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PART 11.]
On Polar Magnelic Varialion.

597 posite latitudes and longitudes. It is thus made out, after a long period, the evident, that the half of the west divin conjugate diameter 2, 4, of the orbit sion will give the farthest south, and will be obtained. The lives and prothat of the east, the farthest north part perty of a great proportion of maritiine of the magnetic equator, constantly nations depend in a great measure, on changing on account of the movement the solution of a problem of vast moof the poles in contrary directions. ment; and a serious responsibility atThis will give on the section, the pre- taches where delay will prevent the sent south point of the magnetic equa- accomplishment of a national object. tor, nearly'at d of Fig. 1. The pole The pole is now moving in a northn, properly speaking, is on the west east direction, as proved, by comparside of the section, Fig. 1, but is as. ing the accurate observations of intresumed there, to demonstrate the ac- pid navigators. Ere long it will pass tion of the south east pole, on the on, under uncomeatable regions, for a south end of the needle. . Suppose the long period of years. The process, north west pole 5, not to exist, the dip while it can be followed, is obvious, of the needle at d would be the angle safe, and facile. A run of a few dehdb ; and supposing there were no grees from the north coast of America, south east pole n, the dip at d would in such vessels as Sir John Franklin be the angle adr. As these two poles, had, would lead to P, the former place at an equal distance froin d, neutralise of the pole, and where it would now the effect of each other, the needle no longer be found ; but, probably, at will be horizontal on the tangent adb. some point, such as a of fig. 3. The In moving from the point d of the latitude and longitude of a, where the magnetic equator, to the northward, or needle would stand perpendicular, southward, the needle is found to in- would be carefully taken. In five cline downwards, or dip to the nearest years more, the position a would be magnetic pole ; while the other, or visited, when the dip would indicate more distant, will atıract the higher, that the magnetic power had moved on and repel the lower end, inversely, as to n. After another period, it might the square of the distance. Ai the be found at v, beyond which any farpoint P, where the needle will stand ther pursuit might be impracticable; perpendicularly over the pole 5, the and would be unnecessary, as the naeffect of the pole n will be inconsidere ture of the polar orbit, and rate of able, as it will be very nearly in the movement, would thus be distinctly line of the needle in that position. If made out. The readiest inode of find. we could at all times find the precise ing these points in the polar curve, place of each magnetic pole, a requisite would be to move on the line of no correction could be calculated, and ap. variation at the time, till the needle plied to the apparent dip of the needle. slood perpendicular on the point An error of one degree, either in the sought after. The orbit of the southplace of the pole, or in the complement east pole would be discovered by a siof the dip, will be found by trial, to milar procedure; and if ice prevented make a difference of sixiy miles in the it at any point of the line of no variadepth of the pole, and of 42 in the lion, oscillations of the needle, comlength of the transverse diameter, 5, 6, pared with similar ones in a similar of the real polar orbit.

: lacitude and longitude on the line of It remains to have made known no variation in the northern hemiwhat may be the number of degrees of sphere, would by analogy, furnish the latitude which the pole may be distant place of the souih-east inagnetic pole. from N, the earth's north pole, when The east variation, equally as ihe in the situations 2 and 4 of its orbit, west, is occasioned by the position of supposed, for illustration's sake, to be the north-west pole P, in reference 10 on ihe parallel of 80° of fig. 3. The the earth's pole N; and not by any moving pole will arrive under the me. imaginary pole in the north-east quara ridian of 10° west longiinde, in 180 ter. For instance, the people ai D, years, reckoned from 1817, or in the have an east variation NDP; and they year 1997. ll will then be found by will have no variation, when the pole The dipping needle, to be at 4, after comes under their meridian, which is describing one fourth part of its orbit, the same as that of London. The inor some unknown curve, such as P4 of habitants at B, have an east variation, fig. 3. The points 4 and 2 becoming NBP, and will have no variation,

