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27 ceive. For the heart of this people is become gross, and

their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with

their ears, and understand with their heart, and should be 28 converted, and I should heal them.' Be it known therefore

to you, that the salvation of God is sent to the gentiles; who 29 will hearken also to it.” [And when he had said these

words the Jews departed, and had great disputing among

themselves.] 30

And he' dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, 31 and received all who came in unto him; preaching the king.

dom of God, and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, with all freedom of speech, unhindered.

"Paul dwelt. R. T. and N.



1 1

CHAPTER I. i Paul,

a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, 2 separated to the gospel of God, (which he had promised

before by his prophets in the holy scriptures,) even the go3 spel concerning his Şon, who was born of the race of David, 4 according to the flesh', but proved to be the Son of God

by power, according to the holy spirits, through his resur

rection from the dead;) * the gospel, I say, concerning Je5 sus Christ our Lord; (by whom we have received the fa

vour of an apostleship, for preaching obedience to the faith i Or, by natural descent. See ch. ix. 5. * Gr. determinately marked out, N. 3 Gr. spirit of holiness.

* The apostle could not mean by this phraseology and the antithesis which he here uses, to assert or countenance the strange and unintelligible notion of two natures in Christ, one the human nature, by which he was the descendant of David; the other a divine nature, by which he was the son of God. The sense of the passage is plainly this, that Christ by natural descent was of the posterity of David, but that in a figurative sense, by designation of the boly spirit at bis baptism, he was the son of God: or the promised Messiah, which was further proved by the extraordinary exertion of divine energy in raising him from the dead. See Mr. Lindsey's Second Address to the Students of the Two Universities, p. 276. Christ is called the Son of God for two reasons: First, because this title is equivalent to that of Messiah, and was so understood by the Jews, John i. 50: Thou art the son of God, thou art the king of Israel. Compare Mark i. I; Luke iv. 41; xxii. 67, 70. Secondly, he is called a son of God as having been raised from the dead to an immortal life. In this sense Christ is called the first-born, having been the first human being who was put into possession of this glorious inheritance. Col. i. 15, 18; Heb. i. 6; Rev. i. 5. All believers, as heirs of the same inberitance, are also sons of God. John i. 12; Rom. viii. 14–17; 1 John iii. 2. Hence they are said to be brethren of Christ, and co-heirs with him; and he is the first-born among many brethren. Rom. viii. 29. These are the only senses in which the title, Son of God, is applied to Christ in the genuine apostolical writings.


among all the gentiles, for the sake of spreading his name; 6 among which gentiles are ye also, the called of Jesus Christ;) 7 to all the beloved of God, and called to be saints *, that are

in Rome: favour be to you, and peace +, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world. 9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the

gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of 10 you; always requesting in my prayers that by some means

now at length I may have a prosperous journey by the will 11 of God, so as to come unto you. For I long to see you, that

I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, that ye may be 12 established: which is, that I may be jointly comforted

among you by our mutual faith, the faith of both you and me. 13 But I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that I have

often purposed to come unto you, (but have been hindered

hitherto,) that I might have some fruit among you also, even 14 as among the other gentiles. I am debtor both to the Greeks 15 and to the barbarians; both to the wise and to the unwise. So

then, as much as lieth in me, I am ready to preach the gospel 16 unto you also that are in Rome. For I am not ashamed of

the gospel?: for it is the power of God? unto salvation, to

every one who believeth; to the Jew first, and to the gen17 tile also. For thereby God's method of justification | by faith is revealed to faith': as it is written, “ Now the just 18 by faith shall live *.' For the anger of God is revealed

my whole spirit, N. but without any authority from Mss.

? the gospel of Christ : R.T. 3 most powerful ; or, divinely efficacious, Sn.

