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them, like those of the Hindoos and Chinese. And though very ignorant, they are extremely observant and inquisitive.' Mr. M. describes them as a talkative, complimentary, and in sincere people, yet in mappers agreeable and enlivening They are nearly all Mahometals, the number of the Guebres, of worshippers of fire, decreasing annually in/ Persia. They are so reviled and distressed by the government, that either they become converts to Mahonetanism, or emigrate to their brethren in India. They are more 'poor and contemned in Persia than the most miserable of the Jews in Turkey.?......
We ought to have given a slight abstract of the informası tion, which is not ample, respecting the proyinces, the reve-, nues, and the military resources of the kingdom; but we have so far, transgressed all reasonable bounds, that we must here, come to an end, by just mentioning that Mr. Morier, after a!. three months residence, left Sir H. Jones at Teheran, and set off for Constantinople, in company with the Persian ambassador appointed to England. He went by way of Tabriz, Arz-; roun (or Erzerum), and Amasia; and reached Pera on the 18th of July, 1809, having completed the journey from Temi heren in two months and ten days, in which time,' he says, I had not once slept out of my clothes.' Many entertaining particulars, relative to the various casts of people, and the scenery of the countries, are recorded in this part of the jour-, nal. The country is, or the whole, much less sterile and dreary, than that through which they had made their journey, from Bushire to Teheran.--He passed near the foot of Mount Ararat, and describes it as a very grand object.
The book is, for the greater part, very entertaining, and will supply much more knowledge than can be obtained elsewhere of the present, and recent state of Persia. A considerable number of trifling road details might have been omitted, and the proportion of space so vacated very acceptably filled by some such useful speculations as the anthor could very well Jiave furbished, concerning the possibilities and best mode of turning our intercourse with Persia to beneficial national account. Relatively to this subject, bis book is rendered less instructive by the very circumstance that qualified hiin to render. it much nuore so. He recolects that he was secretary to the embassy, aud privy to all its discussions and negociations, and is afraid of saying a word, on political and commercial topics, lest he should betray the secrets of office. :
Why does the work come from the hands of an · Editor, ?: instead of being prepared for the press' by the author bimself-The composition is moderately respectable, but is chargeable with not a few inaccuracies, and some gross gram. matical faults., i ls .. ,
Art. III. Discourses and Dissertations on the Scriptural Doctrines of
Atonement and Sacrifice: and on the principal arguments advanced, and the mode of reasoning employed by the Opponents of those Doctrines, as held by the established Church : with an Appendix, containing some' Strictures on Mr. Belsham's Account of the Unitarian Scheme, in big Review of Mr. Wilberforce's Treatise. By William Magee, D.D. Senior Fellow of Trinity College, and Professor of Mathematics in the University of Dublin. A new Edition, on an improved Plan, with Large Additions. 2 vols. 8vo. pp. XXX. 4-43, and 482. Price 1l. 48. Cara dell and Davies. 1809. TUST and comprehensive views of the divine character, are
of the first importance in religious inquiries. To imperfect conceptions on this point, most of the theological errors which prevail in the world, may be obviously traced; nor can there be any satisfactory exposure of their fallacy, till the principles of that moral administration, which the supreme legislator has established, be rightly understood. This general remark might be largely illustrated, by referring to various systems which are founded on partial and distorted represen.' tations of the deity : but its accuracy is distinctly confirmed by a minute investigation of those arguments which are de. signed to invalidate the “ Scriptural Doctrines of Atonement and Sacrifice." To point out their sophistry, two methods of refutation may be adopted. In the first place, the necessity of an atonement, or of some specific mode of interposition equivalent to an atonement, may be inferred from various principles of scriptural authority; and, in the next place, the reality and value of that sacrifice which the scriptures reveal, may be clearly established. The question thus stated, is of a mixed nature ;-partly speculative, by which we mean, that it involves a number of important inquiries respecting the perfections and government of God, the moral agency and resa ponsibility of man, and the obligations arising out of their mur' tual relations: the question is also partly historical-it is & question of fact; of fact, however, so blended with the customs and opinions of ancient times, that a variety of etymological and critical inquiries must be instituted, in order to ascertain the precise and definite value of the terms in which the fact is asserted. It might naturally be expected that a subject of 80 complex a structure, and so various in its bearings and aspects, would furnish abundant occasion for the shifting, soe. phistical ingenuity of an opponent; that the distinct parts of the general inquiry would be frequently confounded, the rea.. sonings be made to give their complexion to the facts, and the facts, partially or imperfectly adduced, to support the reasonings. That this has been the state of the controversy, and the manner, in which it has been too often conducted, might be ea
dily proved from a review of the principal authors who have op. posed the doctrine of the atonement; of which several strik-" ing exemplifications will be brought forward, in the course of the present article. But as it is not our intention to deal in needless criminations, we shall direct the attention of our readers to the leading parts of the question, as already stated; both because such an arrangement of topics naturally suggests itself, and because it will lead us to an orderly examination of the principal reasonings and researches, in the volumes before us.
