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but mighty through God' to the casting down of strong 5 holds ;) casting down reasonings, and every high thing which exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and

bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of 6 Christ; and being ready to avenge all disobedience, when your obedience is complete. Do ye

look on things according to the outward appearance? If any man trust in himself that he is Christ's, let

him of himself think this also, that, as he is Christ's, so are® 8 we likewise. For though I should glory in a somewhat

extraordinary manner of our authority, which the Lord

hath given us for your edification, and not for your destruc9 tion, I should not be ashamed: but I forbear, that I may 10 not seem as if I would terrify you by my epistles. For his

epistles, it is said, are weighty and powerful; but his bo11 dily presence is weak, and his speech : contemptible. Let

such an one think this, that as we are in word by epistles

when absent, such we will be in deed also, when present. 12 For we dare not place ourselves in the same rank, or com

pare ourselves, with some who commend themselves : but

they, measuring themselves by themselves, and comparing 13. themselves with themselves +, [are not wise.] But we will

not glory of things beyond our measure; but concerning

the measure of the line 5 which God hath allotted to us, 14 that we should reach even to you. For we stretch not our

selves too far, as though we reached not to you: for we

came even as far as to you in preaching the gospel of Christ; 15 not glorying of things beyond our measure, that is, in the la

bours of other men; but having hope, when your faith is

increased, that we shall be enlarged among you, as con16 cerning our line, abundantly; so as to preach the gospel in

the parts beyond you, and not to glory in another man's line

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'Or, very mighty to, N. m. ? So we likewise Care Christ's.) R. T. and N. 3 Or, utterance, N. m. 4 Or, they measure themselves by themselves, and compare, &c. See Newcome's note. 5 Gr. the measure of the line of that measure which, &c.

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17 of things made ready for us. But he that glorieth, let him 18 glory in the Lord. For not he who commendeth himself is

approved, but whom the Lord commendeth. Ch. xi. I wish that ye would bear with me a little in mine in2 consideration : and indeed bear with me. For I am jealous

of you with a godly jealousy!: for I have espoused you to

one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to 3 Christ. But I fear lest, as the serpent deceived Eve through

his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the 4 simplicity which is in Christ. For if he that cometh among

you preach another Jesus whom we have not preached, or if ye receive another spirit which ye have not received, or

another gospel which ye have not accepted, nevertheless ye 5 might well bear with me. For I suppose that I am in 6 nothing inferior to the chiefest apostles. But though I be

rude in speech', yet I am not in knowledge ; but in every

thing we have been made manifest toward you among all 7 men. Have I committed an offence in humbling myself

, that ye might be exalted; inasmuch as I have preached to 8 you the gospel of God without cost? I spoiled other churches,

and took wages from them, that I might minister to you: 9 and when I was present with you, and wanted, I was charge.

able to no man: for that which was wanted by me, the brethren who came from Macedonia supplied: and in every

thing I have kept myself from being burthensome to you, 10 and will keep myself. As the truth of Christ is in me,

glorying of mine cannot be stopped in the regions of Achaia. 11 Why? because I love you not? God knoweth otherwise. 12 But what I do, that I will also do; so as to cut off occasion

from those who desire occasion; that, wherein they glory, 13 they may be found even as we. For such are false apostles,

deceitful workmen, transforming themselves into apostles 14 of Christ. And no wonder: for Satan * also transformeth


i Or, with great jealousy, N.m. 2 Or, untaught in utterance. * “ The connexion shows that by Satan here is to be understood the chief opponent of Paul, whom he compares in the third verse to the serpent who de

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15 himself into an angel of light. It is therefore no great thing,

if his ministers also transform themselves as ministers of

righteousness: whose end will be according to their works. 16 I say again: Let no man think me inconsiderate: but if

otherwise, yet receive me as one inconsiderate, that I also 17 may glory a little. That which I shall speak, I speak it not

according to the Lord, but as through inconsideration, in

this confidence of glorying. 18 Since many glory according to the flesh, I also will glory. 19 For ye gladly bear with the inconsiderate, since ye your20 selves are wise. For ye bear with it, if a man bring you

into slavery, if a man devour you, if a man take of you, if a 21 man exalt himself, if a man smite you on the face. As con

cerning dishonour, I say that we have been weak. Yet

whereinsoever any is bold, (I speak inconsiderately,) I 22 also am bold. Are they Hebrews ? so am I. Are they Is

raelites ? so am I. Are they Abraham's offspring ? so am I. 23 Are they ministers of Christ? (I speak as one out of his

mind',) I am more; in labours more abundant, in stripes

far exceeding, in prisons more frequent, in deaths often. 24 Five times I received from the Jews forty stripes except 25 one. Thrice I was beaten with rods, once I was stoned,

thrice I suffered shipwreck, a night and a day 1 floated in 26 the deep. I have been in journeys often, in dangers from

floods, in dangers from robbers, in dangers from my own countrymen, in dangers from the gentiles, in dangers in the

city, in dangers in the desert, in dangers on the sea, in dan27 gers among false brethren; in labour and toil, in watchings

often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and na

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i Or, as one void of reason. Or, as beside myself, N. m.

