties and urgency positively forced Boisdale and Lochiel great advantage to the Prince's affairs ; his friends would into insurrection, when they were earnestly desirous that be more ready to declare for him if they had nothing to he would put off his attempt until he could obtain a suf fear but the chance of war in the field; and if the court of ficient force from France, it will be very difficult to recon London refused to settle a cartel, the Prince was authocile his alleged reluctance to undertake the expedition, rised to treat his prisoners in the same manner the Elector with his desperately insisting on carrying the rising into of Hanover was determined to treat such of the Prince's effect, against the advice and entreaty of his most power friends as might fall into his hands : it was urged that a ful and most sage partisans. Surely a man who had been few examples would compel the court of London to com. carried bound on board the vessel which brought him to ply. It was to be presumed that the officers of the English so desperate an enterprise, would have taken the oppor army would make a point of it. They had never engaged tunity afforded by the reluctance of his partisans, to re in the service, but upon such terms as are in use among turn to France in safety.
all civilized nations, and it could be no in upon their It is averred in Johnstone's Memoirs, that Charles Ed honour to lay down their commissions if these terms wera ward left the field of Culloden without doing the utmost not observed, and that owing to the obstinacy of their own to dispute the victory; and, to give the evidence on both Prince. Though this scheme was plausible, and representBides, there is in existence the more trust-worthy testi ed as very important, the Prince could never be brought mony of Lord Elcho, who states, that he himself earnestly into it: it was below him, he said, to make empty threats, exhorted the Prince to charge at the head of the left wing, and he would never put such as those into execution; he which was entire, and retrieve the day or die with honour. would never in cold blood take away lives which he had And on his counsel being declined, Lord Elcho took leave saved in heat of action, at the peril of his own. These were of him with a bitter execration, swearing he would never not the only proofs of good nature the Prince gave about look on his face again, and kept his word.
this time. Every day produced something new of this On the other hand, it seems to have been the opinion of kind. These things softened the rigour of a military goalmost all the other officers, that the day was irretrievably vernment, which was only imputed to the necessity of his lost, -one wing of the Highlanders being entirely routed, affairs, and which he endeavoured to make as gentle and the rest of the army out-nuinbered, out-Hanked, and in a easy as possible." condition totally hopeless. In this situation of things, the It has been said, that the Prince sometimes exacted more Irish officers who surrounded Charles's person interfered state and ceremonial than seemed to suit his condition; to force him off the field. A cornet who was close to the but, on the other hand, some strictness of etiquette was Prince, left a strong attestation, that he had seen Sir altogether indispensable where he must otherwise have Thomas Sheridan seize the bridle of his horse, and turn been exposed to general intrusion. He could also endure, him round. There is some discrepancy of evidence; but with a good grace, the retorts which his affectation of cerethe opinion of Lord Elcho, a man of fiery temper, and des. mony sometimes exposed him to. It is said, for example, perate at the ruin which he beheld impending, cannot fairly that Grant of Glenmoriston having made a hasty march be taken, in prejudice of a character for courage which to join Charles, at the head of his clan, rushed into the is intimated by the nature of the enterprise itself, by the Prince's presence at Holyrood, with unceremonious hasta Prince's eagerness to fight on all occasions, by his deter without having attended to the duties of the toilet. The mination to advance from Derby to London, and by the Prince received him kindly, but not without a hint that a presence of mind which he manifested during the roman previous interview with the barber might not have been tic perils of his escape. The author is far from claiming wholly unnecessary. “ It is not beardless boys," answered for this unfortunate person the praise due to splendid ta the displeased Chief, “who are to do your Royal Highness's lents; but he continues to be of opinion, that at the period turn." The Chevalier took the rebuke in good part. of his enterprise, he had a mind capable of facing danger On the whole, if Prince Charles had concluded his life and aspiring to fame.
