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was a Spaniard, one Cæsar Borgia, his sworn servant. The pope shewed himself wonderful pleasant, to avoid suspicion, and drank a carouse to them all, willing his trusty servant to fill from such a bottle he knew well; which he did very effectually to the pope himself, as well as to the rest. After the company was departed, the pope, perceiving an alteration in himself, what was done, and that he must die now also, said to Borgia, This is a right Spanish trick. It is written of them, that they are so expert in these exploits, that, if Judas himself were alive, he might go to them to school.

THE STRANGLING

AND

DEATH OF THE GREAT TURK,

AND HIS TWO SONS; With the strange Preservation and Deliverance of his Uncle Mustapha from

perishing in prison, with hunger and thirst, the young Emperor, not three days before, having so commanded.

A WONDERFUL STORY,

And the like never heard of in our modern times; and yet all to manifest the

glory and providence of God,

IN THE PRESERVATION OF CHRISTENDOM

IN THESE TROUBLESOME TIMES.

Printed this Fifteenth of July.

Printed at London, by J. D. for Nicholas Bourne and Thomas Archer, and are to be sold at their shops at the Exchange, and in Pope's-head palace. "1648. Octavo, containing seventeen pages.

Haud sic magni conditor orbis,
Huic ex alto cuncta tuenti,
Nulla terræ mole respectant,
Non nox atris nubibus obstat,
Quæ sint, Quæ fuerint, Veniantque,
Uno mentis cernit in ictu,
Quem, quia respicit omnia solus,
Verum possis dicere solem.

Boetius Metro. 3 Lib. s.

The Printer to the Reader.

I am very loth to trouble you with a preface, yet, at this time, you

must pardon me; for it is for God's cause, to exemplify his glory and providence, that hath put an hook in the nostrils of Leviathan, and kept him from devouring poor Christians, who yet are in arms to devour one another; that hath thrown a stone from heaven, to strike the golden image to powder, which was stretching itself to overlook and overtop the provinces of Europe; that hath put an ax to the great tree, and felled it at a blow, which was beginning to overspread the earth, and be a shadow for the beasts of the field. What, all Christendom almost in arms, and yet the Turk not to take the advantage, but to be pulled short by the hand of God, and thrown backward into a grave? Where are your dreaming gazettes and coranto's now, that talked of such formidable preparation, and so many hundred-thousand in an army? Where is the threatening of Poland, and terrifying the Cossacks with so many thousand Tartarians ? Where is their coming into Hungary, to begin a new war there? What, all hushed, and quiet? Why, then, thine be the honour, O God, and all power, and Majesty, and goodness be attributed unto thee; for thou hast taken pity upon our afflictions, and : wilt set upright thine own cause, when the children of Edom and

inhabitants of Babylon, cry, ‘Down with the walls of Jerusalem', and insult with clapping their hands, to see the enemies of the gospel

thrive in their outrageousness. This, then, is all I would say unto you, by the way of introduction, to

give God, the praise, that the great Turk is dead so opportunely, whereby there is hope, that Europe shall be preserved from their invasion, and those affrightings. And the same God, that hath compassionated the general distress of Christendom, take pity likewise on the particular passions of princes, that they rage not in their revenges, nor run too violently forward in their race of blood and destruction,

but admit of peace and pacification to the eternal memory of their : virtues and worthiness.

THOU
THOUGH I need not speak a word of former Emperors of Turkey,

or their actions, or their lives, or their Alcoran; from whence the special impositions on their government are, first, to erect some famous monument toward the exaltation of their religion. Secondly, and perform some memorable enterprise for the enlarging their empire; yet must I name Mahomet the Third, to keep myself closer to the story, that

you may know the several passages in the same. This Mahomet left two sons behind him, Achmet and Mustapha; Achmet, at fifteen years old, was chosen Emperor, and lived some fifteen years longer, or thereabouts; and although, by reason of the peace between the Em-. peror Rodolphus of Germany, and himself, as also the contract between the Polonians and himself, wherein those Antiqua Fædera were renewed, he did little worthy of memory, concerning heroick enterprises, and military exploits; yet he had the fortune to keep correspondency with his bashaws and janisaries, and took a course, by enlarging their

