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some expedients for conciliation he gave to the Bishop of Winchester such a general commission with respect to the settlement of the College, as 'the Bishop chose to consider as authorizing him to restore Dr. Hough to the station, and the Fellows, who had also been expelled for their fidelity to themselves and bim, to the privileges of their establishment."
The whole of Dr. Hough's life after this transaction, a space of more than half a century, appears to have been an almost uninterrupted course of health, serenity, and un-' ostentatious goodness, perfectly free fror ambition, and clear of all the passions and vexations of party 'in' church' or state. He is said to have had the offer of Canterbury,! and we have really no difficulty to believe, that it cost him but a very slight effort to decline this golden summit of the 'ecclesiastical eminence. He became bishop of Oxford about the fortieth year of his age, and died bishop of Worcester fifty-three years afterwards. He lived happily in the married state 'from about his fiftieth to about his seventieth year; and his recollections of his departed wife, throughout the long period that he survived her, are expressed in the genuine language, of tenderness and regret, mingled with pious anticipations of reunion. Almost all the amiable virtues seem to have met in such harmony as to constitute a very extraordinary unity of cliaracter; and, in default of great energy and talent, it derived from a des votional spirit a dignity and elevation, which not the talents and energy of even Warburton could confer, in the absence of this nobler attribute.
Mr. Wilmot's part of the work is free from all offensive. pretension, written in a plain style, and with 'much forbearance of general observations. The mémoir is unavoid.“ ahly very meagre, and to give it a tolerable appearance of length, recourse is had to the expedients of epitaphs, will and codicil, and the description and praises of the Bishop's. monurnent by Roubiliae in Worcester cathédral, which is indeed a very fine one, and which is here represented in. two exquisite engravings. The other engravings, of remarkable beauty, are two portraits, one froni a picture taken when the Bishop was foray, the other from a picture which represents a more pleasing countenance at the age of ninety-one.'
There are a few extracts of sermons, in which several passages occur, the doctrine of which we could have wished more strictly conformed to the articles of the Church of England. - At the end of the volume is one of the Bishop's
last charges to his clergy, given entire ; and it displays such a serious earnestness about the substantial business o the Christian ministry, as we wish there were any"chance of seeing generally imitated in the charges of the venerable preacher's successors.
As to the Letters, which constitute three fourths of the contents of lhe book, we must honestly say that we wish about one in twenty had been selected, and all the rest surrendered to the fate from which the writer would have protested against rescuing even one of them for an appearance in print. They are for the most part mere written chit-chat, about ordinary personal concerns and local incidents, addressed chiefly to two ladies, old friends of the bishop. The language is very neat and easy, sometimes elegant, the compliments are prettily, without being very artificially, turned, and there is a great deal of the truest kindness and benevolence. But the wonder, the insuppressible wonder is, what is become of literature, of theology, and of the great affairs of the moral world. The ladies addressed are persons of education, and fortune, no strangers at Court, and familiarly acquainted with ever so much high life; but from the abstinence of these letters, of a bishop and scholar, from all intellectual matters, we cannot help drawing a very unfavourable surmise, as to the state of mental attainments and habits allowed at that time as compatible, in females, with respectability and rank. Did Dr. Hough never correspond with contemporary scholars, high liberal ecclesiactics, or statesınen, with whom important questions were to be discussed, and therefore some use made of the most valuable acquisitions of a long life? What a relief would a few letters of this kind have been here and there, in this most tedious course of polite gossip about cousins, and visits, and godsons, and her ladyship's summer journies, and the changes of family residence, and the matches of young lords with heiresses. It is fair, indeed, to acknowledge, that it is no fault of the Editor's, that such a relief is not afforded; for he has made great efforts to obtain any and all letters of: the bishop, of which he could discover any trace of the existence: but it is his fault that, having failed to recorer what may be, presumed to have been the valuable part of the bishop's correspondence, he should not have declined offering a temptation to the waste of precious time among benevolent trifles and graceful nothings, and to waste it. under the kind of sanction that will be naturally taken from the circumstance, that the paragraphs we are reading were,
written by a distinguished, learned, pious, and every way excellent prelate. 4. Just here and there, occurring very rarely in this unconascionable printed length of little easy gossip with his 'female acquaintance on temporiry inatters, there is a brief passage of some thought and interest. One of tliese comes out with a most prominent appearance at page 272, iu answer to a recommendation from one of these friends to read Mrs. Rowe's Letters from the dead to the living, which, being published anonymously, were by the bishop
attributed to a writer of his own sex. Do I have read the letters you · recommended to me. The manner in which they are written is agreeable enough, and I really believe the Author to be a sober, honest, virtuous person ; but some of his phi. losophical notions are a little out of the way, and by no means elevated to the dignity of a blessed Spirit. The Elysian fields were too much
in his head, and he gives the eyes and ears more employment than *.99 exalted understanding is willing to allow them. Surveying the
works of God will undoubtedly be the noblest entertainment to an inquisitive mind, and carry its admiration of infinite wisdom and power and its love of infinite goodness, to the utmost height; but the beauty of outward forms, the harmony of instruments and voices, and above all the splendour of other planets, their magnificent buildings and delightful prospects, are more suited to the low ideas, which our present narrow capacities dispose us to consider, than to any thing that Chirstianity sets -before us, or indeed, that a reasonable soul would condescend to take up with. If I had the honour of conversing with you, I could spend more time in further reflections, especially on the fifth Letter, but at present we will add no more than that, I am &c.'
