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view shall have been habitually confined to a dull lerel tract, will perhaps have the most cause to complain of the effect on his imagination. This tract may be extremely rich, ảnd, by a plentiful supply of provisions to the markets, and to the farmer's and cottager's families, may render to the community a much more important service than that of giving a picturesque cast to the imagination of here and there a musing and susceptible mind; and it must doubtless be a man of no ordinary enthusiasm for mental perfections and ideal possessions, that would forego the good things of a dull but plentiful territory, and be willing, during a course of years, to fare like the High-. landers, just in order to acquire, by means of habitually viewing bold and magnificent scenes, a greater vigour, and à richer furniture of imagination. But let the importance of the mátter be estimated as it may, the fact will be, that the man of sensibility and genius, who shall have lived a series of years in such scenes, will display in his discourse and writing a more vivid character and power of imagery, than the other man, of equal capability, who shall have spent the same number of years in a dull flat region, where, after residing some considerable time, he will become sensible of a certain tamenéss stealing over his fancy, correspondent to the monotony of nature around him. By the very constitution of the mind, we are compelled, ' to think in images, the severeşt efforts of intellectual abstraction not being able to carry the mind beyond the sphere of ideas of material forms. The images of objects that are the most constantly presented to us, will the most promptly offer themselves to us in the train of thinking, to lend as it were their shape and colour to our ideas, and to furnish endless analogies; and the more that any man possesses of the faculty of imagination, the more in proportion, of course, will the series of his thoughts be embodied and clothed in images, and accompanied by analogies. Now it is obvious, what a difference there will be between a series of thought which takes into its train, as it proceeds, the images that have been assembled in the mind from habitually beholding varied, romantic, and sublime scenes, and that series which passes through a mind in which the habitual set of images is chiefly derived from an uninteresting and monotonous scene of the world. Besides, ä mind in this latter situation will have a really less awakened and active imagination-less. aptitude to make a happy use of such images as it may posses.

And what has all this to do with Iceland ? Why only thus much, that we meant to say, any man of genius who may feel his imagination tamed and sunk in consequence of his having resided a long period in some dull, flat, and (if sạch an epi. thet máy be applied to any part of the kingdom of nature) Vol. VIII.

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e mind proceeds series is obvious images, the

mind il sublime scen trom habituallymages that have

28 the most insupportable ill of the human mind, and which her whole life seems to have been consumed in an ineffectual effort to avoid. We see her repeatedly complaining of existence as an irremediable evil, and yet owning her repugnance to quit it. We see her by turns dissatisfied with all her friends, and for ever doubting the reality of friendship-though eagerly seeking its support, and indeed, on her own part, fulfilling its duties. . Much of this ennui must certainly be attributed to her blindness, which, making her entirely dependent apon others for every species of occupation and amusement, converted society and conversation from an indulgence and a luxury into an absolute necessary of life:--but much too must fairly attach to her character, to the habits of a mind, naturally lively and acute, uncorrected by any real education, unsustained by any real religious principle.'

This estimate of her character we take to be strictly just. With talents that extort admiration, there is nothing about her, to respect or love. Incapable of noble thoughts and generous sympathies, she appears on every occasion the slave of vanity and caprice. For such a character to be happy was impossible; and it is a satisfaction to reflect, that no one will be likely to rise from the perusal of these letters, with a wish to imitate, or a disposition to envy it.-We ought to add that the publications are in some points of such a nature, that we cannot recommend them to indiscriminate circulation.