598
On Polar Nagretze Variatur.

(xcix. when the pole will twice cnme under frin te errate: 200 having in its their meridian, at +, the first quarer, pizde tre ansverse camere, 5, 6, of and at 2, the end of the thirt quarter the atrror priar cr 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, of of the whole orbit, Pun! at irir. ic. 2. Tie see ra is to be supposed The inhabitants ar 4, n. no viruon paruivel to the 1200, and standing at with the pole at P, bar p ava 10 rontantes no shears of one hunincreasing west rac00, s le port drei si bosisie. Sorpose radi moves in is curre jrer the soins , p2ssin tron C, tie ana's centre, and 1. Trust incears inat de 13- Chrono tre an inal points, 5, 4, 6, zie sole P, account or every sectio- ani ?, they weud terminate on the non ot arazon; so in die soune furrice ac P, #, #, and , of . 3; bernspiere, 1:0 ) de seu'n erat : the cur pricepal points of the or the seedile is that prae sa icted elempc pciar orbit, cn every part of on, sui site yırat ons reex Cart from .cn the needie wil staod nearly the acra end of te leer e, but we percendcolar, when the magnetic pole dio there, is necessar y reconei ate in its real interior orbit is on the radius souca aren:, mccat sanctoa or sen diameter of such point. There toute forhip.

being so data for ascertaining the It is to be soriced, that every mar. lecgua of the conjuzate dirineter 4, 2, nerisei needle is 320n yapon the number of miles which the maze neee; and that it 9 reaccred mor netic power moves annually in its real zoari deed.e by beis: be sacerd aod 204 seasible, or apparent orbit, cannot attached to a card. Each end of the be oocained till the important experi. Beedle will point to its relative pole rectal process described shall have only when the nee le lies in tbe plane of been followed. The number of miles the two magner:c poles. In every other condot probably exceed eight in the situation each pole will prevent the exterior orbit, and which will ensure needle from pointing exactly to either; halt a degree on the equator, because and the attraction and repulsion of the the pole moves through the whole more distant pole will be always, ac. amount of the equatorial degrees, in cording to what has been stated, show. 720 sears. ing strongly the necessity of the indis. To a persoa at G, at the upper part of pensable process recommended. section, fig. 9, the dip will be greatest

The dip of the needle has been dis when the pole is at 2 of its orbit; and minishing from the period of the dis. will diminish while it is moving durcovery of this phenomenon by Nor. ing 300 years through the west half tan. Ag due attention was not paid of its orbit, 2,5, 4; and will increase in former times to the coincidence of while moving through the eastern the centre of gravity and centre of mo. semiorbit, 4. 6, O. To those situated tion, recorded observations, though in. at R, the effect will be the reverse; accurate, are still sufficient to show the and to both it will be similar, when fact of a diminution of dip, which I the pole is at 4 and 2. To those situ. shall attempt to explain by a ralionale, ated at E and W, the dip will increase founded on statements sanctioned by a when the pole is moving inwards from theory resulting from experiments and 2 10 5, and from 4:06, in the opposite calculation. It is requisite to refer to quarter-orbit. The dip will dininish plain and linear plates, because while the pole is moving outwards to" Segnida irritant animos demissa per au

wards the circuinference, from 5 10 4, and from 6:0 2 of ihe opposite quarter

of the orbit. When at the points 2, Quam quw sunt oculis subjecta, fidelibus."

and 4, the dip will be siinilar; and Granting that Cavallo, in 1775, ob. when at 5 and 6, it will be apparently served the dip with tolerable accuracy, the same. The case is different wben we find at London its amount to be the observer is not, as here, situated in 72° 3', to be compared with the pre- the plane of the polar orbit. Al pre. sent dip of 70°. This for 64 years sent, the magnetic pole or power is gives an annual decrease of 2' 16." 6. moving eastward in its interior orbit, The question necessarily arising is, froin 5, the utmost point of westing in when did the decrease commence, and fig. 2, towards 4 ; and the quarter of when will the increase begin? Let its interior curve cqual to 5, 4, will fig. 2 be a section through the parallel correspond with the fourth part of the of latitude AB of fig. 1, and 34o 30 exterior orbit found by the dipping

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PART 11.]
On Polar Magnetic Variation.

