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the literary atmosphere of the place an advantage over our English brethren, should be wholly left out of the ac- in that keen enthusiasm which we feel, count, though no consideration be had for the famous spots and abodes, that whatever of the enlargement and illu- are consecrated to both alike, by the mination of mind that must be caught great names associated with them. To involuntarily, in a two or three years' them the constant presence and famiabode at an academical city, still to liarity of the scene blunt the edge of the have redeemed so much time from the feelings it excites in us, and Westsaloons, and the worse than saloons of minster Abbey and Stratford-on-Avon, the metropolis, is enough. No one can awaken an enthusiasm in an American doubt that the want of some such nur- fancy, which the Englishman smiles sery of character in France, the imme- at, as a sort of provincial rawness. Indiate transition from boarding-school stead of assenting to those on both sides and private tutelage, to the vices of the of the water, who have spoken of Amecapital and the army, was one great rica as unfortunate in the want of ancause of the degeneracy of the once gal- cient associations, as condemned to a lant heraldry of that country; a de- kind of matter of fact, unpoetical, newgeneracy under which the spirit of the ness of national character, we maintain order was so wholly broken, that when that never nation, since the world bethe revolution came on, there was gan, had so rich a treasure of tradifound scarce a member of the aristo- tional glory. Is it nothing to be born, cracy, to assert their claims to more as it were, with the birthright of two privileges and greater fortunes, than native lands; to sail across the world were ever swept away by a popular of waters, and be bailed beyond it by storm.
the sound of your native tongue? Is Lastly, the English universities are it nothing to find in another hemisphere entitled to respect, as a great integral the names, the customs, and the dress part of the church establishment; and of your own; to be able to trace your when so considered, some objections ancestry back, not to the ranks of a often urged to them will lose their semi-barbarous conqueror, or the poor force. It is objected, for instance, that mythology of vagrants and fugitives of at one of the great English universities, fabulous days, but to noble, high-mindsubscription to the thirty-nine articles ed men in an age of glory, than which is necessary for admission, and at the
a brighter never dawned on the world? other for a degree; and this, if you look Is it nothing to be able, as you set your upon the universities as we look on all foot on the English soil, and with a public institutions in our country, as heart going back to all the proud emothe property of the people, the common tions which bind you at the moment inheritance of all, seems a hardship. to the happy home you have left, to be But if you consider the universities as able still, nevertheless, to exclaim, a part of the religious establishment, to with more than poetical, with literal murmur against the privileges secured natural truth, to the friends of the church in the uni- Salve magna parens frugum, Salurnia versities, or to the children of the uni
tellus, versities in the church, is to quarrel Magna virûm ! with an institution for supporting, en- If there be any feeling, merely na-' couraging, and upholding itself. tional, which can compare with this,
For ourselves, with the veneration it should be that which corresponds to we feel for the great masters of English it; the complacency, with which it literature, it is impossible not to trans- were to be hoped the wise and good fer no little share of the sentiment to friends of British glory, in England the seats of science, where their minds would regard this flourishing off-set of were formed. That American must their own native stock; the pride with have a temper, which we are happy not which they should witness the progress to be able to comprehend, who could of their language, their manners, their go up into the tower over the gate-way laws and their literature, over regions of Trinity College, or walk round the wider than the conquests of Alexander; gardens of Christ's, at Cambridge, and and that not by a forced and military think that he was pressing the foot- imposition on a conquered land, but by steps of Newton and Milton, without a a fair and natural inheritance, and still thrill which no reasonings or cavils can more by a voluntary adoption and keep down. We of America have here choice; the joy with which they should
reflect, that not a note is struck at the rected to general classical studies, or centre of thought and opinion in the the abstract study of the mathematics, British capital, but is heard and pro- each of which is worthy of great attenpagated by our presses, to the valley of tion, but neither nor' both affording the Missouri, and that if the day should exclusively an adequate training for the come in the progress of national decline, future politician, statesman, legislator, when England shall be gathered with or man of affluent leisure. the empires that have been, when her To, the Oxford lectures on Hebrew thousand ships shall have disappeared poetry, is unquestionably to be ascribed from the ocean, and the mighty chain the first spring given to the study of the of her wealth shall be broken, with Bible, in the enlightened spirit of the which she has so long bound the Euro- modern school of sacred literature. The pean world to her chariot-wheels, and Latin language, in which they were mustered the nations, from the banks written, secured them easy access to of the Tagus to the banks of the Don, the German universities and schools, to march beneath the banner of her and an edition of them with annotacoalitions, that then there will be no tions, and an appendix, was soon pubunworthy descendant to catch her man- lished by Michäelis, who stood at that tle; and that the rich treasure of her time at the head of the biblical critics institutions and character, instead of of his country; and who, as well as his becoming the unrescued prey of Huns successors, concedes to Bishop Lowth, and Vandals, and whatever uncouth the merit of having first penetrated into name of barbarism laid waste of old the the spirit of Hebrew antiquity, and sets refinements of the world, will be pre- the example of the true mode of studyserved, upheld, and perfected in the ing and enjoying its literary remains. western world of promise.