entertainment, and other several donatives, to enlarge their hearts and good liking towards him; so that he had very seldom mutinies, or innovation, because the visier of the army drew them still into the field in the summer, and the visier of the city afforded them their ancient liberty in the winter; but, at last, there was a rebellion by the Scrivano of Asia, whom some confound with the name of Bashaw of Aleppo, which was fortunately and wisely prevented; and, in the end of his reign, the controversies of the princes of Moldavia over-wrought the Polacks to commiserate the cause, and wrought a mischief, which was not ended without unspeakable trouble: For the distastings, beginning in Achmet's time, could never admit of reconciliation, until Achmet's son came in person, with terror and threatenings, into the fields of Bogdonia.

Well, Achmet dies, leaving two young sons behind him, Osman and another; yet some will presume to say, that, being not above thirtyfour years old, he had many children, and three hundred wives, or concubines; but, before he died, to make all sure, he resulves to strangle his brother Mustapha, and, according to custom, will leave no competitors in such an empire. For which purpose, a guard of Capagies attend at the iron gates of the Seraglio, and the Mutes are placed in a room accordingly. Now you must consider, that, though they have many ways to enlarge their cruelties, and dispatch offenders, yet none is so affrighting, as the presenting of these officers; for they never come along, without death in their company, and ghastliness in their looks. Sometimes an offender is carried from the Seraglio, by the officers of their tapinaco, such as we say, master of the ordnance, over the sea, and, in the midway, a great stone is tied about his neck, and he is cast into the bottom; and then, according to his greatness, a greater cannon is shot off, unless the Emperor send a countermand, before he be from the water. Sometimes an offender is beheaded ; sometimes thrown off a rock; sometimes set upon by the Janisaries, and cut in pieces, as the aga or captain is limited; yet, insthese cases, as the Emperor's fury is leniated, they many times escape; but, when the Mutes come in place, all are displaced, against whom their commission is enlarged. Thus is Mustapha to be dispatched, but see how the stronger arm puts out the strong men; the same night, Achmet had a dream, or fearful vision, which some of the dervises would needs presume to ruinour abroad in this manner: That he thought, as he was entering into the Seven Towers, the princely prison of his predecessors, his brother kneeled down before him, and cried out, Oh, when shall we leave this horrible custom of shedding innocent blood ? Look among all the heathens, and see how quickly they loathed and cast away that crying sin of sacrificing of human flesh. But, instead of replying, he drew his scimiter to strike off his head, had not one, as he conceited, held it fast, that he could not strike; whereupon he demanded angerly, What art thou? I am the good genius of Mustapha, and will not suffer him to perish; therefore leave, and very shortly shall strange things

anpen in the Empire. Little thought the great Turk to have found a

greater greatness in his sleep; but such was the power of God, or, as the Turks conceited, the fortune of Mustapha, that his brother Achmet,' contrary to all expectation, the next morning after his dre m, sent for him into the room of state, where he lay on a stately pallet, with all his viceroys and bashaws groveling on the ground, and the principal mufti 'kneeling before him, reading on a book. It should seem that glad tidings came first to the city, for he was taken out of the prison with great respect and observation ; he was admitted to his galley with high ceremonies, and yet solemn countenances; he was accompanied on the sea with thousands of boats, and ten-thousands of weeping eyes ; he landed at the Emperor's own caska, with great respect and modest stillness; he walked through the garden of cypress-trees, and, at last, came to an iron gate, where his own company left him, except two bashaws, who led him by the arms: The gate opens, and he must go through a guard of capagies; they bend to the ground, and yet look chearfully, until, at last, the prince spoke as chearfully to the bashaws, saying, What need all this quoil and ceremonies to a dying man, or tormenting of my soul, when I go to the execution of my body? In all extremities, there is a courtesy in dispatch, and, when a man must die, O let him die at once, and not be more tortured with the fear and circumstances, than with the thing itself: They durst not reply, but brought him into the room, where the Mutes stood, whose presence did no more appale him than the rest, but that he saw the cruelty confirmed, and their very sight was worse than an irreversible judgment; but, when he perceived no violent hands laid upon him, and that he must yet go further, he was the more astonished, and the more vexed, to endure such a procrastination.