599 needle, or P4 of hig, 3. That the pole spheric air. It is constantly Aowing is moving in this curve, or in some si. between the two poles, and occasions milar one, is proved by the experienced the action of the needle in their direcdiminution of what is termed the VA- tion, by the inverse rule. It may be RIATION ; that is to say, the angle of probable that it is the known princivariation NLP, is found now to be less ple inherent in these magnetic powers, than it was when the pole was at P, viz. mutual altraction and repulsion, the farthest point to which it moved in which retains them in their orbits; its constant course eastward. It is while, like the planets, they cannot evident that when the pole is in the more out farther in the description of position 4 of fig. 2, it will be nearer 10 Auid in which they nianisesily move The surface of ihe earth, on the side on at a certain distance from the centre of which Loudon is situated, then it will the earıh. The Sacred Writings in. be at 2, the opposite part of the inte. form us that the earth is inanis ct rior orbit. li follows from this, that cooperta ;" and philosophers agree, that in London the dip of the needle will were it solid, increasing in density to be at its maximuin when the pole is the centre, it could not float in eiher, at 2, and at its minimum when it ar- at ils present distance from the Sun. rives at 4 ; and consequently that the The resistance offered by the ethereal dip will diminish while the pole, as at Auid filling space, must be inconsider. presenı, is describing the western half, able ; as the earth, without having the 2, 5, 4, of its orbit, and increase while globular form of its atinosphere even it is moving ihrough the other or easi. deranged, fies in its orbit at the stated ern half, 4, 6, 2, or 4, m, 2, os fig. 3, rate of eleven miles and a fraction in a which indicates the corresponding or second of time. Its weight must, on bit on the surface. There will be a received principles, be equal to the point between 5 and 4, and between weight of the bulk of ether which it 6 and 2, where the diminishing and displaces. This makes exceedingly increasing dip will be cqual. li must against solidity to the centre. Were be also manifest, that io inhabitants such the case, it could not by any who are nearer to the point 2, than 10 kuown laws of malier have assumed the place 4 of the orbit, the dip will be the form of an oblate spheroid, which of a differing description; or in gene- must have arisen from its having yieldral, that it will depend on the greater ed into that shape in consequence of or less contiguity io, or distance from, the rotatory motion round iis axis. If the relative extremities of the conju. these arguments, here merely slightly gate diameter, 4, 2, of fig. 2, or 4, 2, a touclied, apply rationally to the mocurve of fig. 3, on the surface. From tion and construction of the earih, not knowing nearly the length of the how much, à fortiori, must they bear conjugate diameter 4, 2, it cannot at on such a planet as Jupiter! Professor present be determined, whether the Leslie, in his recent.Elements of greatest diminution of ihe dip will be Natural Philosophy," writes lumi. at 4, and the greatest increase at 2 of nously on this subject. He says that fig. 2; but these circumstances will an absolute void is impossible; and take place when the pole is contiguous that the subterraneous carily must be to, or at the parts 2 and 4 relatively, in filled with some diffusive medium of the polar orbit.

astonishing elasticity. From a clear The diurnal variation minutely de train of induction, he says that “the scribed by Canton, and observed first great central concavity is not that dark by me in the southern hemisphere, as and dreary abyss which the fancy of stated in the Philosophical Transac- poets has pictured. On the contrary, tions, is now decidedly reduced to the ihis spacious internal vault must conaction of the solar heat, the great source tain the purest ethereal essence, light, of magnetism, and found to be a mo- in its most concentrated state, shining dification of, and intimately connect with intense refulgence, and overed with, galvanic electricity. The powering splendour.” After all, I magnetic fluid pervades all space, and fear we must consess that all substances; is equally active in va. "Not deeply to discern, not much to know, cuo and in pleno ; and is so subtle, Mankind is born to wonder and adore.' that no test can discover in what proportion it is incorporated with atino.

