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14 mies thy footstool ?” Are they not all servants *, sent forth

to serve the future heirs of salvation t? CH. 11. For this cause we ought to give the more earnest at

tention to the things which we have heard, lest at any time 2 we let them escape us. For if the words which were spoken

by messengers were steadfast, and every transgression and

disobedience received a just recompense of punishment; 3 how shall we escape, if we have neglected so great salva.

tion, which began to be spoken by the Lord, and was con4 firmed to us by those that heard him; God bearing wit

ness at the same time', by signs and wonders and various mighty works, and distributions of the holy spirit, according

to his own will ? 5 For $ God hath not subjected to angels the succeeding 6 age», of which we speak. But David' hath somewhere tes

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"Or, “God bearing joint-witness,” viz. with the apostles, &c. · Or, “ fature world," Gr. “ that future dispensation," Wakefield. Isaiah ix. 6, the Messiah is predicted as the Father of the age to come. See Sykes. 3 Gr. one hath.

* Gr. and N. “ministering spirits.” The word spirit is a Hebraism to espress a person's self, v.g. 1 Cor. ii. 11. the spirit of a man is a man, is a man bim. self: the spirit of God is God himself. 2 Tim. iv. 22. The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit, i.e. with thee. Here the former prophets are called minister. irg spirits, i. e. they were ministers or servants, whereas Christ appeared under the character of a Son.

+ So Wakefield.“those who will be heirs of salvation,” N. Rather, those who were about to be heirs of salvation, i. e, the former prophets were appointed for the encouragement and the confirmation of the faith of those who were at a future time to be delivered by Christ from the yoke of the law, or from the bondage of idolatry and vice.

# i.e. by former prophets and teachers, in contradistinction to the Messiah, who is called a son, and appointed a ruler. Angels, N.

$ Or,“ Moreover," as introducing a collateral argument or fact. The writer having already proved that Christ was superior to angels, viz. to all preceding, prophets and messengers from God, now proceeds, through the remainder of this chapter, to prove that he is in bis nature inferior to angels considered as beings of an order superior to mankind, for that the nature of his commission required that he should be a proper human being. It is no objection that he uses the word angel in a different sense without giving notice of the change. This incorrectness of style is not uncommon in the sacred writers, and the author has before availed himself of the ambiguity of the word angel, ch. i. 7. For the use of yag as a connecting and not an illative particle, see Matt, i. 18, James i. 7. Heb. ii. 8,

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tified, saying, “ What is man, that thou art mindful of him? 7 or the son of man, that thou regardest him? Thou madest

him a little lower than the angels; but thou hast crowned 8 him with glory and honour *, thou hast subjected all things

under his feet.” Now in that he hath subjected all things

to him, he hath left nothing that is not subjected to him. But 9 now we do not see all things subjected to him. But we see

Jesus for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honour, who was made a little lower than the angels t, that, by

the favour of God, he might taste death for every man I. 10 For it became Him for whom are all things, and by whom

are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the 11 author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. For

both Christ that sanctifieth, and those that are sanctified,

are all of one Father: for which cause Christ is not ashamed 12 to call them brethren; saying, “I will declare thy name to

my brethren; in the midst of the congregation I will praise 13 thee.” And again, “ I will put my trust in him.” And

again, “ Behold, I, and the children whom God hath given 14 me.' Since then the children are partakers of flesh and

blood, Christ himself also in like manner partook of them $;

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rprophes ex

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'i.e. gratuitous goodness, N. m. ? Or, to make the leader of their salvation, who is conducting many sons to glory.

Der pads de faitse * face

HITTADE ph arare ra

* "and bast set him over the works of thy hands,” R. T. and N. in brackets. This passage is cited from the eighth Psalm, and can therefore be applied to Christ only by way of accommodation. The apostle Paul reasons upon the same passage in a similar manner, I Cor. xv. 25—27, which is a presumptive proof that the epistle to the Hebrews was either written by him, or by some person, perhaps Barnabas, or Luke, who was an associate with him, and familiarly acquainted with the apostle's style of thinking and reasoning.

+ " was made a little lower than the angels," i. e, by nature, like other men, and not by the voluntary assumption of a human form. See ver. 7.

# To taste death for every man is to die for the benefit of all mankind, Jew and gentile. Sykes. All were admissible into that new covenant, of which the death of Christ was the ratification.

☺ As the children were human beings, so their deliverer was a being of the same rank, and not an angel, or superior spirit. The words might be rendered, • since then the children partook in common of flesh and blood, he also com. pletely shared in the same.' See Peirce in loc.

day through to

ATTAD All of these

ive perico, el

that through death he might destroy him who hath the power 15 of death, that is, the devil * ; and might deliver those who,

through fear of death, were all their lifetime subject to 16 slavery. For indeed Christ helpeth not angels t; but he 17 helpeth the seed of Abraham. Wherefore it behoved him

to be like' his brethren in all things; that he might be a compassionate and faithful high-priest in things relating to

God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people 1. 18 For in that he himself hath suffered, having been tempted,

he is able to assist those that are tempted. CH. III. Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of a heavenly

calling, consider the Apostle and High-priest of our pro2 fession, Jesus 3 ; who was faithful to him that appointed

him, as Moses also was faithful in all the household of God". 3 For this person was counted worthy of more glory than

Moses, inasmuch as he who framed the household hath 4 more honour than the household. (For every household is

framed by some one; but he who framed all things, is God.) 5 And Moses indeed was faithful as a servant, in all the house

hold of God"; for a testimony to those things which were 6 to be spoken afterward: but Christ, as a Son, over the

household of Gods; whose household we are, if we keep the confidence and the glorying of our hope firm to the end.

