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flows onward to the city of Durham, which it nearly surrounds. Thence passing northward, it runs near the walls of Lumley Castle; but turning suddenly to the south near Birtley, flows towards Sunderland.

The Derwent rises northward of the Wearc, in the same range of moors, and pursuing nearly a parallel course with that river, gives animation and interest to a wild and mountainous tract on the northern borders of the county, till it falls into the Tyne near Smalwell.

DURHAM.

The City of Durham is situated on a singular rocky eminence, rising near the central part of the county, and almost surrounded by the river Weare. From all the neighbouring points of view, its appearance is unique, and striking; its public edifices exhibiting a degree of magnificence unexpected at a distance so remote from the Metropolis; and its situation and figure being so peculiar as to have occasioned its being enphatically denominated the English Zion. The centre of the eminence is occupied by the Cathedral and castle, which, with the streets called the Baileys, are included within the remains of the ancient city walls. Below the walls on one side, the slope'is ornamented with hanging gardens and plantations, descending to the river; on the other, the acclivity is high, rocky, and steep. The rich meadows, the cultivated sides of the adjacent hills, and the various seats in the vicinity, add greatly to the beauty of the prospect.

Durham derives its name from its situation, the term being a corruption from the Saxon words Dur, a hill; and Holme, a river island. By the Latins, observes Camden, it is called DynelAVS; and by the common people, Durham, or Duresme: the VOL. V.

B

latter

In an ancient Saxon Poem, inserted in Hickes's Gramm. Anglo-Saxon, and referted by Adelung to the Danish-Saxon period, which this writer fixes between the years 780 and the time of the Conquest, the topography, &c. of Darbati, is thus described.

This

latter appellation is derived, by Bishop Gibson, froin the Norman Duresme.

The earliest historical notice of this city is contained in the monkish legend of St. Cuthbert, from whose votaries Dunholme,

as

This city is celebrated
In the whole empire of the Britons.
The road to it is steep.
It is surrounded with rocks,
And with curious plants.
The Wear flows round it,
A river of rapid waves ;
And there live in it,
Fishes of various kinds
Mingliug with the floods,
And there grow
Great forests ;
There live in the recesses
Wild animals of many torts ;
In the deep valleys
Deer innumerable.
There is in this city
Also well known to men
The venerable St. Cudberth;
And the head of the chaste King
Oswald, the lion of the Angli;
And Aiden, the Bishop;
Acdbert and Aedfrid,
The noble associates,
There is in it also
Aethelwold, the Bishop;
And the celebrated writer Bede;
And the Abbot sil,
By whom the chaste Cudberth
Was in his youth gratis instructed ;
Who also well received the instructions.
There rest with these saints,
In the inner part of the Minster,
Relicks innumerable,
Which perform many miracles,
As the Chronicles tell us,
And (which) await with them

The judgment of the Lord.

as it was then called, accumulated all its celebrity and riches. According to the legend, it appears that the Saint departed this life on the twentieth of the calends of March, 687, and was buried in the Church at Lindisfarne, at that period the See of a Bishop. The body was afterwards inbumed in a new sepulchre, on rebuilding the Cathedral, where it lay unmolested for a considerable time,

But in the year 876, Halfden, having brought over a reinforcement of Danish adventurers, ravaged this part of the country in a most inbuman manner: and Lardulf, then Bishop of Lindisfarne, having remarked the savage practices of the invaders, particularly to the clergy, consulted with Eadred, the Abbot, and the other members of the monastery, what measures they should pursue for common safety; when several joined the Bishop and Abbot in a resolution, not only to quit the place, the peculiar sanctity of which among Christians only excited proportionable cruelty in the Danish Pagans, but also to remove the remains of their beloved Saint, that his relies might not be exposed to the rude insults of the profane. lo pursuance of this resolve, they gathered the holy relics, sacred vessels, ornaments and jewels of the altars and shrines, together with St. Ethelwold's stone crucifix, and fled from the Island of Lindisfarne, where the episcopal See had continued 241 years.

“ With their holy charge, the Bishop and his company passed into the mountainous parts of the country, still changing their abode, as intelligence of the enemy's progress seeined to threaten their safety. Their pious ardour must have been equal to any toil, and superior to every danger, encumbered as they were with the remains of St. Cuthbert; the head of St. Oswald ; the bones of Saints Aidan, Eadbert, Eanfred, and Ethelwold, inclosed in one ark or shrine; and the ponderous cross of St. Ethelwold, borne before them."* B 2

On

Ethelwold was Abbot of Melross, the intimate friend of St Cuthbert, and one of his successors in the Bishoprick. He caused a ponderous cross of stone to be crected in the ground adjoining the Church of Lindisfarne. The socket,

or

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