This affords one of many examples of We have allowed our feelings to carry the utility of a lingua doctorum comus too far from the subject which we munis. We suppose there are few schowere considering, and from the tribute lars, who have had occasion to reflect of respect we wished to pay to the illus- on the subject, who have not had their trious literary establishments of Eng- doubts whether the disuse of the tongue, land. But we would have this tribute once common to scholars, be not upon as honest as it is hearty and sincere; the whole disadvantageous to the cause and we cannot therefore but express of letters. There was certainly somewith it the opinion, that though the thing grand in this learned community English universities do not profess to of language; in this remedy, by no be simply schools of instruction, still means inconsiderable, of the great cathat, even in this department, some tastrophe of Babel, which enabled the improvements might be made, and that scholar wherever he went, to find his the youth of rank and fortune which native tongue; and which, so long as resort to them, might fill up their time it continued to be the depository of more profitably and usefully, as well science and literature, emancipated as innocently, by a more zealous and him from this slavery of learning half extensive course of academical study, a dozen languages. Let us consider, than we believe prevails at them. The too, how much of our modern literature unexampled success of Blackstone's is translation, or the saying over in one lectures on the law, and the permanent language what had been better said in service which they have rendered the another, and still more that with all study of that profession, ought to en- our translations, a mountain, a river, or courage a more frequent imitation of an invisible political boundary, makes the example. On the continent, at us substantially strangers to the efforts least in those parts of it where public which the human mind has made and education is on a good footing, the is making among our fellow men. One children of the aristocracy pass the great blow to the universality of the time of their residence at the univer- Latin as a learned language, was abosity, in attending courses of lectures lishing the practice of lecturing in it, on the law, on history, geography and in the German universities. This was statistics, on the natural sciences, on first done by Thomasius, a professor at diplomacy. These are thought to merit Halle, in the beginning of the last centheir attention, as those who are to fill tury; and his example has so generally the front ranks in society; while, at prevailed, that few or no lectures are the English universities, the zeal and now delivered in that tongue in Gerefforts of the same class are chiefly di- many. In the Dutch universities the
practice practice is still kept up, and all the in the world so munificent a patronage lectures are delivered in Latin, even of learning exists as the endowment of those on the national Dutch literature. the fellowships at Oxford and CamThis language too may there, oftener bridge. It is said that the revenues of than elsewhere, be heard out of the the richest fellowships are £800 a year, lecture room.
We have heard it more a salary as higli, or higher, than that of pleasantly, we presume, than accu- the governor or chief justice of Massarately, said of Rubnkenius, the last mo- chusetts. The number of fellowships dern scholar, to whose name the vener- so rich as this may not be large, but the able ius is permanently attached, that whole annual amount appropriated in Latin was the only language he was able this way to the support of men of learnto speak. He was a native of Pomera- ing, at the universities, is well known nia, and as such the German was his to be great; great even with the less vernacular tongue. That he had lost frugal English notions of an appointin his long residence in Holland, with ment. And yet the manner in which out having had occasion to acquire the these livings are attained, and the Dutch, as the whole business of his tenure by which they are held, prevent calling was discharged in Latin. A them, we apprehend, from rendering little bad French he had picked up for half the good to the cause of learning, society, but Latin was his mother of which under a different administratongue. We happened to be present in tion they might be made productive. the study of his late lamented succes- Some fellowships indeed are open to all sor, the illustrious Wyttenbach, at an the world, as those of Trinity College, interview between uatives of America, Cambridge; others are limited to cerEngland, Holland, and Greece, where tain districts of counties, others to sinthe conversation was of necessity con- gle counties, to single parishes, to sinducted in Latin, as the only common gle schools. At Oxford, the Magdalen tongue. The Latin language was per- fellowships are said to be the best. Of haps used for the last time, as a verna- these, five belong to the diocese of Wincular language, by the Hungarian diet. chester, seven to the county of Lincoln, In 1305 it was abolished as the language four to Oxford, three to Berks,'&c. At of this diet, and the native Hungarian new college, Oxford, the fellows must substituted. This took place in con- be elected from Winchester school; sequence of the efforts made by the Aus- and at King's College, Cambridge, from trian government from the time of Eton school. This holds of scholarships, Joseph 11. to force the German lan- . another class of establishments similar guage upon the Hungarians, with the in nature, though subordinate in rank, design of eradicating their own. This to fellowships, and