1 to be made like, N. “It was right for him in all things to be like unto bis brethren." Wakefield. o the heavenly calling, N. 3 (Christ) Jesus, R.T. and N. • See Wakefield. “ the household committed to him," N. Gr. "in all bis housebold.” 5 See ver. 2.

** The devil;" or, more probably,“ the accusing power," i. e. the law, which passed the sentence of death without remission, and which is abolished by Cbrist.

+ Or, “ For truly it," i. e. the fear of death, or death itself,“ doth not lay hold of” or seize on “angels, but of the seed of Abraham it doth lay bold." See Theol. Rep. vol. v, p. 164.

# The expression is remarkable: s15 toinarruolai tas dragtias, not to propi. tiate God, but to propitiate the sins of the people. q.d, to pacify them, to silence their invocations of condemnation. The meaning probably is, to remove all legal obstructions and disqualifications, so that those who were excluded as sinners from the privileges of the old covenant might be admitted to the benefits of the new dispensation, and might be called and made holy. See Theol. Rep. ibid.

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7 Wherefore, as the holy spirit saith, “Po-day, if ye shall 8 hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provoca9 tion', in the day of trial in the desert : where your fathers 3 10 tried me, proved me, and saw my works forty years: where

fore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They

always err in heart 4; and they have not known my ways:' 11 upon wbich I sware in my anger, “They shall not enters 12 into my rest :'” so likewise take heed, brethren, lest there

be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in falling away 13 from the living God: but exhort one another daily, while

it is called to-day: lest any of you be hardened through the 14 deceitfulness of sin. For we are made partakers of Christ,

if we retain the beginning of our confidence firm to the end; 15 while it is said, “ To-day, if ye shall hear his voice, harden 16 not your hearts, as in the provocation.” For some, when

they had heard, provoked?: however, not all who came out 17 of Egypt under Moses. But with whom was God grieved

forty years? was it not with those who sinned, whose car18 cases fell in the desert? And to whom did he swear that

they should not enter into his rest, but to those who believe 19 ed not ? So we see that they could not enter in, because of

unbelief. Ch. iv. Let us fear therefore, lest, a promise being left of en

tering into his rest®, any of you should appear to come short 2 of it. For unto us glad tidings have been proclaimed, as

well as unto them; but the word which they heard did not

profit them, not being mixed with faith in those that heard 3 it. For we that have believed enter into rest *, as God

saith ; “ So I sware in my anger, “They shall not enter

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The writer here represents the state of things under the gospel dispensation as a sabbath, which we enter upon and solemnize by faith in Christ. “ Shall enter into rest,” N. The public version is more correct, “ do enter into rest,

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into my rest:”.” although his works were finished from the 4 foundation of the world. For Moses somewhere speaketh

thus of the seventh day, “ And God rested on the seventh 5 day from all his works." And in this place it is said again, 6 “ They shall not enter into my rest.” Since therefore it re

maineth that some must enter therein, and those to whom

glad tidings were first proclaimed entered not in because of 7 unbelief; God again limiteth a certain day, saying by Da.

vid, “ To-day,” after so long a time, as it is said, “To-day 8 if ye shall hear his voice, harden not your hearts.” For if

Joshua had given them rest, then God would not afterward 9 have spoken of another day. There remaineth therefore a 10 keeping of rest to the people of God. For he that hath en

tered into God's rest, hath rested also from his own works, 11 as God did from his. Let us earnestly endeavour', there

fore, to enter into that rest; lest any man fall after the same 12 example of unbelief. For the word of God is lively and

powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, and pierceth (even] to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and

of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts 13 and intentions of the heart: nor is there any creature that

is not manifest before it: but all things are naked and open

ed to the eyes of Him with whom we have to do 3. 14 Having therefore a great High-priest, that hath passed

into the heavens 4, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast 15 our profession. For we have not a High-priest who can

not have compassion for our infirmities; but one who was

tempteds in all things like ourselves, though without sin. 16 Let us therefore come with confidence to the throne of fa.

vour, that we may obtain mercy, and receive favour for seaCH. v. sonable help. For every high-priest taken from among

men, is appointed for men in things relating to God, that he

I Let us endeavour, N. See Wakefield.
whom we must give account. N.m.
$ Or, tried, N.m.

• Or, animated, N. m. 3 Or, to * through the heavens, Wakefield,

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