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clined to think that Mr. P. errs in ascribing to the original the power of covering and uncovering its eyes; the reticulated cornea of insects, in general, by no means requiring such a defence. It must also be owing to a mistake that the supposed Helmintholithi are introduced into the middle of this section, to which they cannot belong.
In treating of the AMPHIBIOLITII, Mr. P. has availed himself of the labours of Cuvier, and Faujas St. Fond. The tortoise and crocodile are the only known genera, species of which exist in a fossil state. Of the former, specimens, but gene. rally in a mutilated condition, occur in the island of Shepy, and fragments on the banks of the Severn. Some have likewise been found in the excavations on Highgate-bill. With respect to their recent analogues he remarks: It appears that of fourteen fossil tortoises one only appears to be of a known species, and that of the remaining thirteen none can be referred to any known species, but five of them are decidedly of new species.'
The investigation of the different species of crocodiles is al. most entirely borrowed from Cuvier, and leads to an account of the celebrated Maestricht animul, first scientifically described by Mr. P. Camper in the Philosophical Transactions. It appears to resemble the Monitor in many respects; but instead of being a feeble animal two or three feet in length, to have attained to the size of the crocodile, and, from the attendant marine productions, to have inhabited the ocean.
The fossil remains of BIRDS (Ornitholithi) are still rarer than those of insects; and so many pretended specimens have been proved to belong to animals of a different class, that their existence has been almost questioned.' It is, however, indubitably ascertained, that the bones of birds are occasionally found in a mineralized state; and Mr. Cuvier concludes, that the quarries in the vicinity of Paris furnish those of five or six distinct species.
Mr. P. prefaces the remaining part of his work with the following candid acknowledgment.
• Having now to commence the examination of the fossil remains of those animals which are comprised in the Linnean class MAMMALIA, I feel that it may be necessary to endeavour to satisfy you with respect to the manner in which this part of ny task is accomplished. I fear that you will, at first, experience feelings of disappointment, on my avowing to you, that the following pages will almost entirely be employed in placing before you the discoveries which have been made by another; and you will probably imagine that this acknowledgement can hardly be made with out occasioning me to experience some degree of mortification. But the truth is, that knowing, that as you proceed you must be highly pleased, I am thoroughly satisfied with merely recounting to you the most prominent
particulars of 'those important discoveries, which have rewarded the patient and unabating exertions of Cuvier.'- To have admitted less of the discoveries of Cuvier, in the present work, would have been unjust to those many who cannot obtain the voluninous, expensive, and almost prohibited works, in which they are contained. To have introduced less would indeed have been to have sparingly employed the only light almost which has ever been thrown on this most interesting subject.' pp. 307, 308.
We do not regret the plan which Mr P. has pursued, as he has given us a very judicious and valuable abstract of the papers alluded to; but we fear that, in many parts, he adheres to his author's researches in comparative anatomy too closely to be intelligible to many of his readers, who would be satisfied with the results. Mr. P., as well as Cuvier, follows Dumeril in the arrangement of this part of his work. Of the families ceti and amphibia few fossil specimens have been discovered. In the family solipedes, the teeth of a species of horse are found in great' quantities, in some parts of France and Germany, mixed with those of the elephant, which proves that the animal existed along with the elephant on our continent; but whether the species was the same with any now existing, cannot be ascertained.
The most remarkable fossils of the family ruminantia, are the enormous stag's horns found in Ireland, which appear to have belonged to an animal now extinct; but the horns and bones of other species have also been found, differing, in ge. neral, less from those of the present tenants of our globe than the mineralized remains of mammalia are usually found to do. They form the greater part of those immense concretions of bones in the fissures of the rock of Gibraltar, in the island of Cergio, and other places, which have been long supposed to contain the relics of the antediluvian race of man, but which are now proved to possess not a particle of human bone. . After mentioning the remains of the elephant, which are tolerably abundant in several places, Mr. P. devotes an entire letter to the consideration of the Mastodon, of which Cuvier has discriminated several species. Respecting the celebrated Mastodon of the Ohio, he concludes that it
i did not surpags the elephant in height, but was a little longer in proportion; its limbs rather thicker; and its belly smaller.. It seems to have very much resembled the elephant in its tusks, and indeed in the whole of its osteology, and it also appears to have had a trunk. But notwithstanding its resemblance to the elephant in so many particulars, the form and structure of the grinders are sufficiently different from those of the elephant, to demand its being placed in a distinct genus. From the later discoveries respecting this animal, he is also inclined to suppose that its food must have been similar to that of the hippopotamus and the boar, but preferring the raots and fleshy parts of vegetables; in the search of which species of food it would, of course, be led to such soft and marshy spots as he appears to have inhabited. It does not, however, appear to have been at all formed for swimming, or for living much in the waters, like the liippopotamus, but rather seems to have been entirely a terrestrial animal.' pp. 361, 362.