which should be of course had the effect of making their considered as a part of the system, inown doubly precious in their eyes, and asmuch as the fellows, if we are not so much has it since been cultivated, misinformed, are chosen from among that it has quite driven out the German the scholars. and Latin from the schools and the We suppose that when these estabdiet ; so that now the Hungarian peo- lishments were originally founded, the ple enjoy the great privilege of speak- literary and clerical profession for ing, under the appellation of Magyar, these were then identical, could not a language wholly unique, associated support itself: and it was necessary neither with the Roman, Celtic, Teu- that permanent provision should be tonic, or Sclavonian stock, and of made for those, who were to teach and course the least likely to be learned preach, as there is now adays for those by a foreigner, of any tongue in Eu- who fight. The colleges were founded, rope. Such as it is, they pursue it to afford such provision for the training themselves with singular zeal, and not and supporting of the clergy. Places a national press in Europe is more pro- of general education, we suppose, they lific of original works, as well as trans- were not; for there was nobody, at the lations, than that of Pesth, the Hun- period of the establishment of the more garian capital.
ancient of them, to be educated. It is It has appeared to us, if with a limit only an improvement, forced upon them ed acquaintance we have a right to judge by the progress of society, that other of the subject, that too much attainable scholars, besides the stipendiaries on tlie good is sacrificed, at the English uni- foundations, have been received at them versities, by adherence to ancient pre- to be educated. Now that the wealth scriptions. We know not where else acquired by the commercial and agri. cultural classes has built up a middle deserves it, but because he had the order of society, unknown in the feudal good fortune to get into the circle ages, possessed of the means of pursu- which is moving round, and will bring ing whatever calling inclination may him his turn in due time. Now we do suggest, the original object of the cols really think that this must of itself enleges, viz. as indispensable nurseries courage indolence, and bring on an infor literary and clerical men, has be- difference to personal reputation. But come, if not subordinate, at least only the evil goes farther, for so many places collaterally important. There would in the church, as are thus appended to now be learned men enough and clergy. the fellowships, are so many rewards men enough, without so many or so of exertion and merit removed from the rich fellowships and scholarships; and market, so that a less worthy candias England is the only country in the date may be promoted, and a more world, where such establishments exist worthy one neglected. Besides this in any considerable degree, so without patronage in the church, thus forestallthem England would be able, as well ed, the fellowships themselves present as other countries, to provide for the a vast amount of patronage, which interests of literature and the church. might be turned to greater account, by
There is no doubt but that, in many liaving greater respect to merit in its single cases, the patronage afforded by distribution. these establishments is, in the highest If it be said that the Fellows earn their degree, seasonable in its application, and support, by the services they personally happy in its effects. But that the whole render to learning and religion, we are system, as existing in all its parts, is not disposed to deny that they do all valuable in proportion to the cost liness that can be expected of men in their of the apparatus, we cannot fully per- place, free from the spur of necessity, suade ourselves. A boy makes interest not wrought upon by emulation, under to be pnt on the foundation at one of the lethargic air which has infested all the great schools, at Eton, Westmin- establishments from the beginning. As ster, Winchester, Merchant tailors'; or instructors of the universities they serve he is put on such a foundation, because the public; but a portion only of them he was born in a certain parish, county, are wanted in this way: and the ciror diocese. Once a scholar there, he cumstance that the fellowship is but a usually becomes a scholar at some col- temporary provision, and that as soon lege. He then becomes fellow, and at as a few years' experience have well last succeeds to the first living in the qualified an individual as an instructor, gift of his college, that falls in, which he is likely to be called away to a living, happens on an average at the age of makes the fellowships of less use, even forty or forty-five. The moral effect of in this respect, than might be expected. this system on the hearts and characters While at the present day, and in Engof the aspirants is feelingly and elo- land, learning is really so much hoquently described, by the ingenious au- noured, and employed, and so well thor of Espriella's letters. The literary paid, it cannot be thought that its effect of the whole system is, that from interests would suffer, were these apboyhood the individual secures a pro- propriations for the support of an order vision for life. It may be that he shall of learned men in a state of celibacy all along deserve such provision, and (for that is the universal condition of turn it to the account of religion and fellowship) thrown into the commou letters. But in no step of the progress stock, to find their way into the hands does he enjoy the patronage because he of the industrious and the deserving.