At last, he came where the Emperor lay sick on his pallet, before whom his prostitution was as the ordinary slaves ; but, contrary to all expectation, he bade him rise, and commanded certain Persian carpets to be spread, and rich cushions to be laid; on which, according to their manner, he sat cross-legged by him, and, when the Mufti had raised the Emperor up a little, with a faint voice he thus discovered an unlooked for loving heart:

Brother, said he, I am taught by story, and the story of Galba among the Romans, to chuse a successor for the commonwealth, and not an heir in my family. This made him look upon Piso, as worthy to be an Emperor, because he had experience of his virtues, and not upon his kindred, because he was unacquainted with their strength to bear so great a burden: I cannot compare our greatness with the Romans, but I am sure, we are too great for children or fools. I have fair issue of my own, but so weak arms cannot sway the scepter of the Ottoman family: and to leave them under tutelage, who is there worthy to advise such princes, or what account can slaves make of the government, when their own vices shall overflow their banks without restraint, and the envy of others look upon them rather with disobedience than observation? Therefore, to avoid all tumultuous occasions, and to make thee believe, thou art the charge of our prophet Mahomet, instead of a death-like present itself, instead of a prison, this is thy palace: And, whereas thou camest in groveling, thou shalt go out triumphing; the decree of

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nature, that papist burghers themselves offered good security, that no such thing should be attempted by them. Who, then, can make any doubt that they were free from having any hand in those outrages laid to them ? the very opposites in religion being judges ; who, as appears, were willing to undertake for them. Now, as their faithfulness brought so good effect for th

persons, so did the Lord work that the truth of religion found many friends likewise, the Lord wonderously prospering the course of reformation, insomuch that in a short space they had in Flanders sixty assemblies; some churches they themselves built, but were by Duke d’Alva soon cast down, who erected gallowses of them, and hanged them upon them *.

The Princess of Parma also begun to entertain soldiers, 'with pretence to apprehend the church-robbers, but intended indeed to take away the ancient liberties and privileges of the Netherlanders; wherefore, sending certain companies to Valencin, the inhabitants denied them entertainment, who, for that, were proclaimed rebels the fourteenth of December; soon after, they were besieged, sacked, and many of them put to death.

But, before they of Valencin denied entertainment to the soldiers, the nobility had received letters out of Spain, from the Marquis of Bargen, shewing, that the King + was exceedingly incensed against the Netherlanders; that he had, in the presence of many, vowed to be fully revenged of them, though it were with the hazard of all his countries; that he would make them an example to all the world, and would invite the pope and the Emperor to assist him in this quarrel. Upon the receipt of these letters, the nobility assembled at Dortmond, to consult what were best to be done; but concluded not any thing, some judging it safest to join and make head to resist his tyrannical fury, others seeking rather to escape by flight.

The cruelty of this inquisition did, notwithstanding, increase, and many soldiers came into the country, so that some of the country forsook their houses, and resorted towards Friesland; and some did stay at home, and went to meet the Duke of Alva, and welcomed him into the country, and shewed him all the kindness that they could; but he very shortly took off most of their heads; so that he did so terrify the inhabitants, that there fled out of the countries more than an hundredthousand housholders: besides, many, that were taken in flying, were taken and hanged; and all these had their goods confiscated to the king. Now the Duke of Alva did command all the inhabitants to

pay

the hundredth

penny

of all their goods, and of all that was bought and sold; the which some of the states did yield unto; and then he commanded them to pay the twentieth penny; and then he commanded the tenth penny

of all things that were bought and sold, so often as they should be sold. Some of the states did make their humble petition to the duke, and to the princess, shewing them that it would drive all trading

• Emanuel de Miter saith, that in Flanders they took fifty of them at one time, and hanged twenty two, and whipped the rest.

+ He pretended it for religion, but his aim was to get their lands and goods.

* As the Grau of Egmund, and the Grau of Horn, and many of the gentry at Brussels,

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