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be absurd to say that civilization is promoted by an increase of crime, if by "increase" we mean a multiplication of evil deeds, (the legal definition and the punishment of crime remaining the same) it is yet perfectly true to say that civilization in the long run is promoted by that “increase” of crime which is caused by an extension of the category of acts branded by society as criminal, the total number of evil deeds remaining unchanged.

I have some fear that Dr. Hall in these pages has not always been sufficiently careful to emphasize the distinction that I have just made. The attentive reader, however, will have no difficulty in discovering that Dr. Hall is not trying to demonstrate anything so absurd as a beneficial reaction of harmful deeds. And I am sure that those who examine the book as a study of results attributable to the long historical process of extending the category, "crime," over larger and larger areas within the field of socially injurious conduct, will find it a positive contribution to our present knowledge of this immensely important subject.

FRANKLIN H. GIDDINGS. Columbia University.

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CHAPTER V

THE EUROPEAN ARYANS.

Customs of the primitive Aryans..

Crime among the early Romans, Greeks, Slavs, Celts and Teutons

115

118

CHAPTER VI

THE ANGLO-SAXONS IN ENGLAND.

Legal customs and courts of justice

Evolution of the tort...

Nation building through the might of king and Church......

The extension of the king's peace and change of torts into crimes

The power of the Church and the punishment of sins as crimes.

Wise King Alfred and education through social punishment

The “ good old laws" and their development. .

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129

130

132

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137

139

CHAPTER VII

ENGLAND UNDER NORMANS AND PLANTAGENETS.

National unity and the usefulness of despotism.....

William the Conqueror and the “ Lion of Justice

Social anarchy and the decrease of crime.....

Beginning of the “ Reign of Law”....

Reserved pleas of the crown and new forms of crime

The bold, new scheme of justice..

146

148

151

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246

CHAPTER XI

MODERN ENGLAND.

An era of domestic peace and material prosperity, but abundant crime...... 249

The death penalty for even petty offences inimical to the new social life.. 254

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