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Among these relics, Cuvier distinguishes the bones of two distinct species of bears, Ursus spelæus and U. arctoideus, nei. ther existing at present. His researches have also made us acquainted with an hyena, a felis approaching to the jaguar of South America, a mustela, a canis, and several others, found in similar situations. In the plaister quarries of Paris he has also detected three other carnivorous animals."
Mr. P. concludes his work with a consideration of fossils in connection with the strata in which they are contained." This is unavoidably very imperfect. Mr. P. thinks he discovers therein a confirmation of the Mosaic account of the formation of the world. The situation in which the remains of qua-, drupeds are found, may, we believe, be adduced, with perfect propriety, as proving that there must have been a deluge, resembling that described in holy writ, and probably the very same. But by endeavouring to accommodate the phenomena of the other fossil remains to the Mosaic history of creation ; we are likely to do harm to science, and can do no service to revelation. It rather appears from our present knowledge of them, that their formation was anterior to the formless and void state of the earth whence our present habitation was summoned into existence, though certainly subsequent to the creation “ in the beginning.” • With respect to the plates, they are in general neat and elegant, but we must regret the errors and inaccuracies with which they abound. Thus in pl. y. fig. 15. the opening of the shell, if correct, would refer it to a different genus. Pl. IX. fig. 7, appears to be a flat surface, nor is the tracing by any means accurate. The absurdities in pl. XXII, fig. 1. which represents an animal with thirteen ribs on one side, to two of which the right fore-leg is articulated, and ten on the other; as also a pelvis beyond the power of anatomical description; we are willing to pass over, as it is only a copy: but Mr. P. ought to have advertised the reader that these wonders are not to be attributed to nature. He ought likewise to have corrected the Judicrous cranium supporting the Irish fossil horns, Pl. XX. fig. 1.; which appears to have been designed and executed by some Hibernian carpenter, in merry mood, but which should not be suffered to disgrace a work of science.
Mr. P. must excuse us if we notice these defects with a degree of severity. Had his work been less valuable in other respects, we should probably have passed them over without semark. : :
Art. V. Discourses and Dissertations on the Scriptural Doctrines of
Atonement and Sacrifice: 2 vols. 8vo. pp. xxx. 443, and 482. Price 11.48. Cadell and Davies. 1809.
(Concluded from page 269.) HAVING considered the scope of the Mosaic system, we
shall proceed to notice what Dr. Magee has advanced, on the import of prophetic testimony. This topic is not formally discussed, in any of the dissertations; but there is one, w on the death of Christ as a true propitiatory sacri. fice,” (Vol. II. No. xliii. p.1—85), which includes an elaborate and minute investigation of some parts of the 53d. chapter of Isaiah. As this is the most important passage among the ancient prophecies, referring to the sacrifice of Christ, he enters profoundly into its meaning and application. After producing the last nine verses of the chapter, as rendered by Bishop Lowth, he brings forward the readings of ancient versions, and some occasional explanations by Vitringa, Dathe and others. It would be impossible to do justice to the critical inquiry that follows, unless we were to transcribe the whole of it; but as it discusses a very important objection to the doctrine of atonement, and in our opinion completely obviates the difficulty, we shall attempt. a brief abstract of the argument, referring our readers to the dissertation itself, as a masterly display of philological skill in the defence of Christian truth, • It is contended by the opponents of sacrifice, that to bear sins, signifies merely to bear thein away or remove them; that consequently nothing more is meant in use of such an expression, than « removing away our sins by forgiveness ;" and that the medium of reconciliation is not intimated by such pbraseology. In support of this position, it is said that 6 the words in the 4th verse (of 53rd. of Isaiah). Our infirmities he hath borne, and our sorrows, he hath carried then, are expressly interpreted by St. Matthew (ch. yiii. 17) of the miraculous cures performed by our Saviour on the sick: and as the taking our infirmities, and bearing our sicknesses, cannot mean the suffering them, but only the bearing them away or removing them, so the bearing of our iniquities is likewise to be understood, as removing them away from us by forgiveness.”