% rivers, N.


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ceived Eve, and describes hy the phrase 'he that cometh to preach another Jesus' in the fourth verse. This Satan, or leading adversary, transforms himself into an angel of light, or assumes the character of a messenger of Jehovah. The argument is this: Since their chief arrogates the character of a messenger of God, it is no wonder that bis ministers pretend to be apostles of the Messiah.” Simpson's Ess, on Script. p. 162.


28 kedness. Besides the things which are without the troubles 29 which assail me daily, in the care of all the churches. Whois

weak, and I am not weak? who falleth away, and I burn not? 30 If I must needs glory, I will glory of the things which concern 31 my weakness. The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is blessed for ever, knoweth that I speak not falsely.

In Damascus, the governor under king Aretas guarded 33 the city of the Damascenes, desiring to apprehend me: and

I was let down by the wall through a window in a basket;

and escaped his hands. Ch.xir. Doubtless it is not expedient for me to glory! Yet 2 I will come to visions and revelations of the Lord. I know

concerning a disciple of Christ', (whether in the body, I know not; or whether out of the body, I know not; God

knoweth;) that such an one fourteen years ago was caught 3 up to the third heaven. And I know concerning such an

one, (whether in the body, or out of the body, I know not, 4 God knoweth,) that he was caught up into paradise, and

heard unspeakable words which it is not possible for man 5 to utter. Of such an one I will glory: but of myself I will 6 not glory, except in my weaknesses. For if I were willing

to glory, I should not be inconsiderate ; for I should speak the truth: but I forbear, lest any one should think con

cerning me above what he seeth me to be, or what he hear7 eth from me. And lest I should be too much exalted by

the exceeding greatness of God's revelations, there hath
been given to me a thorn in the flesh, an angel-adversary*

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'Is it necessary to glory? It is not expedient for me. Mss. Christ, N. m.

* In the original, an angel-satan. “The best commentators,” says Mr. Farmer, “suppose that the bodily affliction, or thorn in the flesh, here refer• red to was some paralytic symptom. See Gal. iv. 13. This disorder seems to have been occasioned by the splendour of his visions affecting his nervous sys. tem, and was purposely designed by God, not merely to prevent a too great ela. tion in the apostle, but, by taking off from the gracefulness and energy of bis delivery, to render the divine power more conspicuous in the success of his mivistry. It is impossible that St. Paul should refer this disorder to the devil;

to buffet me, [lest, I say, I should be too much exalted *.] 8 Concerning this I besought the Lord thrice +, that it might 9 depart from me. And he said unto me, “My favouris

sufficient for thee: for my power is made perfect in weak

ness.” Most gladly therefore I will rather glory in my 10 weaknesses, that the power of Christ may rest upon me. I

take pleasure therefore in weaknesses, in shameful treat

ment, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for the 11 sake of Christ : for when I am weak, then I am strong. I

am become inconsiderate? : ye have compelled me: for I ought to have been recommended by you : for I am in no

thing inferior to the chiefest apostles, though I am nothing. 12 The signs indeed of an apostle have been wrought among

you in all patience, in signs and wonders and mighty works. 13 For what is it wherein ye have been inferior to other

"Or, my gracious assistance. » inconsiderate in boasting, R. T. he speaks of it as proceeding from God, or, which is the same, his angel acting the part of an adversary to the apostle; to whom this dispensation of divine providence was exceedingly bumiliating and painful, however wisely designed by God." Farmer on Demoniacs, p. 18, note. Abp. Newcome adopts the punctuation of Bengelius, and translates the passage, “ there hath been given to me a thorn in the flesh, that a messenger of Satan might buffet me;" that is, as he explains it, that the false apostles who were Satan's instruments, might despise and vilify him. See Mr. Lindsey's Sequel to his Apology, p. 317.

* “ There are good authorities for amitting these words. But repetitions are not uncommon in St. Paul's writings. See on 1 Cor. xv. 13, 14.” Newcome.

+ “ I earnestly prayed to God to be delivered from it.” Hammond in loc. This interpretation is adopted by Mr. Lindsey, who observes, “ that the apor stles were not so exact in the use of the words, ' Lord,' “Saviour,' and the like, which they indifferently gave both to God and Christ, never supposing that any would mistake their Lord and Master, so lately born and living amongst men, to be the Supreme God, and object of worship.” Lindsey's Apology, p. 147. Abp. Newcome says, “ St. Paul repeatedly besought the Lord Jesus when he appeared to him in a vision, and in a vision be received the answer recorded, ver. 9.” Dr. Priestley, in his Notes on the Scriptures, gives the same interpretation, and observes, that “ this is far from authorising us to pray to Christ when we do not see him, and cannot know that he is present to hear us, or authorised to do any thing for us if he did. It is God only,—that Great Being, who is styled the God and Father of Jesus Christ, and to whom he always prayed,—that is the proper object of our prayers.” This observation of Dr. Priestley would hold good, even if it should be allowed that the apostle addressed his supplication to Christ, not as seen in vision, but as personally and sensibly present. It seems, indeed, not improbable, that the apostle had oca casionally a real and personal intercourse with Christ. See Gah i. 12.

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