JOHN MACDONALD.

600 Rev. Wm. Ainsworth, and Samuel Sunderland, Esq. (xcix.

Mr. Urban, Lightcliffe, Dec. 30. Ainsworth's “ Triplex Memoriale," TROM some papers in my posses- contains several strong complaints of

T sion, I gather that, in the year the poverty of the Clergy in those 1632 the Rev. William Ainsworth days; particularly at p. 78, where he (before noticed in pp. 290, 498), was says: living at Crownest, in the chapelry of

“ The Ministry in this Church of EngLighicliffe, in the parish of Halifax.

land is, for the most part, the poorest trade This appears to have been his own

that any man drives, the inferiour sort of estate ; but, in a few years afterwards,

Ministers having neither a competency while I find it in the hands of another pos

they live, nor provision made for their fasessor. “Res angusta domi” may milies after their death, contrary to the probably have obliged hiin to dispose practice of other reformed Churches. Every of his little properly, and this circum. man thinks he is at liberty to pay to the stance may explain the use of the Minister, or furbeare, though he be con. tera, “unfortunate," which he applies tent to be bound in every thing else. Men 10 himself in the conclusion of his de

would have Ministers to burne their lamps,

but will afford them no oyle to keep in the dication to his patron. In 1647 he was presented by the

light; like Pharaoh's hard task-masters, Vicar of Halifax to ihe Perpetual In

they think we should make brick without

straw." cumbency of Lightcliffe, which he held until 1650.

And a liutle further: “ Samuel Sunderland, Esq." one of "The poorest Ballad-singer and Piper in Mr. Ainsworib's patrons, was born in the country live better of their trades than this parish in 1600; he went to Lon. Ministers do." don, where he carried on the business

I shall only observe, that if this was of a Woollen-draper, in which he was

the case in the succeeding reign, it is eminently successful; and he was

not to be wondered at that so many an Alderman, and paid the fine ex

Curates suffered themselves to be ejectempting him from serving the office of

ed from the Chapels in this neighSheriff. Aster be had relinquished his commercial pursuits. he resided at bourhoodt. It is said, inat Mr. Ains. Harden near Bingley; and died in Feb.

worth taught school, potwithstanding 1076, s.p. He was a great benefactor

which he declares, that by reason of to public charities in ihis part of the

the late civil storms, he was as poorly

provided of accommodations for study, county, and particularly to the Free prona Grammar-school at Hipperbolme, in

as Cleanthes was for writing his philo this parish, as will appear from the

sophical notes, when, having wrought

all day long in the vineyards, he wrote following inscriptions :

at night on bare bones instead of paper, “ Libera Schola Grammaticalis Hipper

Yours, &c. OLICANENSIS. homiæ a Mattheo Broadley, armigero, primitùs fundata, post a Samuele Sunderland In p. 498, for Rooker read Rookes. aucta, qui ambo patriæ chari, et pauperibus benefici, hoc legatum famæ suæ monumentum posteris reliquêre, 1661."

A. D. observes, “ In a late highly im

proved edition of Debrett's Baronetage, the Over the entrance to the Head

family of Strickland of Boynton, is deduced Master's house :

from a Roger Strickland of Marske, in the “Sl. Sunderland, Arm", dedit, 1671." county of York. Any particulars of this On the facade of the present school,

Roger would greatly oblige. William Strick

land, son of the above-named Roger, and erected in 1783 :

said to be the first of the family who settled “ Literarum ergo et virtutis scholam

at Boynton, appears to have married a Hipperholmiæ, instituit et dotavit Mat daughter of Sir Walter Strickland, of theus Broadley, Armig. * 1661 ; stipendium Sizergh in Westmoreland ; what relatious, auxit Samuel Sunderland, Armig. 1671; et if any, were they to each other? This quorundam benevolorum liberalitate hoc no- William died at an advanced age in 1597." vum ædificium publicæ utilitati dedicatur, 1783."