Dr. Magee confesses that this passage in Matthew has occasioned great difficulty to commentators. But in answer to the objection which, it is imagined, is involved in it, he remarks, that the quotation in Matthew is often supposed to refer to the 11th and 12th verses of the chapter in Isaiah, and is confounded with the reference in the first
epistle of. Peter. On the contrary, he asserts that the evangelist cites the 4th verse, and the apostle alludes to the other passage. This he confirms by comparing the Septuagint version with the text of the epistle. He also suggests on the authority of Dr. Kennicot, that the LXX. translation of the 4th verse (Tas åpaptics nuwe pépes) is corrupted ; that it should be rendered cotévelas; and that in ninety-three instances in which the Hebrew word here translated o pecpria, or its kindred verb, is found in any sense not entirely foreign from the passage before us, there occurs but this one, in which it is so rendered; it being always expressed by wolévesa, paraxír, or some word denoting bodily disease. He then enters on the meaning of the verbs aws and 70 which occur in the antithetical clauses of the verse in question ; and by an extensive survey of various passages, both in the Hebrew and the Greek texts, he arrives at the following conclusion : "That the word xvi when connected with the word sins or iniquities is throughout the entire of the bible to be understood in one of these two significations: bearing, i. e. sustaining on the one hand; and forgiving on the other: and that in neither of these applications, docs there seem any reason for interpreting it in the sense of bearing away : nor has any one unequivocal instance of its use, in that sense ever been adduced. He had before proved that the Greek equivalent of bao, Basaselv, invariably means to bear, in the sense of enduring, lifting up, or sustaining; and after establishing the signification of Xvi, he proceeds to shew, from examples of the use of the other word in the Hebrew, that its meaning is the same as in the Greek language. Having ascertained these points, by an accurate and careful induction, he thus states the result of his investigation. It appears, 1. that neither the expressions used by Isaiah in the 4th verse, nor the application made of them by St. Matthew, are in any degree inconsistent with the acceptation of the phrase, bearing sins, here employed by the prophet, in the sense of sustaining, or undergoing the burther of them, by suffering for them: 2. that the use of the expression in other parts of the Old Testament, so far from opposing, justifies and confirms this acceptation : and 3. that the minute description of the sufferings of Christ, their cause, and their effects, which here accompanies this pbrase, not only establishes this interpretation, but fully unfolds the whole nature of the Christian atonement, by shewing that Christ has suffered in our place, what was due to our transgressions ; and that by, and in virtue of his sufferings, our reconciliation with God has been effected. Vol. II. pp. 68. 69. ·
"I have gone thus extensively," continues the learned author, • into the examination of this point, both because it has of late been the practice of those writers who oppose the doctrine of atonement, to assume familiarly, and, pro concesso, that the expression bearing sins, signified in all cases, where personal punishment was not involved, nothing more than bearing away or removing them; and because this chapter of Isaiah contains the whole scheme and substance of the Christian atonement. - Indeed 80 ample and comprehensive is the description here given, that the writers of the New Testament seem to have had 'it perpetually in view, insomuch, that there is scarcely a passage in either the gospels, or epistles, relating to the sacrificial dature and atoning virtue, of the death of Christ, that may not, obviously be traced to this exemplar : so that in fortifying this part of scripture, we establish the foundation of the entire system. It will consequently be the less necessary to enquire minutely, into those texts in the New Testament, which relate to the same subject. We cannot but recognise the features of the prophetic detail, and consequently apply the evidence of the prophets' explanation, when we are told in the words of our Lord, that the Son of Man came. to give his life A'RANSOM