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through the valley that could be directed has flowed for one mile westward, and into the stream. By this means the covered from 50 to 70 acres; in this head of the water was soon lowered, and part the heathy patches of bog graduin consequence the bog ceased to flow, ally lessen in quantity; the green isand all the loose masses which floated lands disappear, and nothing is observed on the river, were broken to pieces by but a thin deposit, consisting of granulabourers placed at intervals throughout lated black bog-mud, varying from one its course.
to three feet in thickness. This, though Such was the situation of affairs on destructive for the present year, may my arrival at the bog early on Saturday when dry be burnt, and removed for morning. During the course of the manure to the neighbouring uplands, day, I exerted myself to carry into ex- or left on the spot to fertilize the ecution the well advised plans which valley. had previously been commenced by Mr. Thus the whole distance which the Killaly. Towards evening, the floating bog has flowed is about three miles in masses which came down the river be- length, namely, one mile and a half in gan to lessen considerably both in size the bog, and the same distance over the and number; and finding every thing moory valley: and the extent covered proceeded with regularity and cer- amounts to about 150 acres. tainty, I thought it useless to remain longer.
At present I entertain no apprehen- The following concise view of the sion of further devastation from the bog, translations of the Holy Scriptures, is except in the event of a very great fall extracted from the Seventh Memoir, of rain during the present week. Slight dated Serampore, Dec. 1820. rains would be of service to increase 1. In Bengalee, the fifth edition of the current of water, and facilitate the the New Testament, containing 5000 removal of a considerable deposit of copies, which was printed off about heavy, black bog mnd, which at present three years ago, is nearly exhausted, fills the bottom of the stream. The and of the different parts of the Old, general current, has, however, been scarcely a single copy has been left for much increased by the breaking down some time past. The continual deof the weirs on the river Brusna, below mand for this version, therefore, has the junction of the bog river.
rendered it necessary to print a new I shall now describe the present ap- edition of the whole Scriptures. This pearance and state of the bog and edition, which will form the sixth edi. moory valley.
tion of the New Testament, and the In the centre of the bog, for the space third of the Psalms, and some other of about a mile and a half in length, parts of the Old Testament, will consist and a quarter of a mile in breadth, a of 4000 copies, and of the New Testavalley has been formed, sloping at the ment 2000 extra, the demand being so bottom from the original surface of the very great. By using a new fount of bog, to the depth of 20 feet, where the types, of a reduced size, and printing in eruption first took place. In this valley double columns, on a large octavo page, or gull there are numberless concentric the brethren hope to bring the whole cuts or fissures, filled with water nearly five volumes into one volume of about
1300 pages, royal octavo, or two very The valley between the edge of the moderate volumes, and the New Testabog and the road of Kilbride, for the ment into a neat duodecimo of about length of half a mile, and an extent of 400 pages. between 60 and 80 acres, may be con- 2. In the Sungskrit, the last volume sidered as totally destroyed. It is co- of the Old Testament was printed off vered by tolerably firm bog, from six about two years ago. The first edition to ten feet in depth, consisting at the of the New Testament is quite exhaustsurface, of numberless green islands, ed, and the numerous calls for the composed of detached parts of the mory Scriptures in this language, by the litemeadows, and of small rounded patches rati of India, have induced the brethren of the original heathy surface of the to put to press a second edition of the bog, varying from two to ten feet above whole Scriptures., This will likewise its former course, so as to flow over the be printed in double columns in the road.
large octavo size, and the whole ScripBeyond the road to Kilbride the hog tures be comprised in one volume. It
to the top:
will consist of 2000 copies, with an will probably be published before the extra number of 2000 New Testa. end of the ensuing year, ments.
2. In the Shikh language, besides the 3. In the Hindee, also, the last volume New Testament, the Pentateuch, and of the Old Testament was published the Historical Books are printed off; nearly two years ago. The edition of an: the Hagiographa is advanced as far the New Testament being nearly ex- as the middle of the book of Job. So hausted, and Mr. Chamberlain having strong, however, has been the desire of prepared another version of the New this nation for the New Testament, Testament in this language, for which that the whole edition is nearly distrihis long residence in the western pro- buted, and a second edition will probavinces of India, and his intimate ac- bly be called for before the Old Testaquaintance with their popular dialects, ment is wholly published. Excepting eminently fit him, the brethren have the Mugs on the borders of Arracan, no resolved in this edition to print his ver- one of the nations of India have discosion of the New Testament instead of vered a stronger desire for the Scriptheir own, as a comparison of independ. tures than this hardy race; and the ent versions, made by persons long and distribution of almost every copy has intimately acquainted with the lan- been accompanied with the pleasing guage, will be of the utmost value in hope of its being read and valued. ultimately, forming a correct, chaste, 3. In the Pushtoo or Affghan lanand perspicuous version in this widely guage, the nation supposed by some to extended language. Of this edition be descended from the ten tribes, the of the New Testament, which is more New Testament has been printed off. than half through the press, they are The Pentateuch is also advanced at printing 2000 copies.
