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from James, he ate with the gentiles: but, when they were

come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing those of 13 the circumcision. And the other Jews also dissembled with

him ; so that Barnabas likewise was carried away with them 14 by their dissimulation. But when I saw that they walked

not uprightly, according to the truth of the gospel, I said to Peter' in the presence of them all, “ If thou, being a Jew, live according to the manner of the gentiles, and not accord

ing to that of the Jews, how compellest thou the gentiles 15 to live like the Jews? We, who are Jews by nature, and 1.6 not sinners of the gentiles *, yet s knowing that a man is not

justified by the works of the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ; even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be

justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works of the law: 17 for by the works of the law no man* can be justified. But

if, while we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also

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1 Cephas, Mss.
we know," N.

Why, R. T. and N. 3 “yet” omitted in R. T. “ since 4 Gr. flesh. See John i. 14.

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* The Jews by birth, were in a state of privilege and under the Mosaic covenant, and therefore they were holy, and possessed many valuable means of virtue, whether they improved them or not. The gentiles by birth, were in an uncovenanted state, and as such were unholy, and ceremonially sinners, whatever their moral character might be. The Jews having violated the terms of their covenant, became sinners like the gentiles, and, hy faith in Christ, again became holy. The gentiles, by faith in Christ, also becamc holy, were admitted into the same cast, and became entitled to the same privileges; and this without submitting to the yoke of the ceremonial law. This was the liberal doctrine which Paul taught, but which the judaizing bigots every where opposed, in, sisting upon the indispensable necessity, or, at least, the great advantage, of submission to the ceremovial law. See Acts xv. It is of great importance to the clear understanding of the apostle's writings, and particularly of this epic stle, to be apprised and to recollect that sin, in the apostle's argument, often expresses merely an unprivileged or uncovenanted state : holiness, is separation from the rest of the world by being in a state of privilege or covenant with God: to be justified, is to pass ont of a state of sin into a state of holiness, or, in other words, from an unprivileged into a privileged and covenant state. This is produced by faith, that is, the public profession of christianity; without tho works of the law, that is, without submission to the Mosaic ritual. All this has relation to an external rather than to a moral state, See Locke, and Taylor on the Romans, and Taylor's Key,

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be found sinners, is Christ the minister of sin ? By no means. 18 For if I build again the things which I have destroyed, I 19 make myself a transgressor. For I, through the law, have 20 died to the law, that I might live to God. I have been cru.

cified with Christ : nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh, I

live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me, and delivered 21 up himself for me. I do not make void the favour of God:

for if justification come by the law, then Christ died in vain." CH. III. O unwise Galatians, who hath bewitched you,' be

fore whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been heretofore clearly 2 set forth (among you) as crucified?? This only I desire to

learn from you: Received ye the spirit by the works of the 3 law, or by the hearing of faith? Are ye so unwise ? having

begun with the spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh? 4 Have ye suffered so many things in vain? if indeed it must 5 be even in vain. He therefore who ministered to


the spirit, and wrought miracles among you, did he thus by the 6 works of the law, or by the hearing of faith? even as " Abra.

ham believed God, and it was counted to him for righte. 7 ousness." Know therefore, that those who are of faith are 8 the sons of Abraham. And the scripture, having foreseen

that God would justify the gentiles by faith, proclaimed be

fore glad tidings to Abraham, saying, Through thee all 9 nations shall be blessed.” So those that are of faith are 10 blessed with faithful Abraham; (For as many as are of the

works of the law, are under a curse: for it is written, “Sure

ly: cursed is every one who continueth not in all the things 11 which are written in the book of the law, to do them.” But

that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, is 12 evident: for “the just shall live by faith.” Now the law

is not of faith : but “ he 4 who doeth them, shall live by

I that ye should not obey the truth, R.T.

Or, Jesus Christ crucified was set forth among you. Chandler. 3 R. T. and N. omit" surely.” ! the man. R.T.

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13 them.” Christ hath redeemed * us from the curse of the

law, having been made a curse + for us : for it is written, 14 “Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:) that the

blessing of Abraham might come on the gentiles, through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the spi

rit by faith. 15 Brethren, (I speak according to the manner of men,)

though it be but a man's covenant, yet, if it be confirmed, 16 no man disannulleth it or addeth to it. Now to Abraham

and to his seed the promises were made, (It is not said,

“And to seeds," as of many; but, as of one; “ And to thy 17 seed,” which one person? is Christ.) And this I say, that

the covenant which God confirmed before [concerning Christ,] the law, which was four hundred and thirty years

after, doth not disannul, so as to make the promise of none 18 effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of

promise: but God freely gave it to Abraham by promise. 19 To what purpose then was the law.? It was added because

of transgressions , till the seed should come to whom the

promise was made; and it was ministered by messengers 20 through the band of a mediator. $ Now a mediator is not 21 a mediator of one; but God is one. Is the law then against

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3 Or, What

"Or, altereth it. N. m. 2 which is Christ. N. See Chandler.
then? The law was added because of transgressions. Chandler.

