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and the infantry are to relinquish their blue uniform, and resume the white one, worn under the kings.”.

Public Instruction is described as in a wretched state. The Lyceums, which are in fact a military institution, are alone effectually patronized by government. "The College of France,' observes M. Faber, and the Museum of Natural History in the Botanical Garden at Paris, have both maintained their character, and the glory of the sciences; both have survived the Revolution : the former remained untouched, the latter has received improvements and accessions.'

Justice is stated to be sufficiently pure in its administration, but intolerably minute and expensive in its details. A technical phrase improperly arranged, a proper name mispelt, 'a number expressed in cyphers instead of being written at length in words, leads to a nonsuit in any stage of a cause.' The judges are described as the most respectable of the functionaries of France; and it is to their virtuous firinness that the safety of Moreau is unequivocally attributed. Their hands are clean; and Bonaparte is under the necessity of consigning his “ dirty work” to special tribunals.

The next chapter is intitled Bonaparte on his Travels, and describes the rapidity of his motions, as well as the forms of his reception at the different towns and cities which he may visit in his tour. The artifices which are used, not to conceal, for he knows it too well, but to cover for the moment, the poverty and privations of the departments--the painted arches, the white-washed walls, and the organized huzzas--are perhaps somewhat exaggerated ; but of their general accuracy we apprehend there can be little doubt.

In these journies, indeed, he displays an activity which astonishes the spectator. No sooner does he alight from his carriage than he receives the authorities. When the audience is over, he mounts his horse, and rides round the town to reconnoitre its situation and its environs. If it happens to be late when he arrives, this reconnaissance is deferred till day. break the next morning, at six, five, or perhaps at four o'clock. Before the inhabitants are out of bed, Bonaparte has often returned to his lodgings. I have known him, immediately on alighting, propose a hunting party, which has lasted several hours. All his surveys are taken with extreme rapidity. Bonaparte, mounted on his Arabian horse, generally leaves those who accompany him far behind; while waiting for them to rejoin him he gains time to niake his observations. With the exception, perhaps, of some general, extraordinarily well mounted, scarcely any one of his suite can keep pace with him ; his favourite Mameluke, Roustan, who attends with the led horses, often cannot. The citizen commanding the guard of honour, who has obtained permission to follow him, is generally the first obliged to give in.

6 Bonaparte has sometimes fatigued two horses ia riding round a town of

a moderate size. Falls from their horses are not at all uncommon to his suite; I myself saw this happen once to Roustan. Bonaparte always seeks the shortest roads; he never follows the windings, and obstacles do not stop him : he leaps over walls, hedges, and ditches, leaving those who follow him to go round. He scales, on horseback, mountains almost inac.cessible to the pedestrian, and descends them in the same manner; he has been seen mounting in this way an ascent almost perpen licular, situated near Aix la Chapelle, and descending from it. He often makes with his Ara. bians most dangerous leaps ; his friends have remarked to him the risks to which he exposes himself; to which he one day answered, “ Do you not know that I am the first horseman in the world » Bonaparte is certainly a good horseman, without grace or dignity, it is true, but with a firmness, and a rare sang-froid, he shews himself every where absolute master of his seat. Wherever he passes he leaves behind him the remem. brance of the rapidity of his course, cf the boldness of his leaps, and of an activity unparalleled.

• However, he always leaves also on the minds of those who reflect, the impression of an activity very different from that of an administrator, it is that of a soldier hardened to fatigue. His circuits round towns are made with the circumspection of a general ; he always appears in the act of reconnoitring spots of ground fit for the positions of armięs, for forts or redoubts. One would say, to see his active haste, that he was preparing to give battle the following day. Round a manufacturing, a commercial, or an agricultural town, Bonaparte's circuits always bear the same charac. ter; he carries the same coup d'eil every where. It is true this coup d'ail is just ; it is always that of an experienced engineer, and one that may become very useful when it is necessary. At first sight Bonaparte will point out the best direction to be given to a projected canal, the best place for establishing or for constructing a port or a dykę. A town situated on a navigable river had for some time wished to establish a port of safety beneath its walls. During many years the engineers and the enlightened inhabitants of the place had discussed and debated on which of the given points this port should be placed. Opinions were divided. Bonaparte at the first view pointed out the preferable spot, developing, without hesitation, the motives dictated by the ground, by the declivity of the waters, and the direction of winds. His opinion had been always that of the most enlightened and the most experienced men in all the country.? pp. 209–211.

There is something exceedingly, and, in cur opinion, very absurdly theatrical, in the manuer in which he conducts him. self when addressed, complimented, or chcered.

Never is the least impression visible on his countenance; nothing astonishes, nothing rejoices him. When he is spoken to his physiognomy remains immoveable. If he ask questions, it is in the tone of command, He will be answered with quickness; he will be promptly obeyed. It were better to give a false answer than hesitate.'

We shall add an extract or two more from this chapter, just observing; that M. Faber seems more ambitious to write fively than to sketch accurately,

He alone forms his world. Men are nothing to him; they are the means, himself is the end. His mouth is hideous when he smiles on them; it is a smile of contempt, a smile of pity, which cheers cowards in the terrible immovability (immobility) of the rest of his features. This solitary smile has been given to him by Heaven.'

He is simple in his private manners, in his tastes, and in his wants.'-- . He speaks little, he speaks without selection, and with a kind of incorrectness. He gives little coherence to his ideas; he is satisfied to sketch them by strong outlines.'