soon after his miraculous escape, his character in history That Charles Edward had the advantages of a graceful must have stood very high. “As it was, his station is presence, courtesy, and an address and manner becoming
amongst those, a certain brilliant portion of whose life his ation, the author never heard disputed by any who forms a remarkable contrast to all which precedes, and all approached his person, nor does he conceive that these which follows it. qualities are overcharged in the present attempt to sketch his portrait. The following extracts, corroborative of the
Note 2 M, p. 148,- SKIRMISH AT CLIFTON. general opinion respecting the Prince's amiable disposition, are taken from a manuscript account of his roman. The following account of the skirmish at Clifton is er. tic expedition, by James Maxwell of Kirkconnell, of which tracted from the manuscript Memoirs of Evan Macpher I possess a copy, by the friendship of J. Menzies, Esq. of son of Cluny, Chief of the clan Macpherson, who had the Pitfoddells. The author, though partial to the Prince, merit of supporting the principal brunt of that spirited whom he faithfully followed, seeins to have been a fair and affair. The Memoirs appear to have been composed about candid man, and well acquainted with the intrigues among 1755, only ten years after the action had taken place. They the Adventurer's council:
were written in France, where that gallant Chief resided "Everybody was mightily taken with the Prince's figure in exile, which accounts for some Gallicisms which occur and personal behaviour. There was but one voice about in the narrative. them. Those whom interest or prejudice made a runaway "In the Prince's return from Derby back towards Scotto his cause. could not help acknowledging that they wished land, my Lord George Murray, Lieutenant-General, cheerhim well in all other respects, and could hardly blame him fully charg'd himself with the command of the rear; a for his present undertaking. Sundry things had concurred post, which, altho' honourable, was attended with great to raise his character to the highest pitch, besides the danger, many difficulties, and no small fatigue; for the greatness of the enterprise, and the conduct that had Prince being apprehensive that his retreat to Scotland hitherto appeared in the execution of it There were seve might be cut off by Marischall Wade, who lay to the north. ral instances of good-nature and humanity that had made ward of him with an armie much supperior to what a great impression on peoples' minds. I shall contine my. H. R. H. had, while the Duke of Comberland with his self to two or three. Immediately after the battle, as the whole cavalrie followed hard in the rear, was obliged to Prince was riding along the ground that Cope's army had hasten his marches. It was not, therefore possible for the occupied a few minutes before, one of the officers came up artilirie to march so fast as the Prince's armie, in the to congratulate him, and said, pointing to the killed, Sir, depth of winter, extremely bad weather, and the worst there are your enemies at your feet.' The Prince, far from roads in England; so Lord George Murray was obliged exulting, expressed a great deal of compassion for his fa often to continue his marches long after it was dark alther's deluded subjects, whoin he declared he was heartily most every night, while at the same time he had frequent sorry to see in that posture. Next day, while the Prince allarms and disturbances from the Duke of Cumberland's was at Pinkie-house, a citizen of Edinburgh came to make advanc'd parties. Towards the evening of the twentiem some representation to Secretary Murray about the tents eight December 1745, the Prince entered the town of Pene that city was ordered to furnish against a certain day. rith, in the Province of Comberland. But as Jord George Murray happened to be out of the way, which the Prince Murray could not bring up the artilirie so fast as he wou'd
hare wishid, he was obliged to pass the night six miles number the slain, who filled all the ditches which happened short of that town, together with the regiment of Mac to be on the ground where they stood. But it was comDonel of Glengarrie, which that day happened to have the puted that, besides those who went off wounded, upwards arrear guard. The Prince, in order to refresh his armie, of a hundred at least were left on the spot, among whom and to give my Lord George and the artilirie time to come was Colonel Honeywood, who commanded the dismounted up. resolved to sejour the 29th at Penrith ; so ordered his cavalrie, whose sabre of considerable value Mons.de Cluny little army to appear in the morning under arms, in order brought off, and still preserves; and his tribe lykeways to be reviewed, and to know in what manner the numbers brought off manyarms ;--the Colonel was afterwards taken stood from his haveing entered England. It did not at up, and, his wounds being dress'd, with great difficultie that time amount to 5000 foot in all, with about 400 caval recovered. Mons. de Cluny lost only in the action twelve pie, composed of the noblesse who serv'd as volunteers, men, of whom some haveing been only wounded, fell afterpart of whom form'd a first troop of guards for the Prince, wards into the hands of the enemy, and were sent as slaves ander the command of My Lord Elchoe, now Comte de to America, whence several of them returned, and one of Weems, who, being proscribed, is presently in France. them is now in France, a sergeant in the Regiment of Another part formed a second troup of guards under the Royal Scots. How soon the accounts of the enemie's apcommand of My Lord Balmirino, who was beheaded at proach had reached the Prince, H. R. H. had immediately the tower of London. A third part serv'd under My Lord ordered Mi-Lord le Comte de Nairne, Brigadier, who, bele Comte de Kilmarnock, who was likewise beheaded at ing proscribed, is now in France, with the three batalions the Tower. A fourth part servid under My Lord Pitsligow, of the Duke of Athol, the batalion of the Duke of Perth, who is also proscribed; which cavalrie, tho' very few in and some other troups under his command, in order to numbers, being all Noblesse, were very brave, and of infi support Cluny, and to bring off the artilirie. But the nite advantage to the foot, not only in the day of battle, action was intirely over before the Comte de Nairne, with but in serving as advanced guards on the several marches, his command, cou'd
reach nigh to the place. They thereand in patroling dureing the night on the different roads fore return'd all to Penrith, and the artilirie marched up which led towards the towns where the army happened to in good order. Nor did the Duke of Comberland ever quarter.