PROCEEDINGS OF PUBLIC SOCIETIES.
REPORT RELATIVE to the MOVING BOG finding on my return to Dublin to-day,
of KILMALEADY, in King's County, that very erroneous notions, respecting made by order of the ROYAL DUBLIN its magnitude and destructive effects, SOCIETY.
have been entertained, I think it my Royal Dublin Society-House, July 10, 1821. duty immediately to communicate to
Royal Dublin Society, visited some account of the nature and extent the moving bog of Kilmaleady; and of this once alarming phonomeno MONTHLY MAG. No. 358.
In compliantenwide the request
of the come for the information of the society;
The bog of Kilmaleady, from whence part of the bog, and continued to move the eruption broke out, situated about with astonishing velocity along the two miles to the north of the village of valley to the southward, forcing before ('lara, in King's County, is of con- it not only the clumps of turf on the siderable extent; it may probably con- edge of the bog, but even patches of the tain about 590 acres; in many parts it moory meadows, to the depth of several is 40 feet in depth; and it is considered feet, the grassy surface of which heaved to be the wettest bog in the county. and turned over almost like the waves It is bounded on all sides, except the of the ocean; so that in a very short south, by steep ridges of high land, space of time the whole valley, for the which are composed at the top, of lime- breadth of almost a quarter of a mile stone gravel, and beneath of cavernous between the bog-edge and the base of limestone-rock, containing subterrane. the hill of Lisanisky, was covered ous streams; but the southern face of with bog to a depth of from eight to the bog is open to a moory valley, about ten feet, and appeared every where a quarter of a mile in breadth, which studded with green patches of moory for nearly half a mile in length, takes meadow. a southern direction in the lands of The hill of Lisanisky retarded the Lisanisky, and then turns at right an- progress of the bog for some time; but gles to the west, and continues gradu- at length it began to flow at right anally widening for upwards of two miles. gles to its first course along the valley, Throughout the centre of this valley where it turned to the west, and conflows a stream about twelve feet in tinued with unabated rapidity until it breadth, which serves as a discharge for reached the bog road of Kilbride, (which the waters from the bug and surround- runs directly across the valley, and is ing country, and finally joins the river elevated five or six feet above it,) and Brusna, above the bridge of Bally- choked up the bridge through which cumber.
the waters of the stream pass. This The bog of Kilmaleady, like all other barrier retarded the progress of the bog deep and wet bogs, is composed, for the for five days: at the end of that time, first eight or ten feet from the surface the accumulation was such from the downward, of a reddish brown spongy still moving bog and the waters of the mass, formed of the still undecomposed stream, that it flowed over the road, fibres of the bog moss (sphagnum palus- and covered the valley to the south of tre) which by capillary attraction absorbs it for about half a mile, flowing with water in great quantity. Beneath this varied velocity, till it was again stopped fibrous mass, the bog gradually becomes for a few hours (as I understand) by a pulpy, till, at length, towards the bot- second road across the valley leading tom, it assumes the appearance, and, from Clara to Woodfield: having also when examined, the consistence of a overcome this obstacle, it proceeded black mud, rather heavier than water. slowly westward, and if its progress
The surface of the bog of Kilmaleady, had not been checked by the very judiwas elevated upwards of 20 feet above cious means that have been enıployed, the level of the valley, from which it the whole extent of the valuable mearose at a steep angle; and its external dows, which compose the valley where face, owing to the uncommon dryness it expands to the westward, must long of the season, being much firmer than since have been covered. But when usual, the inhabitants of the vicinity the flowing bog had passed over the were enabled to sink their turf holes, road of Kilbride, and the consternation and cut turf at a depth of at least ten in the country became general, at the feet beneath the surface of the valley, desire of the lords justices, Mr. Greand in fact, until they reached the blue gory employed Mr. Killaly, engineer of clay which forms the substratum of the the directors general of inland navigabog. Thus the faces of many of the tion, to carry into execution any works turf banks reached the unusual height that could be devised to arrest the proof 30 feet perpendicular; when at gress of the bog. Mr. Killaly at once length, on the 19th day of June, the perceived that the only feasible remedy lower pulpy and muddy part of the bog, was to draw off the water that had acwhich possesses little cohesion, being cumulated ; and to accomplish this end unable to resist the great pressure of he employed a number of labourers to water from behind, gave way, and being open the course of the stream where it once set in motion, floated the upper was choaked up, and also the drains