press as far as the book of Leviticus, 4. In the Orissa language the whole 4. In the Telinga or Teloogoo lanScriptures have been long published. guage, the New Testament was pubThe first edition of the New Testament lished two years ago, and the Pentateuch being exhausted, and the demand for is printed as far as the book of Levitithis version still increasing, the breth- cus. This translation, however, when ren have prepared a second edition, the Pentateuch is finished, the brethren which is now more than half through intend to resign to the Madras Auxiliary the press. It consists of 4000 copies. Bible Society.
5. The last volume of the Old Tes- 4. In the Kunkuna language, the New tament in the Mahratta language was Testament was completed above 18 published many months ago, so that a months ago; and the Pentateuch is adversion of the whole Scriptures in that vanced at press as far as the book of language is now completed. Of the Numbers. As this province comes first edition of the New Testament, immediately under the care of the not a single copy being left, they havé Bombay Bible Society, it is intended, put to press a second edition, in a duo- on the completion of the Pentateuch at decimo size.
press, to relinquish this translation to In these five languages the whole of them. the Scriptures are now publisbed and 6. In the Wuch, or Mooltanee lanin circulation: in the last four of them guage, the New Testament has been second editions of the New Testament printed off these 18 months, in its owu are in the press, and in the first, the character. But, as the opportunities Bengalee, begun 26 years ago, the sixth for distributing this version have been edition of the New Testament. In the exceedingly limited, and they have following teu languages the New Tes- little prospect of establishing a mission tament is published, or nearly so; and in that province, they have dismissed in some of them the Pentateuch, and the pundit, and discontinued the transother parts of the Olil Testament. lation, till these circumstances, with
1. In the Chinese language the trans- those of a pecuniary nature, shall be lation of the Old Testament was como more favourable. pleted several years ago. In addition 7. In the Assam language, also, the to the New Testament, the Pentateuch, New Testament has been printed off the Hagiographia, and the Prophetic nearly two years, and the vicinity of Books are now printed off. The His- this country to Bengal, rendering it torical books, which will complete the highly desirable to proceed with the whole Scriptures, are in the press, and translation, an edition of the Old Tes
tament has been put to press, in the the press; and thus in twenty-one of large octavo size, in double columns, the languages of India, and these by far which will very cousiderably lessen tbe the most extensive and important, the expence, the character being similar to New Testament will be published. It the Bengalee, both in form and size. is the intention of the brethren to re
8. In the Gujuratee lauguage, the linquish the first of these, the Kurnata, New Testament is now happily brought to the Madras Bible Society, on the New through the press, 13 years after retain- Testament being completed, that they ing the first pundit in this language. may be better able to attend to the reIt makes between 8 and 900 pages, and maining languages, in which no version is printed in the Dera Naguree charac- is begun by any one besides. ter. This travslation the brethren in- The remaining versions now in hand tend to resign to their brethren from are the following ten, which are all in the London Missionary Society, who the press. are now studying the language, that The Jumboo, Kanouj, and Khassee, they may give their attention more printed as far as John; the Khoshul, fully to those in which no others are Bhutunçer, Dogura, and Magudha, to engaged.
Mark; and the Kumaoon, Gudwal, and 9. In the Bikaneer language, also, Munipoora, to Matthew. the New Testament is now finished at In these ten versions, therefore, a press. It contains 800 pages, and is sufficient progress is made to render printed in the Naguiree character. This the completion of them in no way difversion was begun nearly seven years ficult. ago.
In comparing this memoir with the 10. To these we may add the New last, it will be seen that in several of Testament in the Kashmeer language, the languages mentioned therein the which version has been in hand nearly translation has been discontinued. To eight years, and will be finished at press this the brethren have been constrained, in about a month. It is printed in a by the low state of the translation fund, neat type of its own, as mentioned in a arising principally from the heavy exformer memoir. In these ten languages pences occasioned by new editions of the New Testament may be considered the Sungskrit, the Bengalee, the Hindee as heing published.
and the Orissa Scriptures, now in the Besides these fifteen, in which the press. In discontinuing these, howNew Testament is completed, there are erer, they have been guided by a due six other languages in which it is consideration of the importance and brought more than half through the distinctuess of the different languages press. These are the Kurnata, the Ne- in which they are engaged, as well as pal, the Harutee, the Marwar, the the ease with which pundits could be Bhughulkund, and the Oojein versions. procured, should the public enable About ten months more, they have thero to resume them again. reason to hope, will bring these through
NEW PATENTS AND MECHANICAL INVENTIONS.