• Every portrait of Bonaparte will be known, even if it should not resemble him.'-' It requires only lips, where the contempt of men eternally resides, to be placed between the protuberance of such a chin and the concavity of such a transition from the nose to the upper lip.'— I have i studied the eye of Bonaparte, that eye shuns inspection.'— This eye suffers nothing to escape of what is passing within ; it appears dull and fatigued by the efforts to which it has served as the organ.' I should like to see this eye when it wants sleep....Does it ever close !-How sleeps Bonaparte ?'

The horrors of the Conscription,—that dreadful scourge, which, under the more high-sounding title of ballot for the line, has been recently recommended by an able military wria ter for adoption in this country,--form the subject of the next section. We need not enter into the detail. The mechanism of this powerful engine is well known, and its agonizing effects we are reluctant to describe.

The concluding chapter of this work is occupied by a history of the origin, successive changes, and actual state of the French National Guard. The details are distinct, and, we believe, accurate; but as they are sufficiently known, we shall exempt ourselves from the recapitulation. It is among the evils resulting from the ill-fated expedition to Walcheren, that it has put another powerful weapon into the hands of Bonaparte, by enabling him to register for military purposes, in addition to the conscription lists, all the male population of his empire from 20 to 60 years of age.

On the whole, this volume contains, with some original matter, a clear and well arranged summary of the subjects which it professes to include. It is an excellent lounging book, and will, we dare say, enjoy a popularity at least equal to its merits.

399)

· Art. VIII. Remarks on the Refutation of Calvinism, by George Tomline,

D.D, F.R.S. Lord Bishop of Lincoln, and Dean of St. Paul's, Lon· don. By Thomas Scott, Rector of Aston and Sandford, Bucks. Two

vols. 8vo. pp. 1192. Price 11. 1s. Seeley. 1811. TO every one, who has read the Bishop of Lincoln's Refu-'

tation of Calvinism, it must have appeared a matter of great surprise, that his Lordship should have taken so little notice of the tenets, reasonings, and writings of modern Calvinists. The work was published professedly for their conviction; and his Lordship must have been well aware, that, though they agree in many articles with Calvin, they have in several particulars moulded his doctrine into a more mild and plausible form. Instead of impugning what he imagined to be their doctrine, or chose to attribute to them, he should have allowed them to speak for themselves, and argued against their tenets in the shape which they actually give them, and in which they wish them to be maintained. His Lordship's mode of proceeding will, no doubt, be variously interpreted, according to the opinions entertained of his intentions. Whether he designed to make his adversaries odious by a misrepresentation of their doctrines, or found it impossible to refute them, if correctly stated, or was really ignorant about the matter, is more than we can presume to determine. · Be this, however, as it may, to the very suspicious procedure of his Lordship, that of Mr. Scott, in these Remarks, may be advantageously contrasted, as ingenuous, candid, and manly. To make our readers sensible of this, and at the same time to enable them to form an adequate conception of the nature and contents of Mr. Scott's volumes, it is material to say, that, instead of the slight cursory observations on detached parts, which the term remarks' seemed to promise, they turn out to be a perpetual commentary, now and then swellipg into dissertations upon the whole-extracts as well as original composition-of his Lordship's work. Every page, every line of the Refutation, has undergone a severe examination. No arts have been employed to distort or disguise his Lordship's tenets, or enfeeble his arguments in support of them; the whole of what Mr. Scott has made the subject of animadversion, being copied into the margin. Mr. Scott has stated his own doctrine with great simplicity and honesty ;' never attempting, by the misrepresentation or concealment of any point, to give it a form more agreeable to the profane and worldly. He never abuses his Lordship; nor endeavours to discredit his notions, otherwise than by argument. He has such a conviction of the truth of his own opinions, that he seems to think his arguments have only to be heard, if not to

convince others, at least to justify his own belief. In a word, it would be difficult to turn to so large a book of controversy, on any, much less on a theological topic, that discovered more fairness, more common sense, more teniper, and withal more piety and benevolence.

Having noticed the merits of Mr. Scott's volumes, we must be allowed to say a word of their blemishes. The Bishop's book was not very orderly or methodical; and though the worthy Remarker has given a satisfactory reply to every thing -important and insignificant in the Refutation, yet the plan of his work, which is, as we think, exceedingly injudicious, has given rise to several faults, which, so far as they affect its popularity and efficiency, are very much to be regretted. The Remarks are quite desultory and miscellaneous. They abound with repetitions. They have so accumulated on the author's hands as to have become immoderately bulky. Hence it is very wearisome to read them, and quite impossible to obtain, at once, a complete view of any one point in dispute ; the author having stated it, perhaps, in one part, cleared it of misrepresentations in a second at a great distance, and adduced arguments in favour of it in a third ;-the reasonings, it is obvious, thus separated and disjointed, lose much of their weight and cogency. The work is, therefore, incapable of any analysis; and we have been at considerable pains in selecting, from different parts of it, such particulars as have an affinity to each other, in order that such of our readers as inay not be endowed with the requisite patience to work through about twelve hundred pages, may be able to form a notion of the disputed points, and estimate the weight of the Remarker's argumevts.

We think it right to begin with stating, in a few words, the tenets held by modern Calvinists, both churchmen and dissenters. We are the more inclined to do this, as Mr. Scott had it in view, as a very important end, in these remarks, to explain to their aniagonists the doctrine they maintain ;* and as such statement is necessary, in order to determine to which side the evidence inclines. · These persons, then, as Mr. Scott, from more than thirty years observation, assures us, hold: that men, now they are fallen, though capable of discerning between good and evil, and of preserving, from secular considerations, a decent, and, in one sense of the word, even virtuous deportnient, are yet totally depraved, being averse to good, and inclined to evil :t that while they are free agents, doing evil spontaneously, and with perfect good wili, so strong and universal is the propen

* Remarks, Vol. I. 305.

+ Ibid, 11. 18. 21. 10,

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