+ There are twelve Perpetual Curacies in

the parish of Halifax, of which the Vicar is * Matthew Broadley was a native of Hip- the patron; and the Curates preach at the perholme. He lived in London, where he Parish Church on the first Wednesday in acquired a large fortune in trade. His will every month, in rotation, in conformity is dated Oct. 15, 1647.

with the will of Nathaniel Waterhouse.

PART 11.]

( 601 )

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.

The History and Antiquities of the Conven- marks of the Saxon style, by what au

tual Church of St. James, Great Grimsty, thority are they Normanized. We by with Notes illustrative and explanatory. no means blame Mr. Oliver ; but we By the Rev. G. Oliver, Curate, &c. 8vo. know the notion which has been inpp. 52.

culcated, that every architectural reM R . Oliver is distinguished for la- main is Norman, in defiance of au11 borious research, and he only errs thentic history, which gives us dates when he charitably adopts other peo- of the actual edification. ple's illegitimate children. In his his- It has been noted, that when power iory of Initiation we had occasion to falls into the hands of the vulgar, it is notice his patronage of the helio-arkite exercised in a most violent pernicious theory, and here again we have to par manner. We venerate the memory of ticularize other erroneous premises, for Gervase Holles, esq. more than once which he is not to blame. In page 9 mayor of Grimsby, and one of its repreit is stated, “that with respect to the sentatives in Parliament; for excellent Saron style it is asserted that there is are his collections still preserved in the not a single specimen of a complete British Museum.* It appears that his Saxon church now in existence in this superior mind was intolerable to the kingdom; but there are parts of reli- lower orders of freemen, and that a sucgious structures, which were doubtless cessor in the mayoralıy, a Mr. Booth, erected before the Conquest."

was much influenced by him. An unNow we know, that the church of fortunate fellow, named Proctor, who Kilpeck in Herefordshire is affirmed, happened to be church warden, was in the Anglia Sacra, to have been con- mulcted in the enormous penalty of secrated in the time of the Conqueror, 201. merely for saying, “ihat there by Herwald, Bishop of Landaff, who were two mayors.". This happened in also consecrated, in the time of Edward the year 1639, and the Confessor and Harold, “ Henul “In the same year, Mr. Proctor, the lam, Dubric, and Lantilio, in uno ce- churchwarden, informed the Court, upon meterio," (Anglia Sacra, ii. 671.) Kil- his oath, that Mr. Paul Willet, minister peck we have examined, and can safely and twelveman, required him, the sayd allegate, that it has a quite different Samuel Proctor, to present William Booth, aspect from other churches, and has Maior, and Gervase Holles, esq. for laughing undergone no other alterations than in the Church, or else he would present him. perhaps a wooden porch, or some such p. 22. trilling thing. If investigations were We are inclined to suspect, from the made of various Welch churches, men- ensuing ordinance, that the members tioned in history, we are sure that se- of the Corporation were in the habit veral would be found anterior to the of attending church in their every day Conquest, which have undergone little working dress ; for, by an ordinance in or no change ; and, oddly enough, the 1592, " the Bayliffes and Twelve are leading difference, viz. that the com- ordered to sylie where they are apmencement of mullions in the windows poynted, and in decent apparell.The marks an æra, has either not been no- rank of the husband also extended to ticed or very slightly. According to the wise; for in the same ordinance it such observations as we have been able is further commanded, that “ the ale 10 make, the striking difference of the drisses, the wives of the Twelve and Saxon and Norman (though the rule xxiiij, do syte according to the appoyntmay not be without exceptions) is, that ment."' p. 23. in the former the arch is very lofly In p. 28 Mr. Oliver quotes old Ful. and the pillar short; and in the Nor. ler's explanation of the collar of SSS, man vice versa. If in Domesday there frequently occurs the mention of priests, Mr. Oliver quotes those in the Harleian the existence of churches also follows department. There are others as valuable of course ; and if such churches exhibit in the Lansdown collection.

GENT. Mag. Suppl. XCIX. Part II.

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