To GEORGE LILLEY, of Brigg, for mosphere, by which means the expence
certain Improvements in the Construc- of fuel will not only be very much tion of Engines or Machinery (to be lessened, but he is enabled to construct wrought by Steam or other elastic engines which will take up much less Fluids,) applicable to the Driving of room than steam-engines in their usual Mills and other useful Purposes. form, be considerably lighter also, and
R. LILLEY compresses atmos- which may be worked in some situa
pheric air or other elastic fluids, tions where the common steam-engine by means of mechanical force, in a ves- can not for want of a necessary supply sel or in vessels of a low or moderate of water. And when engines are contemperature, and afterwards let the structed, with some parts of his said same pass into a tube or into tubes, ves- improvements, and wrought by steam, sel or vessels of a much higher tempe- the power will be delivered more uni. rature, and after acting on a piston or formly, which admits of the fly-wheel pistons, permit it to escape into the at, being made lighter than with the usual
way of constructing steam-engines: Such regulators may consist of cocks or the pistons, &c. of the working cylin- valves, or other ipachinery now com. ders will be formed so as to lessen the mouly employed. friction, and by the means of a fluid, He describes different methods by prevent the possibility of steam passing which the aforesaid force or power, ohbetween them and the cylinders; the tained by the expansion and contraction valves will be rotary, and so constructed of the pipes containing and conveying also, as by the intervention of a fluid, to steam, or by the expansion and contracobviate the possibility of steam passing tion of other pipes or vessels, bars or through them during the time it should rods, connected with, or placed near to, be cut off from the cylinder, and the the pipes for containing or conveying whole will take up less room than steam, may be applied to the effecting steam-engines of the common construc- and regulating the admission of steam. tion.
But his invention consists in the appliThe
power obtained by compressing cation of these forces or powers to effect elastic Huids in a certain temperature, and regulate such admission. The and afterwards allowing them to act in methods by which the force and power a higher temperature, may be made ob- aforesaid can be applied to the purpose vious, thus; suppose the elastic Auid above specified are various. to be atmospheric air, and that a tube To WILLIAM DAVIS, of Bourne, near contains twelve cubic inches, with its Minchinhampton, Engineer; for cernatural temperature and elasticity, it tain Improvements in Machinery for will require a certain force to compress shearing or cropping Woollen, or other this air into two cubic inches (say a Cloths requiring such process. weight of thirteen pounds falling one Mr. D. claims as his invention, First, foot); but, leaving out the considera- the application of rotative cutters, made tion of friction, the elasticity of the air of one solid piece of metal, not screwed itself (compressed into this compass) or wedged to a cylinder bar, as has would in the same temperature raise hitherto been the practical way of makthe same weight to the height whence ing rotative cutters for shearing cloths. it fell. “ If then," says the patentee, Second, the application of rotative cut6 I place the tube and air in a tempera- ters, in an angular direction. The difture which would double the elasticity ference between this and the application which the air had in its natural tem- of rotative cutters hitherto in practice, perature, and then let it expand till it will be easily understood, as the old had the same elastic force it had before, practice is to place the under cutter, I compressed it in its natural state, it known by the name of ledger-blade, will give me back a force which would nearly parallel to the length of the cloth raise 26lbs. a foot high, and leave a dis- to be shorn, or else nearly at right posable force of 13lbs. through the angles to the length of the cloth. Third, same height; and the same may be said the application of beds, made elastic of any other elastic fluid."
by spiral springs, placed nearly at TO HENRY CREIGHTON, of Glasgow, right angles to the plane of the ledger
Civil Engineer ; for a new Method of cutters. regulating the Adinission of Steam By the above described machinery, into Pipes or other Vessels, and for one or two kerseymeres may be cut at the Heating of Buildings and other one time, by fixing a thin piece of metal Places.