Fossil remains of the rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and tapir, have also been discovered; and Cuvier has detected, in the neighbourhood of Paris, two new genera of the same family, (pachydermata) which he designates by the names of Paleothe. rium and anopłotherium, discriminating four species of each ; the largest, Palæotherium magnum, being about the size of a cow. Thus nineteen species of this family have been ascertained. The inferences which Cuvier draws from the circumstances under which they are found, are so interesting 'as to render any apology for inserting themi unnecessary.
“ These different bones are buried almost every where, in nearly similar beds : they are often blended with some other animals resembling those of the present day.'
“These beds are generally loose, either sandy or marly; and always neighbouring, more or less, to the surface.'
“ It is then probable, that these bones have been enveloped by the last, or by one of the last catastrophes of this globe.
*In a great number of places they are accompanied by the accumulated remains of marine animals; but in some places, which are less numerous, there are none of these remains : sometimes the sand or marl, which covers them, contains only fresh-water shells.
“No well authenticated account proves that they have been covered by regular beds of stone, filled with sea shells : and, consequently, that the sea has remained on them, undisturbed, for a long period.
" The catastrophe which covered them was, therefore, a great, but transient inundation of the sea.
" This inundation did not rise above the high mountains; for we find no analogous deposits covering the bones, nor are the bones themselves there, met with, not even in the high vallies, unless in some in the warmer parts of America.
“These bones are neither rolled nor joined in a skeleton, but scattered, and in part fractured. They have not then been brought from afar by inundation, but found by it in the places where it has covered them, as might be expected, if the animals to which they belonged had dwelt in these places, and had there successively died.
« Before this catastrophe, these animals lived, therefore, in the climates in which we now dig up their bones: it was this catastrophe which de-, stroyed them there ; and, as we no longer find them, it is evident that it has annihilated those species. The northern parts of the globe, therefore, nourished formerly species belonging to the genus elephant, hippopotamus,, rhinoceros, and tupir, as well as to mastodon, genera of which the four first have no longer any species existing, except in the torrid zone ; and of the last, none in any part.” pp. 401, 402..
The Megatherium of Paraguay, and the Megalonix of Vir,
ginia, are referred to the family of tardigradi, though far exceeding the existing species of sloths in size. . Of one of the natural sepulchres in which the remains of thousands of carnivorous animals are most unaccountably im. mured, Mr. P. gives the following account from Esper.
· 'Among the most remarkable of these caverns are those of Gaylen reuth, on the confines of Bayreuth. The opening to these, which is about seven feet and a half high, is at the foot of a rock of limestone of considerable magnitude, and in its eastern side. Immediately beyond the opening is a magnificent grotto, of about three hundred fcet in circumference, which has been naturally divided by the form of the roof into four caves. The first is about twenty-five feet long and wide, and varies in height from nine to eighteen feet, the roof being formed into irregular arches. Beyond this is the second cave, about twenty-eight feet long, and of nearly the same width and height with the former. In this cave the stalactitic crust begins to appear, and in considerable quantity; but rot in such quantity as in the third cave, which is beautifully hung, as it were, with this sparry tapestry. The roof now begins to slope downwards ; so that in the next, the last, of these caves, it is not above four or five feet in height. In the caves forming this first grotto, fragmepts of bones are found, and it is said that they were as plentiful here as they now are in the interior grottoes.