Art. III. Journal of a Tour in Iceland, in the Summer of 1809. By Wil.

liam Jackson Hooker, F.I.S. and Fellow of the Wernerian Society of

Edinburgh. 8vo. pp. 562. Price 15s. Longnan and Co. 1811. IT has been ascertained, we suppose, by the experience of

many self observant men, that, in a mind partaking at all of that kind of sensibility which is akin to genius, soine degree of correspondence takes place between the habitual state of the inagination, and the character of that scene of external natura which is most constantly presented to the senses. Let two persons, endowed with an equal share of sensibility to this external scenery, be allotted to pass seven or ten years of life, especially during its more susceptible periods, the one on the sea-coast, the other generally out of sight of all water but that of the draw-well, the one in a dreary, the other in a cultivated and beautiful part of the country,—the one amidst a scene of n.quotains, rocks, and cataracts, the other on a dead flat, with a heavy regularity of horizon, he one in a deep confined valley, the other on a comnyanding eminence with a vast and diversified landscape ;--and at the end of the term, the state of the imagination, considered as an active power, will be exceedingly different in the two persons; and the quality of the figures, and of the colours, which it will supply to accompany and illustrate the communicated thoughts of the one and the other, will speedily indicate in which of the contrasted scenes each of them has resided. The man whose

view shall have been habitually confined to a dull lerel tract, will perhaps have the most cause to complain of the effect on his imagination. This tract may be extremely rich, and, by a plentiful supply of provisions to the markets, and to the farmer's and cottager's families, may render to the community a much more important service than that of giving a picturesque cast to the imagination of here and there a musing and susceptible mind; and it must doubtless be a man of no ordinary enthusiasm for mental perfections and ideal possessions, that would forego the good things of a dull but plentiful territory, and be willing, during a course of years, to fare like the Highlanders, just in order to acquire, by means of habitually viewing bold and magnificent scenes, a greater vigour, and a richer furniture of imagination. But let the importance of the mátter be estimated as it may, the fact will be, that the man of sensibility and genius, who shall have lived a series of years in such scenes, will display in his discourse and writing a more vivid character and power of imagery, than the other man, of equal capability, who shall have spent the same number of years in a dull fla't region, where, after residing some considerable time, he will become sensible of a certain tameness stealing over his fancy, correspondent to the monotony of nature around him. By the very constitution of the mind, we are compelled to think in images --the severeșt efforts of intellectual abstraction not being able to carry the mind beyond the sphere of ideas of material forms. The images of objects that are the most constantly presented to us, will the most promptly offer themselves to us in the train of thinking, to lend as it were their shape and colour to our ideas, and to furnish endless analogies; and the more that any man possesses of the faculty of imagination, the more in proportion, of course, will the series of his thoughts be embodied and clothed in images, and aecompanied by analogies. Now it is obvious, what a dif ference there will be between a series of thought which takes into its train, as it proceeds, the images that have been assembled in the mind from habitually beholding varied, roman-, tic, and sublime scenes, and that series which passes through a mind in which the habitual set of images is chiefly derived from an uninteresting and monotonous scene of the world. Besides, ä mind in this latter situation will have a really less awakened and active imagination-less aptitude to make a happy use of such images as it may posses,

And what has all this to do with Iceland? Why only thus. much, that we meant to say, any man of genius who may feel, his imagination tamed and sunk in 'consequence of his having resided a long period in some dull, flat, and (if sạch an epi. thet máy be applied to any part of the kingdom of nature) Vol. VIII.

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erence panied thoughts more

vulgar province of our country, may do well, if there is nothing arising from the consideration of time, or 'money, or health, to forbid him, to make a little expedition to Iceland, where every thing will strike him as new, and strange, and marvellous; where the dull tranquillity of his mind will be broken up as by a volcanic commotion; and where such an assemblage of phenomena will rush on his senses, as might almost create an imagination though nature bad given him none. ,

The voyage thither will, indeed, by bringing him in view of some of the mountains, coasts, and islands of Scotland, so rouse his faculties and change the state of his ideas, that he will not be suffered to feel, in absolute perfection, the contrast between a homely but fertile English county--with its mea. dows and corn-fields, its hedges, high-roads, and villages, and here and there a hill or å stone, barely worth half an hour's - walk aftei dinner-and the wild and dreary magnificence of

these dominious of alternate frost and fire. Were so sudden or so unconscious, a transition possible as, to prevent any gradation of ideas, he might' well be content to accept this contrast instead of a visit which be, like many other imaginative persons, may have sometimes wished to make to another planet.

