A&C Black, Jan 1, 1995 - History - 351 pages
From the lakeside encampment of Stone Age scavengers three-quarters of a million years ago to the problems facing modern-day farmers, A Mediterranean Valley documents the long-term settlement history of the Biferno Valley in central-southern Italy, analysing the symbiotic relationship of its landscape and its inhabitants.
Integrating the techniques of archaeology, history and geography, this volume traces the history of human settlement in the Valley and shows how it is inextricably linked to the parallel story of landscape development. Unique in its geographical and historical time-scale, the Biferno Valley project is widely cited within the archaeological community and is considered the best example to date of the importance of human settlement in shaping the Mediterranean landscape.
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1 Approaches to Mediterranean landscape history
the modern landscape
4 The natural landscape and its evolution
5 Early prehistoric settlement
6 The first agricultural communities
7 The settlement expansion of the 2nd millennium bc
8 Iron age chiefdoms c1000500 BC
9 Pentri Frentani and the beginnings of urbanization c 50080 BC
10 Roman towns and territories c 80 BCAD 600
11 The evolution of hilltop villages AD 6001500
12 Feudalism and the Southern Question AD 1500 to the present
the evolution of a Mediterranean landscape
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3rd century 4th century Abruzzo Adriatic agricultural animal Apennine Apulia artefacts assemblages Benedittis Bifemo Biferno valley Boiano Boiano basin bone Bovianum bronze age bronze age settlement Campania Campobasso Campochiaro Casacalenda cemetery centres century BC Chapter classical cultivation deposits Etruria evidence excavations farming farmstead faunal ﬂakes ﬂint ﬂocks ﬂoor Fonte Maggio fragments Graeme Barker gravels Guglionesi indicate iron age Italian Italy kilometres land landscape Larino Larinum late later neolithic limestone lithic lower valley lowlands major Maria in Civita Masseria Mammarella material Matese Matrice Mediterranean metres above sea Mezzogiorno middle valley millennium bc Molise Monte Maulo Monte Vairano neolithic neolithic settlements Niro peasants peninsula phase pits ploughing population Portocannone pottery probably production reﬂect Regina region river rural Saepinum Samnite Samnium sample sanctuary Santa Maria sea level sediments sheep sherds Sinarca soil Sparanise surface Termoli town transhumance upper palaeolithic upper valley valley floor villages zone