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to you, and peace, from him that is, and that was, and that
is to come; and from the seven spirits which (are) before 5 his throne; and from Jesus Christ who is the faithful wit
ness, the first-born from the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth.
To him that loveth us!, and bath washed us from our sins 6 by his own blood, and hath made us a kingdom of priests'
to his God and Father; to him be glory and dominion for
ever and ever. Amen. 7 Behold, he will come with clouds; and every eye will
see him, and those also who pierced him: and all the tribes
of the earth will lament because of him. Even so, Amen. 8 “ I am Alpha and Omega,” saith the Lord God, that is,
and was, and that is to come, the Almighty. 9 I John your brother* and companion in the affliction, and
kingdom, and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the island
that hath loved, R. T. ? kings and priests, R. T. and N. 3“I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord," R.T. am also your brother, R.T.
1. That the evangelist John has not named himself, either in his gospel orio bis catholic epistle, but the writer of the Revelation names himself more than once. 2. That though the writer of the Revelation calls himself John, he has not shown us that he is the apostle of that name. 3. That the Revelation doth not meition the catholic epistle, nor that epistle the Revelation. 4. That ibere is a great agreement in sentiment, expression, and manner, between St. John's gospel and epistle, but the Revelation is quite different in all these respects, without any resemblance or similitude. 5. That the Greek of the gospel and epistle is pure and correct, but that of the Revelation has barbarisms and solecisans, Dionysius's own opinion is, that the Revelation was written hy some holy and inspired person named John, but who that John was he does not know: be might be John the Elder, said to have resided for some time at Ephesus is Asia.” Dr. Lardner, having examined the arguments of Dionysius at large, and stated the opinions of other learned men, concludes with his usual candour, " I must acknowledge that the Revelation, when compared with the apostle's unquestioned writings, has an unlikeness not easy to be accounted for." Lard. ner's Works, vol. iii. p. 130. The principal authors who have attempted the interpretation of this difficult prophecy are Joseph Mede, Sir Isaac Newton, Waple, Daubuz, Vitringa, Lowman, Bp. Newton. See also Mr. Towers's lllust. of Prophecy, Abp. Newcome's and Dr. Priestley's Notes upon the Scriptures, and Mr. Evanson's Reflections upon the State of Religion in Christene dom in the 19th Century,
which is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for my 10 testimony to Jesus [Christ]. I was in the spirit on the
Lord's day; and heard behind me a loud voice, as of a 11 trumpet, saying, “What' thou seest, write in a book, and
send it to the seven churches?; to Ephesus, and to Smyrna, and to Pergamus, and to Thyatira, and to Sardis, and to 12 Philadelphia, and to Laodicea.” And I turned to see
whence the voice came which spake to me: and, when I 13 had turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks *; and in the
midst of the (seven) candlesticks, one like the Son of man,
clothed with a garment down to the feet, and girt about his 14 breast with a golden girdle. And his head and his hair were
white, as white wool, or snow: and his eyes were as a flame 15 of fire; and his feet like fine brass, as if they had been puri
fied in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many wa16 ters. And he had in his right hand seven stars : and out of
his mouth went a sharp two-edged sword: and his counte17 nance was as the sun shineth in his strength. And, when I
saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he put his right
hand upon me, saying, “Fear not: I am the first, and the 18 last; and he that lived, and became dead; and, behold, I
live for ever and ever, and have the keys of death and of 19 the grave?. Write therefore the things which thou hast
seen, and the things which now are, and the things which 20 will be hereafter. As to the mystery of the seven stars
which thou sawest in my right hand, and as to the seven golden candlesticks; the seven stars are the angels * of the
· I am Alpha and Omega, the first, and the last, and what &c. R.T. These words are wanting in the Alexandrine and Ephrem Mss. and in the Coptic, Æthiopic, and other versions; and are omitted in the editions of Griesbach and Newcome. to the churches in Asia; R.T. 3 " So Le Clerc and L'Enfant and Beausobre translate. Or, discover," N. m. 4 lampstands, N. wherever the word occurs. 5 unto me, R. T. and N. Amen, R. T. 7 Gr. Hades. q. d. the invisible state.