between the cutters and middle list, to This invention consists in the appli- prevent its being shorn; if it is desir. cation of the force or power obtained able to 'cut one narrow cloth, one half by the expansion and contraction of the of the cutters, or as many as necessary pipes conveying and containing steam, may be made to rest by casting of the or by the expansion and contraction of lines. other pipes or vessels, bars or rods, con
His machine will stand in a room nected with, or placed near to the pipes three feet by seven feet six inches, and for conveying or containing steam, to will cut an end of cloth, of twenty-one effect and regulate the admission of yards in fifteen minutes, equally hard steam into the pipes aforesaid ; and the to cloth cut with any other machine, patentee applies this expanding and free from streaks from list to list, and coutracting force or power to regulators, equal from end to end. It does not for admitting the steam in different me- leave those long hairs which rise above thods, as circumstances may require. the surface, as in cloths cut with the for
mer patent machine for cutting from mersed as above in a solution of alkali list to list: or that hard stubbed feel, and oil, or grease, or boiled in perfect as in cloths cut in the longitudinal di- soap dissolved, but without the sheep's rection. It will cut cassimeres, one or dung; this is repeated four times, or two at a time, with equal facility. The oftener, according to the brilliancy of power of one man will drive it in full colours wanted, stove-drying as before work and speed. The cutters are made between every immersion ; these are solid, of the best double-refined cast. called the white liquors. Steep the steel, and are as hard as any common cloth for twelve hours at 1250 of Fahshear, an advantage not attainable in renheit, which forms what is called the the former patent machines ; from white steep. The cloth being now which it is expected that the cutters thoroughly washed in cold water and will work twelve months without being dried, is ready to receive, first, the pink sharpened. The adjustment of the beds mordant, which is composed as follows: is so simple, that it does not require a take equal quantities, by measurement, mechanic; and will move through a of a decoction of galls at the strength space of three-quarters of an inch with- of four to six, and a solution of alum out injuring its elasticity.
at one-half degree, the alum being preA sufficient number of the best ma- viously saturated with whitening, or chines hitherto in use, to shear an equal any other alkali, in the proportion of quantity of clothi, would be inore than one ounce to the pound weight of alum; double the expence of this machine. mix them together, and raise the temIf a cerf of a long piece of cloth can be 'perature to 1400 of Fahrenheit, or as cut in ten hours by one of Harmer's hot as can be handled. By immersion, frames, this machițe is equal to twenty as formerly mentioned, in this inixture, of them. The length of cut by the the cloth, when dyed and cleared, exold machine is about 450 feet perhibits a beautiful pink, equal if not suminute, but by this machine 40,000 perior to that produced by cochineal, feet.
and forms the ground colour of the inTO GILBERT LANG and ROBERT vention. The same effect may be pro
SMITH, of Parkholm, near Glasgow, duced by using the galls and alum as Calico Printers ; for the Mode of above separately. As a substitute for producing the Swiss new deep and pale galls in the foregoing process, the folRed, by topical Mordants, and a pale lowing substances may be used, viz. blue Discharge on said Red.
oak-bark, sawdust of oak, shumac, myWhen the cotton cloth has been freed robalan, citrons, tormentil roots, or by steeping and boiling in soap and any other substance, containing a suffiwater, from the paste used by the ciency of the tanniug principle or asweaver, and any other impurities it may tringent quality; and as a substitute have acquired, immerse it thoroughly, for alum the following may be used, or, as it is called, tramp or pad it in viz. alum dissolved or held in solution a solution of any alkali and oil or grease, by vinegar, pyroligneous, or any forming an imperfect soap, or boil it in of the vegetable or animal acids, or any any of the perfect soaps dissolved in number of them combined (but which water, or in a solution of soda and gallic may be most readily obtained by using poli oil, in the proportion of one gallon , acetate of lead or sugar of lead,) or as a of oil to twenty gallons of soda-lees, substitute for alum may be used any of at the strength of four degrees and a the mineral, vegetable, or animal acids half; then dry the cloth in the stove, combined, singly or together, with tin, and repeat the process several times, lead, zinc, antimony, bismuth, cobalt, which may be varied at pleasure accor
or nikel. ding to the lustre and durability of the The invention to which they claim colour wanted, stove-drying the cloth the sole and exclusive right, consists in between every immersion. To the the mode of preparing the cloth for, and above solutions add a little sheep's applying the mordants, which produce dung for the first three immersions, a more durable and brilliant deep red these are called the dung liquors ; after than the Turkey red, a second or pale the cloth has received the dung liquors, red, a beautiful pink and a blue disit is steeped for twelve hours in a quan- charge formed upon it, which produces tity of water, 110° of heat of Fahrenheit; a style of work of uncommon brilliancy this is called the green steep. The and variety of colours. cloth, being again stove-dried, is im