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Having reduced his ideas to a rational form, he hastened to communicate them to his friend WALTER FURST. At his house he met ARNOLD OF MELCHTHAL, who had taken refuge there from the pursuit of Landen, berg. Misfortune is the parent of confidence. They had suffered in the same cause, and they flew to each other's arms with all the attachment of men connected by the strongest of ties, the love of freedom' &c.&c. Vol. I. p. 246.
It would occupy too large a portion of our pages, without communicating any equivalent information to our readers, were we to follow Mr. Naylor step by step through the succes. sive events of the Swiss annals. Such an analysis is br no means demanded, either by the novelty of the subject, or by the superiority of its treatment. We cannot, however, quit the ground without congratulating our historian on the exquisite ingenuity with which he has made the history of Switzerland, the vehicle of an attack on the Methodists of England, as well as on the happy confusion which he has introduced into this portion of his work, by indiscriminately attributing Calvinistical opinions to the votaries of Methodism. (Vol. iv. p. 374) Were we not afraid of being suspected of some leaning towards this obnoxious class of persons, and of course incurring our author's vehement displeasure, we should feel disposed to take a puritanical exception to his glowing description of the prostitutės—Mr. N. calls them houris-who, in the second volume, are described as welcoming the train of a royal visitant.
While reading these volumes, we have been much struck with the contrast-suggested rather by the subject, than by any reference of Mr. Naylor's between the history of the Cantons of Switzerland, and that of the Italian states. In the latter instance, all the baser impulses of the breast seem to have called into incessant activity the keenést faculties of the mind; and while we sicken at the craft, the treachery, and the cru. elty, we are frequently surprized into admiration of the acuteness, the promptitude, and the dexterity, exhibited in almost every transaction, whether commercial, diplomatic, or milia tary, between the respective states. But in the earlier stages of Helvetic story, we are delighted by the unvarying recurrence of the most enchanting traits of simplicity and patriotism : of integrity, yielding in its own wrong, to the dubious claims of others; of fidelity, under every temptation to treachery ; of intrepidity, braving every extreme of peril, and welcoming sufferings, privation, and death, in the cause of an idolized country. The moral of this comparison is as in: structive as the contrast is complete. The smaller states of Italy, weak from want of virtue and cohesion, were considered by the stronger as mere debateable ground ; they became the bloody theatre of perpetual contention; and though far re
moved from the main territories of Austria, Spain and France, were treated by each as litigated property, a common and disa putable frontier, on which their respective armies might contend for supremacy. On the other hand, the courage, the honour, the barmony of the Republics of Switzerland, secured the respect and forbearance of the rival empires: and notwithstanding her central and inviting situation, the fear of rousing the fury of her hardy sons, compelled the conflicting monarchs to turn aside from the unarmed limits of her territory as from a consecrated soil.
Art. VI. The English Botanist's Pocket Companion, containing the Es.
sential Generic Characters of every British Plant, arranged agreeably to
the Linnæan System, &c. &c. By James Dede. 12mo. pp. 148. . Price 4s. boards. Hatchard. Art. VII. Elements of the Science of Botany, established by Linnæus, with
examples to illustrate the Classes and Orders of his System. 2 Vols.
12mo. 2d Edition. pp. 100. 130. 124 Plates. Price 26s. Murray: Art. VIII, An Introduction to the Science of Botany, chiefly extracted
from the Works of Linnæus, to which are added several new Tables and Notes of the Life of the Author. By the late James Lee. 4th
Edition. 8vo. pp. 600. 12 Plates. Rivingtons. W E have been informed by some, who pretend to be well
acquainted with the batter, that, in book-making, one half depends on an attractive title. So fastidious is the pre. sent age, that if the reader's attention is not entrapped by the first page, he as little thinks of disturbing the rest, as an heretic would of exploring the cells of the inquisition, while the door behind him was open to escape. The motive for turning beyond the title-page must be supplied by curiosity to know what the author means by it;—and it was probably a deep insight into the gainful tendency of this maxim, that induced the three gentlemen, whose works we have mentioned at the head of this article, to make choice of their respective designations.
Mr. Dede's book is called an English Botanist's Companion. We are very well convinced, however, that there is no English botanist who would not be perfectly ashamed of keeping such company,, except in the quality of waste paper. The proper title of the book will be bestowed upon it by every one who pays his four shillings. It may seem hard in us to receive Mr. Da's premier effort, which he submits with diffidence to a generous public,' in so rough a style; but the very circumstance of its being his first offence, renders it doubly our duty not to suffer it to pass unnoticed. As Mr. D., in his pri.. vate character, máy be, for any thing that we know to the con.
trary,a veryworthy man, andof unimpeachable veracity,we should be extremely sorry to see him in his literary character altogether the reverse, which must inevitably be the case if he goes on in his present practices. In the generic characters' he acknowledges that he has followed Withering pretty close. Whatever, consequently, occurs in that part which is not his own, we can call by no harsher name than borrowed. But then Dr. Withering's commodities also appear, without proof of any valuable consideration having been given for them, in the so called " Introduction to the Study of Botany." The 66 VOcabulary of Technical Terms,” too, made use of in this work, is copied almost verbatim from Withering's Introduction. The first definition of approaching," meeting each other at top," may possibly belong to Mr. Dede, as also the explana. tions of chaffy, incorporated,' sitting anthers, K varieties,' and 'umbelliferous plants. And this, we conscientiously, beleire, is nearly the whole amount of what he can fairly lay claim to.