* Generally understood to be the elders or bishops of the seven churches, The word signifies messengers, which is Mr. Wakefield's translation.
seven churches, and the seven candlesticks are the seven
churches? CH. 11. “ To the angel of the church at Ephesus write *:
These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, that walketh in the midst of the seven golden 2 candlesticks : I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy
patience, and that thou canst not bear those that are evil:
and thou hast tried those who say (that they are) apostles, 3 and are not; and hast found them false: and hast patience,
and hast borne much for the sake of my name, and hast not 4 fainted. Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, be5 cause thou hast let go * thy first love. Remember therefore
whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do thy first works:
or else I will come to thee (quickly), and will remove the 6 candlestick out of its place, unless thou repent. But this
praise thou hast, that thou batest the deeds of the Nicolai7 tans, which I also hate.' He that hath an ear, let him hear
what the spirit saith to the churches. To him that over-
paradise of my God 5.
things saith the first and the last, who was dead, and lived 9 again: I know thy (works, and] affliction, and poverty,
(yet thou art rich,) and the blasphemy of those who say that
they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan. 10 Fear none of those things which thou art about to sufer
? Or, congregations. Sn. 3 thou hast labogred, and hast not fainted. R. T. 4 omitted, N.
5 in the midst of ibe paradise of God. R. T. 6 Jewish adversaries to the gospel. See cho iii. 9.
, N. See Wakefield.
* Mr. Evanson, who maintains the divine authority of the rest of the por calypse, rejects the epistles to the seven churches as spurious. Dissonance, p. 284-286.
11 the crown of life.' He that hath an ear, let him hear what
the spirit saith to the churches. He that overcometh shall
not be hurt by the second death. 12 “And to the angel of the church at Pergamus write :
* These things saith he that hath the sharp two-edged 13 sword: I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even
where the throne of Satan is?: and yet thou holdest fast my name, and didst not deny faith in me, [even] in those
days wherein Antipas was my faithful witness, who was slain 14 among you, where Satano dwelleth. Nevertheless I have
a few things against thee, because thou hast there such as hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumbling-block before the sons of Israel, that they might
eat things offered to idols, and might commit fornication, 15 So hast thou also such as hold the doctrine of the Nicoläi. 16 tans in like manner. Repent therefore; or else I will come
to thee quickly, and will war against them with the sword 17 of my mouth.” He that hath an ear, let him hear what the
spirit saith to the churches. To him that overcometh I will give 4 of the hidden mannas: and will give him a white stone, and on the stone a new name written, which no man
knoweth but he who receiveth it. 18 “ And to the angel of the church at Thyatira write :
'These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes as a 19 flame of fire, and whose feet are like fine brass : I know
thy works, and love, and service, and faith, and patience, 20 and thy last works", which are better than the first. Ne
vertheless I have somewhat against thee?, because thou sufferest thy wife Jezebel, who calleth herself a prophetess,
and teacheth and seduceth 8 my servants to commit fornića21 tion, and eat things offered to idols. And I have given her · The chief seat of opposition and persecution.
? The hostile and perse. cuting power. 3 which I hate, R. T. 4 to eat, R. T. and N. of the manna which is laid up; W. 6 and thy works, and the last, R.T. 7 I have a few things against thee, R.T. 8 thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, who calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce, &c. R.T.
time to repent: and she will not repent' of her fornication, 22 Behold, I will cast her on a bed of sickness, and those who
commit adultery with her into great affliction, unless they 23 repent of her deeds!. And I will kill her children by the
pestilence; and all the churches shall know that I search
the reins and the hearts, and will give unto every one of you 24 according to your works. But to you I say, even to the rest
at Thyatira, as many as receive not this doctrine, and as
have not known the deep things of Satan, as they speak *; 25 I will put on you none other burthen. But what ye have, 26 hold fast till I come. And he that overcometh, and per
formeth my works to the end, to him I will give power ' 27 over the nations; and he shall rule them with a rod of iron;
as the vessels of a potter they shall be broken in pieces; 28 even as I have received from my Father. And I will give 29 him the morning-star.' He that hath an ear, let him hear
what the spirit saith to the churches. CH. III. “And to the angel of the church at Sardis write :
* These things saith he that hath the seven spirits of God,
and the seven stars: I know thy works, that thou hast the 2 appearance of being alive, and yet art dead. Be watch
ful, and strengthen the things which remain, which are
ready to dies: for I have not found thy works perfect before 3 my God. Remember therefore how thou hast received
[and heard, and keep those things,) and repent. If there. fore thou shalt not watch, I will come on thee as a thief,
and thou shalt not know what hour I will come on thee. 4 Yet thou hast a few persons in Sardis?, that have not de
filed their garments: and they shall walk with me in white; 5 for they are worthy. He that overcometh shall be clothed I she hath not repented, R.T.
3 Or, authority. • Or, “the name of living," N.m. 5 Or, about to die.
before God. R. T, 7 even in Sardis, R.T.
i.e. the deep things of Satan as they are justly called. Newcome. viz. the mysteries of Gnosticism, which were hostile to the doctrine of Christ, and which were called by the Gnostics, the deep things of God. See Wetstein.
of their deeds. R.T.