We have said an orderly examination of the volumes. Had their reverend and learned author consulted the principles of methodical arrangement, we should not have thrown out any remark, which might assume, for a moment, the tone of cen, sure. But however highly we may estimate the work itself, we must in limine frankly state, that its profound and interesting disquisitions would have appeared to much greater advantage, had the second edition presented an entire alteration of the plan adopted in the first. It was originally published in one volume, containing two discourses, with a number of subjoined references to the notes of the appendix; occupying at least four fifths of the volume, and printed on an inconveniently small type. As this disposition of the parts appeared to be the effect rather of accident than of design, we were willing to hope, when the present edition was announced, that the whole would be remoulded on a simpler and more coherent plan. There are, indeed, some alterations and additions; and the notes, which are seventy-six in number, appear in a type of the same size as the sermons, in consequence of which im provement, the volume is very properly extended into two. But the difference in respect of arrangement is so trilling, as to retain all the disadvantages of the first edition. The value of the discourses cannot be duly appreciated, by their becoming only a sort of text to the elaborate commentary that follows a kind of syllabus or table of contents, without the advantages of an alphabetical distribution. Many of the notes refer to other notes, in which the subjeot happens to be more amply discussed. The affinity of their parts is merely that of aggregation. They are loose and unconnected; and though made up of costly and invaluable materials, are in some mear sure deprived of the effect which would have been secured, by a greater degree of concentration in the arguments, and a happier method of combination. We make these remarks with the greatest deference and respect, because we are desirous, that a work of such acknowledged ability, so eloquent in its diction, so forcible in its reasonings, and so accurate in its criti, cisms, should be something more than an unorganized mass of philology, and possess, with all its bigher attractions, à naturak and logical arrangement.
The first principle, which it is necessary to establish in con ducting an inquiry into the doctrine of atonement, respects the moral government of God. By “ moral government” we onderstand, the enactment and operation of laws, regulating the conduct of rational beings, and enforcing those regulations by rewards and punishments. That such a system of government is established by the Supreme Being, is a conclusion supported: by a variety of analogical reasonings. It arises from the mutual relations of man and his Creator. If there be indications of wise and benevolent design in the government of the natural world, it is a rational presumption that they should be displaycd in the moral department of the universe. It would be truly inexplicable, if, after the proof of undoubted superintendance in the operation of those laws that are subservient to the wel fare of inan, man himself, for whom this extended system of nrighty and minute contrivances was formed, should be abandoned to the caprices of instinct and desire, and have no idea ofthe end of his creation, of his dependance, and his destination. We are therefore coinpelled to admit that, either by revelation or by some intelligible medium of intercourse, the Almighty would make known to man, his duty, and enforce, by appro. priate sanctions, the obligations which devolved upon him, Proofs of such a revelation having been made, are happily within our reach; and the more accurately we investigate iis nature and import, the more shall we be satisfied of its consonance with the dictates of reason, and of its singular agreement with many of the fragments of early tradition, that seem to have been preserved for the purpose of authenticating its ancient records. Adverting to the discoveries of scripture, we find that God made man, in his own image;" a sublime descrip. tion of the original dignity of his nature. The fair lineaments of that moral resemblance to God were soon effaced, and their beauteous proportions destroyed, by the entrance of sin. But sin, and the law, of which it is a violation, are correlative terms. We are led then to inquire, what was the law, or system of moral government, under which intelligent creatures were placed ? The “ great teacher sent from God" has given ụs an admirable compendium of that law,-which was virtually inscribed on the heart of man, in his state of primæval rectitude; which was more fully developed in the precepts and proþibitions of the decalogue; which was explained in the wrivings of the prophets ; which his own life perfectly. exemplified; and, some faint impressions of which have been preserved, in the universal dictates of natural conscience, amidst all the darkness and depravity of our nature. That law required supreme love to God, and “ love to our neighbours, as outselves.” But what are laws without sanctions, without annex ations of reward to secure obedience, and of punishment, to prevent transgression ? Even in this world, we find by expe-, rience and observation, that a connection so generally obtains between vice and suffering, virtue and happiness, that we are in some measure enabled to ascertain the principles on which it is founded. We consider the facts as clear intimations of a moral government, divinely administered; and, on consulting the pages of scripture, we learn that “there is a God who judgeth in the earth.” If the consequences of our actions in the present state, may be viewed in the light of moral .sanctions, we may naturally expect a full disclosure of their nature and extent in the sacred volume. There we find the claims of God on our homage and obedience, to be unlimited. The relation in which he stands to us, involves in it every demand which can appeal to our convictions of duty, our sense of in, terest, or our capacity of pleasure. “A son honoureth bis fa. ther, and a servant his naster-if then I be a father, where is mine honour? and if I be a master, where is my fear, saith the Lord of Hosts ?"* In the charaçier of God, we meet with endéarment'and authority.combined. A violation therefore of claims, so natural and so just, enforced by such a combination, must be awful.y aggravated. Should we be surprised, that DEATH should be inficted on the guilty; and that this sentence should extend not only to the present state, and include in it all the 'miseries of mortality, but respect a condition of fuțure suffering, without mitigation and without end? Such is evidently the import of those solemn denunciations which the authority of Heaven promulged, as the sanctions of his law* Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things, written in the book of the law to do them."+ ". The soul that sinneth, it shall die,” When these threatenings were annexed to the divine injunctions, it was not merely that they should operate in terrorem, without any serious intention of actually inflicting them, in case of transgression. This would be an absurd and irrational supposition. If, therefore, they were annexed as the sanctions of law, on what ground were they ever set aside ? Why is the penalty demanded in their infliction relaxed? In other words, what constitutes the medium of pardon, and what authorizes the hope of it? We conceive that every scheme but that wbich admits of a sacrificial mediation, reflects on the veracity and justice of God,-implies an exoroitance in the