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general wanted none of the qualifications, which the Institute exacted in its perfect prince.'
• Magnanimity, and fortitude, were to stand beside the awful throne of Him who was to smile amidst the shock of empires. The fear of death was not before him; the love of voluptuousness could not touch his ascetic heart; the joy of ambition was his solitary enthusiasm! To become more than man, he ceased to be a man; and the general of the Jesuits had neither brother, nor friend, nor country!'
To establish the supreme dominion of this perfect government,' the whole world was to be previously disorganized.
** To divide and to reign," was but the first step of the universal despot-another! and the Colossus bestrides the iwo hemispheres ! It was in a general innovation, the great usurper was to grow and feel secure. When all was a rude heap, his hand would remould the heavy chaos.When old governments were forgotten, new dominions would stand in the freshness of youth and hope, for all parties. And to make men adhere to his fortunes, he was to wind their own destinies with his. There was but one great end for the Mighty One! All was to be troubled for him to flourish!
The Jesuits, we are told, sought to extend their power in South America, by creating dissention and jealousy between the courts of Lisbon and Madrid. At Lisbon, Jesuitic craft insinuated that Portugal was heavily aggrieved by Spain; at Madrid, that Spain was the dupe of Portugal. Madrid trembled for her Peru, and Lisbon for her Brazils; and each seemed to behold the other, insidiously approaching to the heart of its power; while the adroit politician was wrenching two empires from their master.'
To Jesuitic influence is ascribed that spirit of ambition in the French councils, whence sprang the wars in the middle of the last century. Tellier, confessor of Louis XV, prompted by the instructions of Ribadeneira, touched the secret spring in the soul of the monarch.' : The vision of conquest passed before the eyes of the king. Louis hastened to council. A hạrried signature, formed by the phrenzy. of ambie tion and the tremor of hope, “ covers the face of the earth with the foot of his armies. The sword devouring like famine, and famine sharper than the sword.”
The crowned egotist glances in the distant perspective, at the lilies of France on the towers of Vienna. In the garden of Italy the human flower itself must perish. Thy tears, Germany, must fall, but thy lamentations shall be heard. Spain reposing in her olive groves, starts from her lethargy to join the general massacre of mankind. Holland presses on Britain. The north is shaken, the south trembles. America and Asia watch for the bright spark in Europe that kindles the general conflagration-Juthless and remorseless, war deyouis its million, and another, and
another must succeed. And wherefore ? for the ambition of France the whisper of a Jesuit !
: This is so much in the style and spirit of the sublime vaticinations to be met with in Moore's Almanac, that, for aught we know to the contrary, the author of that popular work may be the rightful owner of the passage. - We cannot follow the author any farther in his detail of the arts and the crimes which the Jesuits practised in the pursuit of their object. The truth of the facts referred to in the varrative is pretty well corroborated by the bistorical anecdotes subjoined; and however frightful the picture, there does not seem to be much reason for disputing the likeness. The his. tory of the little senate of Port-Royal,' who long combated the Jesuits in their usurpation of the dominion of the mind,' but finally sunk beneath their political intrigues, is not one of the least interesting portions of the work. We were also pleased with the sketches which are introduced relative to the Venetian republic; though they are but slightly connected with the main subject. Many of the chapters are cast in the form of dialogue ; and it is but fair to say that some of these conversation-pieces do credit to the author's talent for dramatic painting. Ribadeneira’s interview with the Pope, who had summoned him to answer the complaints of Father Naldi; with the Princess of Aldobrandini, whose sons had been torn from her by the seductive authority of the Jesuitic autocrat;' and with Rebello, one of the agents in the Lisbon conspiracy; and “the last scene of all," whicle closes with the death of Ribadeneira, are among the happiest of these dramatic sketches. The dialogue between the general and Rebello we would transcribe, as the most favourable specimen that can be given of the author's manner, could we afford sufficient space. That conspirator, who had not managed matters to the general's satisfaction, is ordered, by way of penance, to repair to the chambers of meditation, which are situated among the accursed mountains.' The narrative of this mysterious journey, though strongly marked with the faults that are common to the whole performance, contains many passages powerfully descriptive.
The latter part of the work relates to the conspiracy at Lisbon, which, as is well known, terminated in an unsuccessful attempt against the life of the King of Portugal, Sept. 3, 1758, and led to the expulsion of the Jesuits froin that kiugdom. The Marquis of Pombal, the evil genius of the Jesuits, by whom their designs were frustrated and exposed, is now brought upon the stage. He joins the conspirators to mar the plot, and, more artful than Ribadeneira himself, foils the ge
neral of the Jesuits with his own weapons. A messenger are rives from Lisbon, bearing dispatches from the minister. ... Ribadeneira opened the letter and read:
6" A DESPOT annihilates a DESPOT, and Portugal is saved! Thy king is in fetters ; thy heroes ascend the scaffold; and thy enslaved people shall soon dissolve away in the vastness of their diffusion. Ribadeneira! I respect thy bold ambitious spirit; I thank thee for the lessons thou hast taught me; and I know the courage of thy genius. Oh, man! alike great and criminal, the hour of retribution closes the days of thy triumphs. Look on the face of this youth-he is the son of Santiago--the son of thy murdered brother, and the messenger of thy fate! He precedes the courier to his holiness, who brings the definitive sentence of the courts of Portu. gal, of Spain, and France. Live, and the scaffold is prepared! Die, and accept the friendship of an enemy!”
He swallows poison, and expires in the presence of the vice-general, and the young Santiago.