The good bishop is very successful often at a compliment, somewhat in what may be called the old court style, but with a lighter, easier, neater turn of expression than the politenesses of Richardson's personages, and with a most evident sincerity of kindness. Now and then he gives little amusing notices of some of his occupations, but generally his least important ones. A little sparkling of genius thrown over these sketches, would, in a few instances, remind us of the descriptions of diminutive employments in the letters of Cowper. i A very exemplary strain of thankfulness and humble sub
mission to Providence is maintained through every recorded - part of the bishop's life. And these sentiments are disclosed in a very interesting manner as be advances into extreme old age, and consciously approaches the last scene. Two months before his death, he writes thus to a clergymạn, one of his friends :
"I apprehend I shall not live' to see much more of the coming year, though I wear out leisurely, and am free from sickness and pain; bat strength declines and memory fails. The moderate degree of understanding which God was pleased to give me does not impair. The famous Mr. Waller was of opinion that age improved it ; I am sure experience does. But as the contrary often falls out, I have strictly charged those about me, that when they discover symptoms of such a change, they suffer no consideration to conceal it from me.'- I have no doubt but that, when our gracious Redeemer comes in all his glory to judge mankind, you and I, with all faithful people, shall, through the mercy of God, and his Merits, find a place at his right hand. What our portion may be in his kingdom, is known only to his father, and bimself, but this is revealed to us that there are pleasures above our conception and durable to all eternity.' f. 86. ,,
In the same spirit of tranquil resignation and hope he wyrote to Lord Digby only fifteen, and to Bishop Gibson. only four days before his death. And the serenity continued to the last hour. ..'.;.; ja, 'nezas.. .? ici, ciri
It appears that this venerable' prelate could not withstand the remarkably severe weather in March and April of the year 1743. His constitution, however, struggled against it for a few days after he wrote this last letter to the Bishop of London; but at length, he expired without a groan on the 8th of May, surrounded by some of his friends and neighbours, who attended him in his last moments, to whom he said, “ We part, to meet again, I hope, in endless joys." . .." Art. XI.. The Mosaic Creation : illustrated by Discoveries and Ex
periments derived from the present enlightened state of Science ; to which is prefixed the Cosmogony of the Ancients : with Reflections, intended to promote Vital and Practical Religion. By Thomas Wood. 8vo. pp.
436. Price 8s. Baynes. 1811. HOWEVER ingenious the design of this Inquiry may be, an attentive I perusal has not qualified us to say, that it is quite faultless in point of execution. Mr. Wood, we think, is rather too popular. Instead of indulging his readers with profound and original criticism, he has pre. sented them with a collection of facts that elementary treatises of the most portable description could easily supply. On this account we must confess, that the expectations we had formed from the author's annonce have not been altogether realized. In a volumne having to do with "ancient cosmogonies and the enlightened state of science,” it was really somewhat superfluous to insert a minute explanation of the geographical terms-island--ocean-lake, fc. &c.; together with a great deal of matter equally interesting, such as that, resin is useful in paintingturpentine in medicine with resin the bows and strings of musical in. struments are rubbed, to render them more sonorous; '-- flowers, please comfort--and fruits are eaten either raw, boiled, roasted, or pickled, &c. &c.
It is proper to remark, however, that this censure extends only to a small portion of the volume. The greater part of it, consists of a very
agreeable and interesting detail of the general facts of astronomical science, and natural history; in which are intermingled inoral and religious reflectioas, tending to excite the feelings of grateful and devout admiration. On subjects of this, nature, Mr. W. seems at home; and we highly approve the attempt of supplying the spiritual improvement of philosophical investigations.
The first chapter is on the “ Heathen Cosmogony,” and states the 'absurd opinion's entertained by ancient philosophers, concerning the origin and creation of the world. It is a remarkable fact (which we are a little sur.prised at not finding distinctly noticed by our author) that the proper idea jof creation, never possessed the minds of the most enlightened pupils of nature. All their systems of cosmogony, attributed to the gods only the power of arranging, not of making the universe. Hence matter was thought to be eternal by some, and by others so identified with the Deity, as to exclude the notion of any separately existing principle. It was reserved for the pure philosophy of revelation to teach us, that “ the things which are seen, were not made of the things which do appear." c. The second chapter includes seven distinet sections, the first of which is a disquisition on the existence and perfections of God. The doctrine of the Trinity is here scripturally defended, and its authorities clearly adduced. Why Mr. W. in classifying the natural and moral perfections of Deity, has referred omnipotence to the former, and power to the latter class, we are unable to explain. The succeeding lectures treat on the
creation of light,'-' the atmosphere,' the earth and seas,' the sun and moon,– fishes and fowls,' -- quadrupeds and man. This method of arrangement, founded on the Mosaic account, has enabled the author to exhibit a valuable compilation to the young and devout inquirer : but has at the same time betrayed him into occasional repetitions. The last chapter is on “ the institution of the sabbath.”
Before we close our account of the work, it may be proper to give an extract or two. The following contains a piece of information, which to some of our readers, may possibly be new.
• The names of our days are of Heathen origin. The seven planets were anciently looked on as presiding over the affairs of the world, and to take it by turns, each one hour' at a time, according to the following order ; Saturp first, then Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and last of all the Moon : hence they denominated each day of the week from the planet, whose turn it was to preside the first hour of the nuchthemeron. --Thus, assigning the first of the twenty-four hours of Saturday to Saturn, the second will fall to Jupiter, the third to Mars, and so the twenty-second' will fall to Saturn again, the twenty-third to Jupiter, and the last to Mars. On the first hour of the next day it will fall to the sun to preside ; and by the like manner of reckoning, the first hour of the next will fall to the moon, &c. Hence the days of the week came to be distinguished by the following names, and to assume the following order-Dies, Saturni, Solis, Luna, Martis, Mercurii, Jovis, Veneris : hence amongst us the Saxon names, respectively answering these.' p. 97.
In another part of his volume Mr. W. thus illustrates a pa sage in Hosea.