The passage into the second grotto is about six feet high and fourteen feet wide. This grotto, which extends straight forwards sixty feet from the opening, and is about forty feet wide, and at its commencement about eighteen feet high, would commodiously hold two hundred men. Its appearance is rendered remarkably interesting from the darkness of its recesses, and from the various brilliant reflexions of the light from the sta-, lactites with which its roofs and sides are covered. The constant drip of water from the roof, and the stalagmatic pillars on the floor, assist in perfecting the wonders of the scene. In this grotto no search was made for bones, on account of the thickness of the sparry crust.
• A low and very rugged passage, the roof of which is formed of projecting pieces of rock, leads to the third grotto; the opening into which is a hole three feet high and four feet wide. This grotto is more regular in its form, and is about thirty feet in diameter, and nearly round: its height is from five to six feet. This grotto is very richly and fantastically adorned by the varying forms of its stalactitic hangingx. The floor is also covered with a wet and slippery glazing, in which several teeth and jaws appear to have been fixed.
* From this grotto commences the descent to the inferior caveros. Within only about five or six feet an opening in the floor is seen, which is partly vaulted over by a projecting piece of rock. The descent is about twenty feet; and occasioned to M. Esper and his companions some little fear lest they should never return, but remain to augment the zoolithes contained in these terrific mansions. This cavern was found to be about thirty feet in height, about fifteen feet in width, and nearly circular : the sides, roof, and floor, displaying the remains of animals. The rock itself is thickly beset with teeth and bones, and the floor is covered with a loose
earth, the evident result of animal decomposition, and in which numerous bones are imbedded.
A gradual descent leads to another grotto, which, with its passage, is forty feet' in length, and twenty feet in height. Its sides and top are beautifully adorned with stalactites. Nearly twenty feet further is a frightful gulf, the opening of which is about fifteen feet in diameter ; and upon descending about twenty feet, another grotto, about the same diameter with the former, but forty feer in height, is seen. Here the bones are dispersed about; and the floor, which is formed of animal earth, has great numbers of them imbedded in it. The bones which are here found seem to be of different animals ; but in this, as well as in the former caverns, perfect and unbroken bones are very seldom found. Sometimes a tooth is seen projecting from the solid rock, through the stalactitic cover. ing, showing that many of these wonderful remains may here be concealed. A specimen of this kind, which I possess, from Gaylenreuth, is rendered particularly interesting, by the first molar tooth of the lower jaw, with its enamel quite perfect, rising through the stalactitic mass which invests the bone. In this cavern the stalactites begin to be of a larger size, and of a more columnar form.
Passing on, through a small opening in the rock, a small cave, seven feet long and five feet high, is discovered: another small opening out of which leads to another small cave; from which a sloping descent leads to a cave twenty-five feet in height, and about half as much in its diameter, in which is a truncated columnar stalactite, eight feet in circumference.
• A narrow and most difficult passage, twenty feet in length, leads from this cavein to another, five and twenty feet in height, which is every where beset with teeth, bones, and stalactitic projections. This cavern is suddenly contracted, so as to form a vestibule of six feet wide, ten long, and nine high, terminating in an opening close to the floor, only three feet wide and two high, through which it is necessary to writhe with the body on the ground. This leads into a small cave, eight feet high and wide, which is the passage into a grotto twenty-eight feet high, and about three and forty feet long and wide. Here the prodigious quantity of animal earth, the vast number of teeth, jaws, and other bones, and the heavy grouping of the stalactites, produced so dismal an appearance; as to lead Esper to speak of it as a perfect model for a temple for a god of the dead. Here hundreds of cart-loads of body remains might be removed, pockets might be filled with fossil teeth, and ani. mal earth was found to reach to the utmost depth to which they dug. A piece of stalactite being here broken down, was found to contain pieces of bones within it, the remnants of which were left imbedded in the rock.
* From this principal cave is a very narrow passage, terminating in the last caye, which is about six feet in width, fifteen in height, and the same in length. In this cave were no animal remains, and the floor was the naked rock.
•Thus far only could these natural sepulchres be traced ; but there is every reason to suppose that these animal remains were disposed through a greater part of this rock."* pp. 415.418.
* Descriptiou des Zoolithes nouvellement decouvertes d'animaux quadrupedes ia. connus, et des cavernes qui les renferment, &c. par J. F. Esper. 1774.