The fall of the Jesuits is a tale of other times, which may be thought not to need to be told again : yet as pourtraying a political system, whose genius seenis revived in our age, the author hints that his work ought by no means to be considered as coming forth out of due season. But where and among whom has this wonderful phenix arisen fronı its ashes? Often, when describing the mental qualities of Ribadeneira, and the spirit of the Jesuitic government, it is evidently the author's object to direct his reader's attention to the character and schemes of the ruler of France. But, though he does not express himself very clearly on the subject, it should seem to be something different from French politics that he more especially alludes to as affording proof of the existence of Jesuitism in our own times. We copy the following passage, which is to be met with at the end of the notes. .. Why were the Jesuits expelled from all the nations of Europe with this indignant and abrupt violence ? Because their chiefs were political intriguers, great intermeddlers in state affairs, deluded by excessive vanity and pride, and much too powerful and too rich ; properties which ill be. come a MISSIONARY Society!"
As to the complaints which have been brought against the Missionary Society by sone who, we believe, are the avowed friends of Christianity, we shall not, on this occasion, say any thing. However differently the minds of our readers may have been impressed upon that head, there can be but one opinion respecting such an insinuation as this. Wé consider it, really, as not worth the trouble of an answer-teluni imbelle sine ictu." is . 1 1st
If the author have not succeeded in producing a work emi. nently distinguished for sublimity and wit, his failure most
assuredly has not arisen from any lack of exertion. With tortuous act and head aside,' he labours incessantly to hit the mark, vainly striving at the same time to conceal the painful. ness of the effort, and to place himself in an attitude of grace. ful ease. His style, generally neat, and sometimes elegant, is frequently spoiled ly affectation. He is never satisfied with a sentence till he has worked it to the point of an epigrain. In his endeavours to 'soar and shine,' instead of attaining an ele. vated and brilliant diction, he perpetually becomes turgid and obscure. It is this enigmatical quality more especially, that puts us out of humour with the present performance. Pro. fessed riddle-books excepted, we never read for the purpose of being puzzled : and if this writer do not possess hiinself of other oracular properties besides a propensity to utter dark sayings, he must not expect his admirers to be very numerous.
Art. VI. Christian Ethics ; or Discourses on the Beatitudes, with some · preliminary and subsequent Discourses ; the whole designed to explain, recommend, or enforce the Duties of the Christian Life. By Thomas Wintle, B., D. Rector of Brightwell, in Berkshire, and formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. In two vols. 8vo. pp. 540. Price 18s. Long.' man and Co. 1812.
TN reading these volumes we have found ourselves in a condi
tion somewhat like that of a traveller, who, after being enticed into an inn by the inviting assurances swinging at the door, instead of the comfortable entertainment promised him, cannot even procure a sufficiency of wholesome food to satisfy the cravings of nature. From a work assuming the title of Christian Ethics, we had no doubt of obtaining a comprehensive and accurate description of human duty. If we did not anticipate much of the sublime or pathetic, we looked at least for precepts animated with the glow of piety, and enforced by the solemnities of the invisible world. In these most moderate expectations, however, we have met with' a total disappointment. The work is entirely devoid of the qualities essential to a treatise of Christian ethics. In the delineation here attempted of human duty, many great virtues, such as justice, the love of God, and charity, have no distinct space allotted them, and are scarcely treated of even in the most cursory manner. The discourses now printed together in these volumes, it will be found, were not originally composed to form, a treatise; this was the author's after-thought, and hence, instead of the continuity and coherence of a book on one subject, they have all the independence, looseness, and repetition of separate compositions. Not one virtue is described with the semblance of delicacy and precision. It never assumes a dis
tinct character, nor a proper place. When our author pretends to explain any branch of duty, it is without the least degree of animation. His recommendation of it is frigid to an extreme; and although he has not overlooked the principles of rerelation, yet before he has done with them, they lose much of their energy and lustre, and are very fär indeed from being so interwoven and incorporated with his precepts and exhortations, as to operate on the heart.
It will, no doubt, be expected that we should confirm this description of Mr. Wintle's discourses by a few examples. Of bis confusion and inaccuracy the whole work may be taken as an illustration, since such extracts as the following may be found in almost every page. Our carnal inclinations, or such gratificutions as proceed from a too free indulgence to our animal propensities,' p. 46. vol. ii. "To have the heart clean, is the foundation of every virtue.' p. 42. v. ii: "Toa mind thus prepared,' (that is by humility, penitence, and meekness) the main object of pursuit will be in geiteral the practice of universal righteousness and holiness ; of which the three principal branches are mercy, purity, and peace,' p. 1. vol. ii. Without noticing the inaccuracy of calling mercy, purity, and peace the principal branches of righteousness,' observe the confusion of thought that represents a mind prepared for the prac.. tice of what is fundamental to all virtue, by the possession of three of the most eminent virtues. The following sentence is partly incorrect and partly absurd.' . The command of the temper is almost utterly extinguished in the sensualist; and the insolence of a licentious tongue often usurps the seat of reason,' p. 48. vol. ii. Our author's reason, as it seems, bas a position remarkably different from that of other men.
There are several articles of Christian doctrine, on which Mr. Wintle speaks in a manner that we think is by no means' consonant with the articles and homilies. He allows, indeed, the corruption of man's nature by the fall, but yet his language, on many occasions, intimates that he thinks it very slight. For instance, he says, “We are strongly disposed to appetite and passion, and are sometimes very much heated and in. fluenced thereby.' p. 150, vol. ii. It will be expedient for us to endeavour to recover ourselves into the right way by a:tempting to acquire such a change in our lives and habits, as may render us not unfit objects of the divine favour.' p. 145, vol. i. This last sentence, besides that it is objectionable, as giving an erroneous notion of the powers of our nature, turus. the view from Jesus Christ as the medium of acceptance with God; and when interpreted by the following passage, must be pronounced unscriptural. Of a notorious sinner, he says, 'It will be well if he can wash away the guilt of his manifold trans