Japanese Inward Investment in UK Car Manufacturing
The single European market movement since the early 1980s put non-member countries under pressure. Under the name of globalization Japanese companies flooded into the European Union. As contrasted with the strategy in the US, Japanese multinational enterprises moved towards the EU were haromised with political action by the Japanese government. Dumping accusations and voluntary export restraints made the Japanese government urge on her MNEs more positive action towards the EU, a push factor for foreign direct involvement. While the Japanese government pushed her MNEs into the EU, all European industrial problems such as the high rate for unemployment, de-industrailization, and shrinking consumer markets were expected to be solved by the new wave from the East, the pull factor. Within the push factor, the Japanese government, especially MITI, was brought into action again as a business negotiator. Because of the strong incentive from member countries (pull factor), the policy towards inward foreign direct involvement was matched to the Japanese push factor. There was a small pin-hole in fortress Europe, namely Japanization.
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affiliates areas Britain British car industry British car-makers British component industries British government British industry car market cent collaboration Compared competition component suppliers Conservative government Despite developed countries direct investment domestic market economic employees employment engineering Europe European makers export factors FDI policy Ford foreign France Germany global globalisation greenfield investment important increasing industrial policy industrial relations interview in Japanese investors Japan Japanese car makers Japanese companies Japanese FDI Japanese government Japanese investment Japanese manufacturing Japanese MNEs JETRO keiretsu Lord Tebbit major market penetration market share member countries million mimeo MITI motor industry nationalised negotiation Nissan Bluebird Nissan Motor Nissan UK organisation plant political problems production programme regional Report restructuring role Rover and Honda Rover Group Ryder report SMMT Source Spain strategy successful Sunderland Swindon Thatcher government Thatcherite Toyota trade unions Tyne and Wear UK car vehicles