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*“ By abolishing the law, and dying to establish a better covenant." New


oth patie

+ “ That is, as it were accursed: treated by men as if he had committed a crime worthy of death, and of the divine wrath.” Deut. xxi. 23. Newcome.

# Angels, N. with the public version. The meaning probably is, that the law was promulgated to, or rather enjoined upon (see Schleusner and Phavorinus apud Schleus.) the Israelites by the proper officers, viz. priests and Levites, under the direction of Moses, who was the medium of divine communication, and who received it immediately from God.

§ Abp. Newcome, with Michaelis and others, suspects this verse to be a gloss. But it seems necessary to the apostle's argument. Moses was a mediator, not between God and the promised seed, but between God and the Israelites. The covenant therefore which he introduced could not annul that which had been made before with the promised seed. For though God, one of the parties, was present and joined in the Mosaic covenant, the other party, the promised seed, tad no concern in it. See Locke.

then started

the promises of God? By no means: for if a law had been

given, which could have bestowed life, then truly justifica22 tion would have been by the law. But the scripture hath

included all together under sin, that the promise by faith 23 in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe. But

before faith came, we were kept under the law, included to24 gether to the faith which was afterward to be revealed. So

that the law was our couductor? to Christ, that we might be 25 justified by faith. But now faith is come, we are no longer 26 under a conductors. For ye are all the sons of God by faith 27 in Christ Jesus. For as many of you as have been baptized 28 into Christ, have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor

gentile", there is neither slave nor free, there is neither 29 male nor female: for ye all are one in Christ Jesus. But if

ye be Christ's, then ye are the seed of Abraham, [and] heirs

according to the promise. Cu. iv. Now I say that the heir, as long as he is a child, dif

fereth nothing from a servant", though he be master of all, 2 but is under tutors and guardians, until the time appointed 3 by his father. So we likewise, when we were children, were 4 in servitude under the elements of the world *: but when

the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his sont, 5 born of a woman 1, born under the law, to redeem those

that were under the law Ś, that we might receive the adoption of sons.

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3 Gr. Grick

! Or, shut up together, N.m, 4 Gr. slave. So also ver. 7.

2 So Wakefield. guide, N. Ś Or, full time, N.m.

* “ Under an introductory and ritual law, which occupied us about the things of this world." Observe Col. ii. 8,20; Heb, ix. I. Newcome.

+ “God sent forth his son,” gave him a divine commission. John i. 6; mi. 18. “St. Paul then says here, that at his appointed time the Almighty gave a commission to Jesus, the son of Mary, of a Jewish family, subject to the law of Moses.” Lindsey's Second Address, p. 282.

# The phrase, 'born of a woman,' bears no allusion to the supposed mirace. lous conception of Christ. It is a common Jewish phrase to express a proper human being. See Job xiv. 1; xv. 14; xxv. 4. Matt. xi. II. Luke vii. 28.

§ To deliver us from the bondage of the Mosaic institute, and to introduce s new and more liberal dispensation. See cha jii. 13, 14.


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Ő And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the spirit of

his Son into our hearts', crying out, “ Abba,” that is, Fa7 ther. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; 8 and if a son, then an heir [of God through Christ.] At that

time, however, when ye knew not God, ye were slaves 3 to 9 those who by nature are not gods: but now, after ye have

known God, or rather have been known by Him“, how turri

ye again to the weak and beggarly- elements to which ye 10 desire to be again in servitude 6? Ye observe days, and 11 months, and seasons, and years. I fear concerning you, lest I have bestowed on you labour in vain.

Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I also was as ye 13 are?. Ye have not wronged me in any thing : but ye know

that in weakness of the flesh I preached the gospel to you at 14 first: and (my] trial which was in my flesh ye did not set at

nought nor scorn : but ye received me as a messengers of 15 God, or even as Christ Jesus. What therefore [were] your

congratulations of yourselves ? for I bear you witness that,

if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your own 16 eyes, and have given them to me. Am I therefore become 17 your enemy, when I tell you the truth? Some zealously af

fect you, but not well: yea, they desire to exclude you ', 18 that ye may zealously affect them. But it is good to be al

ways zealously affected to a good man "o; and not only when 19 I am present with you, my children, of whom I travail in 20 birth again, until Christ be formed in you. But I could wish

to be present with you now, and to change my voice: for I

doubt concerning you. 21 Tell me, ye who desire to be under the law, do ye not 22 hear the law ? For it is written, that Abraham had two

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sons; one by a bond-woman, and another by a free-woman.

5 «

your hearts, R.T. ? Or, which spirit crieth out. by God. poor,” N.

6 Or, enslaved, N.m. Wakefield.“ angel," N. 9 to exclude as, R.T. See Locke.

ye served, N.

4 Gr. am as ye are, N.

10 in a good thing, N.

& So

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