FOR MANY: that, as St. Paul expresses it, he GAVE HIMSELF A RANSOM FOR ALL : that he was offered TO BEAR THE SINS. OF MANY: that God made him to be SIN FOR US, WHO KNEW NO SIN: that Christ REDEEMED US from the curse of the law, BEING MADE A CURSE FOR US; that he SUFFERED FOR SINS, The JUST FOR THE UNJUST: that he DIED FOR THE UNGODLY: that he GAVE HIMSELF FOR US : that he DIED FOR OUR SINS; and was DELIVERED FOR OUR OF PENCES: that he gave HIMSELF FOR US AN OFFERING AND Å SACRIFICE TO God: that we are RECONciled to GOD BY THE DEATH OF HIS SON; that HIS BLOOD WAS SHED FOR MANY FOR THE RÉMISSION OF SINS*, These and niany others directly refer us to the prophet : and seem but partial reflections of what he had before, so fully set forth. Vol. II. p. 70. · The import of these citations is in our view so conclusive, that we are astonished at the perversity of construction, by which their pbyious meaning is explained away. The idea of proper, vicarious substitution, is so inseparably blended, with the entire system of Christian doctrine, that the New Testament appears a mass of unintelligible and contradice, tory assertions, if this fact be either questioned or obscured, On no other supposition than that of its truth, can we account. for the sentiments and feelings of the sacred waters. When the character and mediation of the Saviour are the topics of apostolic dissertation, they seem to exult in their subject. Language is inadequate to the complete
* Matt. xx. 28. 1 Tim. ii. 6. Heb. ix. 28. 2 Cor. v. 21. Gal. ii. 18, 1 Pet. ii. 18. Rom. v. 6. Titus iii. 14. 1 Cor. xv. 3 Rom. iy. 25. Eph. v, 2. Rom. v. 10. Mat. xxvi. 28. . Vol. VII. : isi ii .,%
enunciation of their ideas. The gift of Christ is the sunspeakable gift;" the joy flowing from the possession of it, is " unspeakable and glorifying joy”; the testimony which reveals it, is "the glorious gospel”-“ worthy of all acceptation;" the medium of their redemption, is “ precious blood;" and the faith" by which they become interested in its blessings, dignified by this sublime association, is called “ precious faith.” The more minutely we investigate the New Testament records, especially the epistles, and attend to the scope of the arguments, and the methods of proof aud elucidation which the writers, adopt, the more shall we be convinced of their ardent attachment to their LORD;" and of their unvarying aim, to excite the same attachment in the minds of others. This intense feeling, often rising to the sublimest height of devotion, is displayed, not: so much in the conduct of their reasonings, as in their frequent digressions from the direct subject before them. We may easily perceive what were the prevailing associations of their minds; what were those prominent ideas, under which all the subordinate trains of thought disposed them selves, by which every duty was ' enforced, and which determined, by their proximity or remoteness, the compa rative importance of every other sentimerit. However logical their arguments, and eloquent the language in which they state them, they are evidently too much impressed with their subject to attend to the rules of artificial arrangement. It is the order of feeling which they adopt, and their eloquence is the eloquence of the heart, Deprive the Christian scriptures of that great doctrine which inspired all these lofty emotions, and they not only become inexplicable but pernicious. The enthusiasm of iheir writers is idolatry, and their elevation fanaticism. Instead of deriving from their character à confirmation of their cause, we behold in their transports, passion without reason, " zeal without knowledge.” They were literally what their enemies represented them to be, 6 beside themselves”; and “ certain philosophers of the Stoics and Epicureans,' when they called Paul, “ a babbler," spoke but the truth. There was no meaning in the argument by which this 6 chief of the apostles” justified the ardour of his feelings. When he asserted, or rather judged that " if one died for all," then he should not 66 live to himself, but to him that died for him and rose again," he 6 reasoned inconclusively;" his premises were contrary to fact, and bis inference was unsupported.
The enemies of atonement lay much stress on the different manner in which the evangelists speak of the fact, compared with the language of the epistles. This difference however