If circumstances, as may too probably be the case, should forbid a man this expedient for ridding himself of the tameness and monotony of intellectual scenery, to which he has been reduced by being long situated amidst a similar tameness of external nature, he may at least call in so much assistance as one or two of the descriptions of Iceland will afford, for disturbing the grievous dulness of his ideas. And Mr. Hooker's book may be deemed one of the best of these descriptions, allowance being made for its brevity, and for the limited range to which his time and imperfect preparations confined his hasty súrvey.

Ve had only three day's warning of so considerable and uncommon an adventure. Amidst the disappointment of a project of a voyage to a tropical climate, a proposal came to him from Sir Joseph Banks to go on board a merchant-ship, which was, in this very short space of time, to set sail from London for Iceland. The opportunity was gratefully and eagerly seized, the best preparations were made which so few hours allowed ; he embarked at Gravesenů, June 2d, 1899; and, after getting out to 'sea, ran more than six hundred miles in three days. A sensation of a much stronger kind than would ordinarily arise at the first view of a foreign shore, the shore, for instance, of the United States, or the West or eveu the East: Indies, was excited by the first appearance of this austere region. ;

About the hour of midnigbr, on the 14th of June; we descried land is

the horizon, or rather snow, for, as we approached it, we could discover nothing but mountains of prodigious magnitude, covered on every side with snow, and most distinctly, seen, from being backed by a dark cloud, though at the distance, as we computed, of fifty miles. ; On the highest ridge of these mountains were sone huge angular and projecting precipices, which cast a deep shadow on the white snow, when the early rays of the sun were striking upon them, breaking the uniformity of such an extended outline, This range of mountains we afterwards discovered to be Klofa Jocul (Jocul means a range of snow mountains,) in the south-eastern part of Iceland, and Mr. Phelps and I gazed upon it with astonishment and delight till a late hour in the morning. Such a scene was quite novel to us, and the circumstance of our contemplatipg it all night long did not at all diminish its effect. p. 5. a. ,

91. LIB . A few days after, they passed Westman’s Isles, on the coast.

The whole groupe appears perfectly.barren,' and they rise to a vasť height, and of the strongest shapes, perpendicularly from the sea. We had a ma znificent view as we passed close by them with a light brecze. As we proceeded, the different sides which came to our view presented. different shapes and appearances; in some, these, sides hung over the deep, as if they would fall every instant; others had a perforation at their botn toms, through which a boat under sail might pass, all of them were of a dark brown colour, but whitened in places by the dung of the immerse quantity of birds which constantly, frequent them. p. 6. wisten,

After several days of rough weather and tiresome beating about, and one instance of imminent danger from a sunken . rock, they got fairly into the direction of the bay of Reikevig, the capital of the island, and were carried in by some pilots, whose appearance and manners, as presenting the first moral sample of the country, engaged our author's utmost curiosity, The novelly, the grotesque character of countenance and. dress, and the social, and, as it should seem, friendly disposi, tion, prevented that unmingled disgust' which would oiher. : wise have been excited by their extreme filthiness, of which, the several offensive marks and circumstances are recounted, They evinced a prodigious power of execution on the ship's. eatáble stores, and they appeared to recognize, with intuitive : sagacity, that great principle of European wisdoin which the grand disturber of Europe is trying to explode, viz. that there is no enduring existence on this side the Adlantie, without the leave and the assistance of planters on the other side'; for thes testified the liveliest satistaction at the sight of souff and to. bacco, even the boys of fourteen making interest' for a share of the latter. The humblest class of the inhabitants cannot but, with extreine difficulty command a little of this laxury; but snuff is in general use, and is employed with sohiule: Deatness, as to give a disgusțing appearance to the visages ofthe people... Ib point of clothing, these pilots were, as inight be expecied,

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