The Elements of the Science of Botany, is a work of a much superior degree of merit; though certainly as little deserving the title it bears, as a collection of bricks from every different street of the metropolis, deserves to be called Elements of British Architecture, or the anecdotes which form the seasoning of our newspapers, Elements of the History of England. It is, however, a very neat and elegant picture book; and those who can afford to lay out a good deal of money, for a small stock of information, conveyed in a pleasing manner, will not do amiss in putting it into the hands of their children. It may assist in exciting a fondness for botany, at a time when the fowers of the field cannot be obtained for examination. But it has, we conceive, little or nothing to do with botany as a science,--if we except the ten pages of introduction, and a few plates illustrative of the stamina and pistilla of some of the different classes, which are generally well designed, and will be useful to the young botanist. The plates, it is true, are selected and arranged according to the classes and orders of the Linnæan system; but as there are no dissections to shew the parts of fructification, and, on account of the artificial nature of the system, a single species can scarcely ever be assumed as the representative of a whole class or order, (which may be done in a natural arrangement,) they contribute scarcely any thing to the elucidation of the science. Nor does the letter-press compensate for this defect, as it frequently consists of nothing but the habitat, time of inflorescence, &c. adding, when most copious, a few anecdotes concerning the plant. The botanical description of genus and species, are entirely
ömitted, as if to prevent even the appearance of systematic botany. Stili, however, the whole is so compiled, that we believe it will not be read without interest, by those whom it is likely to benefit. The description of papyrus may be selected as a fair specimen of the author's manner.
• PAPYRUS. . This plant is of the rush kind, and grows in marshes and swamps, on the borders of the Nile, to the height of ten or twelve feet; at the top it has a bushy head, the stem is naked, and has a few short leaves at the bottom. In the British Museum there is a dried speci. men which corresponds to this description.
• From the inner rind of the stem of this plant the ancient Egyptians made their paper; but at what time, it was first used for that purpose is not accurately known. It was, however, in high estimation in the time of Alexander the Great, and probably not long before; for Ptolenny Philadelphus, king of Egypt, when he began to make a great lib ary, and to collect all sorts of books, he caused them to be copied on this newly-invented paper. In his reign it was also exported for the use of other countries, till he prohibited it to prevent Eumenes, a king of Pergamus, from making a library to rival his own at Alexandria. In consequence of this prohibition, Eumenes invented parchment to supply its place : hence parcliment is called pergamena in Latin, from Pergamus, in Lesser Asia, where it was first used for this purpose: not but that skins, both of sheep and goats, were used to write upon by the ancient Ionians some hundred years before this time, according to Herodotus ; but it would seem that Eu. menes invented a new mode of preparing them.
• Paper made from the Papyrus was principally manufactured at Alexan, dria, from the exportation of which the city was greatly enriched ; and in the time of the Emperor Adrian, Vopiscus speaks of one Fermies, who boasted that he could maintain an army with the value of his stock of
. When this paper became to be disused is not known with more accu. racy than its commencement; and the truth is, probably, that they were both so gradual, that no fixed point of time existed for either. As late as the end of the fifth century it was in general use in Europe; and in Italy it. was occasionally used till the eleventh, and in France till the twelfth century, * when paper made of cotton entirely superseded it. Afterwards paper made from linen was adopted, of which there was, reason to believe none was entirely made of that material before the year 1367.
From Papyrus, pupier is derived; and from the ancient custom of writing on the leaves of trees, our book is said to be composed of leaves. Liber is the inner bark of a tree, on which the ancients were also used to write ; and volumen was the manuscript rolled up; hence our words library and volume.' pp. 23-25.
The plates which accompany this work are by no means
* The Bulls of the Popes Sergius II. John XII. and Agrapatus Il. were written in : the eightb and ninth centuries on cotton paper.
+ The first Paper Mill, in England, was erected in the year 1588.
faultless. Thus in Linnæa, though the lower leaves are very properly represented as opposite, the upper are falsely made alternate; the peduncle of the orange is badly figured ; and in melaleuca the position of the leaves on the right hand branch is quite neglected. Indeed few will bear a critical examination, We could more readily pardon these faults, however, than the unnecessarily contracted size of the figures. Polish pomp combined with Polish tastelessness, may still entertain a dwarf or two in the retinues of the great, and teach them to estimate the value of their libraries in the inverse ratio of the size of the volumes; but we prefer human beings that can shake hands with us without the assistance of a ladder, and botanical plates that will give some idea of the growth of at least moderately sized plants. Errors of a more serious nature for the botanical character of the author also occur. It is possible that Mr. R. D. found the alisma plantago in Keswick Jake, and in Wales, as we do not recollect a Lake in Britain which does not produce it. If however, as we are rather apt to suspect, he has a different species in mind, he ought to have known that stra
tiotes alisnioides is, on the best grounds, removed to a different · genus in a different class. The term root is also very io properly applied to lycoperdon tuber.
As for the fourth edition of Lee's Introduction to the Science of Botany ; it may be justly compared to one of those painful searchers of the temper of all notable housewifes, an excellent pye utterly spoilt in the baking. The title we imagine to be intended for a translation of Philosophia Botanica ; the dish consisting chiefly of the disjointed limbs of Linnæus' work of that name. The first part comprising 48 pages, contains a description of the seven parts of fructification; the second of above 350 pages, is devoted to an illustration of the Linnaan System; and the third of about 150, to an elucidation of the different sorts of vegetables. On a subject so often and so ably treated, we cannot expect to see valuable improvements except by persons of extraordinary abilities, and these, not withstanding the respect we may have for Mr. Lee's memory, we cannot think that he possessed, though we do not doubt of his ability to bring the labours of others into a form more applicable to particular purposes. If some parts of his work are by no means what we could desire, there are others which, at least in their design, claim the highest approbation. The second table of Linnæan genera, with their synonymes, and the third with references to their classes and orders, must be useful to every botanist; and the first, exhibiting the changes in the old genera, appears very convenient for occasional re'ference.