* « That this term comprehends the whole body of christians, appears from Acts xxvi. 10; Rom. xii. 13; 1 Cor, vi. l; Eph, iji. 8; Heb. iii. 1; 1 Pet. ii. 5,9; and from many other places. All christians were thus called because they were dedicated to God: 1 Cor. vii. 14: and because they professed a religion which tended to make them holy: 1 Cor. vi, 11.” Newcome.

+ Gr. grace and peace. Grace in the apostie's writings stands for the gospel, which is a free gift of God. Peace is a usual expression for blessings of every kind. The apostle expresses his earnest desire that all the blessings of the precions gift of the gospel may be communicated to the christians at Rome. † “ The original word is often used by St. Paul for God's treating men as See Doddridge. from faith to faith is revealed, N.

from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of 19 men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness: for what may

be known of God is manifest among them; for God hath 20 manifested it unto them: for, from the creation of the

world, the invisible things of him are clearly perceived, being understood by the things which are made: even his

eternal power and providence +: so that they are without 21 excuse”, because, when they knew God, they glorified him

not as God, nor gave him thanks; but became vain in their

reasonings, and their inconsiderate heart was darkened: 22 professing to be wise, they became fools; and changed the 23 glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like to

corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and

creeping things. 24 Wherefore God (on his part] gave them up to unclean

ness through the desires of their hearts, that their bodies 25 should be dishonoured among themselves; who changed

the true into a false God , and worshiped and served the

creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. 26 Amen. For this cause, I say, God gave them up to vile

passions : for even their women changed the natural use 27 into that which is against nature; and in like manner the men also left the natural use of the women, and burned in their desire one toward another; men working unseemli

Gr. that they might be.

just or righteous ; whether by admitting them into the outward privileges of the christian church here, or into his heavenly kingdom hereafter." Newcome.

* “ The just shall live by faith,” N. See Hallet's Observations, vol. i. p. 15. Rosenmuller in loc. q. d. They who are justified by faith, who by believing in Jesus as the Christ are admitted as members into the holy community of christians, shall live: shall become entitled to the hope of a future life, upon the ground of promise ; and that without any regard to the ceremonial. Thus the apostle lays down at the outset the principal subject of his epistle.

+ See Mr. Lindsey's Second Address, p. 278. The expression “ godhead," used in the comm version, and adopted by Newcome, is liable to be misunderstood. “ Divine majesty or perfection,” Sn.

| So Wakefield, the true God into false ones. N. the truth of God into a lie. Gr.

ness with men, and receiving among themselves the due re28 compense of their error. And as they did not approve of

retaining God in their knowledge, God gave them up to a 29 reprobate mind, to do those things which were not fit: being

filled with all iniquity, [fornication,] maliciousness, covet

ousness, wickedness; full of envy, murther, strife, deceit, 30 malignity; whisperers, evil-speakers, haters of God, inju

rious, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient 31 to parents, without consideration, covenant-breakers, with32 out natural affection, [implacable,] without pity: who,

though they knew the righteous ordinance of God, (that those who commit such things are worthy of death,) not

only do them, but even have pleasure in those who do them. Ch. 11. Wherefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever

thou art, that judgest: for, wherein thou judgest another,

thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest.doest the 2 same things. But we know that the judgement of God is 3 according to truth, against those who do such things. And

thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest those who do such

things, and yet doest them, that thou shalt escape the judge4 ment of God? or despisest thou the riches of his kindness,

and of his forbearance, and long-suffering; not knowing

that the kindness of God should lead thee to repentance? - 5 and, after thy perverseness and unrepenting heart', trea

surest thou up to thyself anger against the day of anger,

and the manifestation of the righteous judgement of God? 6 who will render to every man according to his works : to 7 those who, by patient continuance in good works, seek

for glory, and honour, and incorruption, everlasting life: 8 but upon those that are contentious, and obey not the truth,

but obey unrighteousness, there shall be wrath and anger, · Or, the perverseness (Gr. hardness) of thine unrepenting heart, and righteous judgement, N. after Michaelis,

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