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be absurd to say that civilization is promoted by an increase of crime, if by "increase" we mean a multiplication of evil deeds, (the legal definition and the punishment of crime remaining the same) it is yet perfectly true to say that civilization in the long run is promoted by that “increase” of crime which is caused by an extension of the category of acts branded by society as criminal, the total number of evil deeds remaining unchanged.
I have some fear that Dr. Hall in these pages has not always been sufficiently careful to emphasize the distinction that I have just made. The attentive reader, however, will have no difficulty in discovering that Dr. Hall is not trying to demonstrate anything so absurd as a beneficial reaction of harmful deeds. And I am sure that those who examine the book as a study of results attributable to the long historical process of extending the category, "crime," over larger and larger areas within the field of socially injurious conduct, will find it a positive contribution to our present knowledge of this immensely important subject.
FRANKLIN H. GIDDINGS. Columbia University.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Punishments among monkeys, apes, elephants and wild cattle, ants and
the more intelligent bird communities
CRIME AMONG SAVAGES.
The fundamental problem of every human society
Head-strong individualism and three powerful socializing instincts
The three great primitive crimes : treason, incest, evil-witchcraft
No idea of moral guilt originally connected with them
THE EUROPEAN ARYANS.
Customs of the primitive Aryans..
Crime among the early Romans, Greeks, Slavs, Celts and Teutons
THE ANGLO-SAXONS IN ENGLAND.
Legal customs and courts of justice
Evolution of the tort...
Nation building through the might of king and Church......
The extension of the king's peace and change of torts into crimes
The power of the Church and the punishment of sins as crimes.
Wise King Alfred and education through social punishment
The “ good old laws" and their development. .
ENGLAND UNDER NORMANS AND PLANTAGENETS.
National unity and the usefulness of despotism.....
William the Conqueror and the “ Lion of Justice
Social anarchy and the decrease of crime.....
Beginning of the “ Reign of Law”....
Reserved pleas of the crown and new forms of crime
The bold, new scheme of justice..
An era of domestic peace and material prosperity, but abundant crime...... 249
The death penalty for even petty offences inimical to the new social life.. 254