afterwards dare to come within a day's march of the " While this small army was out in a body on the 29th Prince and his army dureing the course of all that reDecember, upon a rising ground to the northward of Pen treat which was conducted with great prudence and safety, rith, passing review, Mons. de Cluny, with his tribe, was when in some manner surrounded by enemies." ordered to the Bridge of Clifton, about a mile to southward of Penrith, after having pass'd in review before Mons. Patullo, who was charged with the inspection of the
Note 2 N, p. 153,- OATH UPOn the Dirk. troops, and was likeways Quarter Master General of the As the heathen deities contracted an indelible obligation army, and is now in France. They remained under arms if they swore by Styx, the Scottish Highlanders had usuat the Bridge, waiting the arrival of My Lord George ally some peculiar solemnity attached to an oath, which Murray with the artilirie, whom Mons. de Cluny had or they intended should be binding on them. Very frequently ders to cover in passing the bridge. They arrived about it consisted in laying their hand, as they swore, on their sunsett closely pursued by the Duke of Comberland with own drawn dirk; which dagger, becoming a party to the the whole body of his cavalrie, reckoned upwards of 3000 transaction, was invoked to punish any breach of faith. strong, about a thousand of whom, as near as might be But by whatever ritual the oath was sanctioned, the party computed, dismounted, in order to cut off the passage of was extremely desirous to keep secret what the especial the artilirie towards the bridge, while the Duke and the
oath was, which he considered as irrevocable. This was others remained on horseback in order to attack the rear.
a matter of great convenience, as he felt no scruple in My Lord George Murray advanced, and although he found breaking his asseveration, when made in any other form Mons. de Cluny and his tribe in good spirits under arms, than that which he accounted as peculiarly solemn; and yet the circumstance appear'd extremely delicate. The therefore readily granted any engagement which bound numbers were vastly unequall, and the attack seem'd very him no longer than he inclined. Whereas, if the oath dangerous; so my Lord George declin'd giving orders to which he accounted inviolable was once publicly known, sueh time as he ask'a Mons. de Cluny's oppinion. “I will no party with whom he might have occasion to contract, attack them with all my heart,' says Mons. de Cluny, if would have rested satisfied with any other. Louis XI. of you order me.' I do order it then,' answered my Lord France practised the same sophistry, for he also had a George, and immediately went on himself along with Mons.
peculiar species of oath, the only one which he was ever de Cluny, and fought sword in hand on foot, at the head known to respect, and which, therefore, he was very unof the single tribe of Macphersons. They in a moment willing to pledge. The only engagement which that wily made their way through a strong hedge of thorns, under tyrant accounted binding upon him, was an oath by the Che cover whereof the cavalrie had taken their station, in Holy Cross of Saint Lo d'Angers, which contained a perthe struggle of passing which hedge My Lord George tion of the True Cross. If he prevaricated after taking Murray, being dressed en montagnard, as all the army this oath, Louis believed he should die within the year. ere, lost his bonet and wig ; so continued to fight bare The Constable Saint Paul, being invited to a personal conbeaded during the action. They at first made a brisk dis ference with Louis, refused to meet the king unless he charge of their fire arms on the enemy, then attacked them would agree to ensure him safe conduct under sanction of with their sabres, and made a great slaughter a consi. this oath. But, says Comines, the king replied, he would derable time, which obliged Comberland and his cavalrie
never again pledge that engagement to mortal man, though to fly with precipitation and in great confusion; in so he was willing to take any other oath which could be deruch, that if the Prince had been provided in a sufficient vised. The treaty broke off, therefore, after much chafferamber of cavalrie to have taken advantage of the disor ing concerning the nature of the vow which Louis was to er, it is beyond question that the Duke of Comberland take.-Such is the difference between the dictates of su. and the bulk of his cavalrie had been taken prisoners. By perstition and those of conscience. Lis time it was so dark that it was not possible to view or
END OF THE NOTES TO WAVERLEY.
SIR WALTER SCOTT, BART.
WITH ALL HIS ILLUSTRATIONS AND NOTES.
"Tis said that words and signs have power
Lay of the Last Minstrel.
EDINBURGH: ROBERT CADELL, ST. ANDREW SQUARE.