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REPORT OF CHEMISTRY AND EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY.

Prosperiments Lupoh sohas macited me

moon.

ROFESSOR LESLIE has made some it appeared that the tangent of the devia

tion varied inversely as the square root of hydrogen gas ; from which it appeared that the distance of the plates from each other. the effect was considerably less than what A steel-wire was made permanently magnewould be produced in atmospheric air of tic, by twisting it round a straight connectthe same density. The cause appeared to ing-wire. A horse shoe magnet was placed depend partly on the tenuity of hydrogen in the circuit, by twisting a wire from right gas, and partly on the rapidity with which to left round one pole, and from left to the pulsations are conveyed through this right round the other; on connecting it very elastic medium.

alternately with each end of the battery, The connection between galvanism and the magnetism of one pole was destroyed, magnetism has been illustrated by the Rev. whilst that of the other was increased. On J. CUMMING, professor of chemistry at transmitting the galvanism from a pair of Cambridge. The Professor has repeated the plates of 1 feet of surface through a copelectro-magnetic experiments of Professor per globe of four feet surface, the magOersted; he gives an account of the effects netic influence was distributed over every of a wire connecting a large zinc and copper- part, both of the globe and of the plates plate, on two magnetic needles, one moving themselves. horizontally, the other vertically; the con- Heat has been discovered in the moon's necting wire being bent into the form of a rays by Dr. HOWARD, by means of a dif. circle, and the needles applied to it at dif- ferential thermometer of his own invention. ferent azimuths. The direction of the gal. Having blackened the upper ball of a difvanic current was such, that a wire con- ferential thermometer, he placed it in the necting the zinc and copper-plates tended focus of a 13 inch reflecting mirror, which to place itself at right angles to the mag- was opposed to the light of a bright full netic meridian, which appeared experi. The liquid began immediately to mentally, by suspending a pair of very sink, and in half a minute was depressed small plates. An instrument was then 89, where it became stationary. On placdescribed for detecting weak galvanic ac- ing a skreen betwen the mirror and the tion, by its effects on the magnetic needle. moon, it rose again to the same level, and It was found that the magnetic influence was again depressed on removing this obcould not be transmitted between a pair of stacle. plates through any non-metallic medium; Dr. OLBERS informs Dr. Gauss, that he but, on making the circuit through a tube observed on the 5th of February an appearfilled with acetate of lead, the needle be- ance in the dark part of the moon, which gan to be effected, when the arborescence has been called a lunar volcano. It apof the revived lead had formed the metallic peared as usual in Aristarchus. It was connection. On using connecting-wires of small, but much brighter than the other different lengths and diameters, it appear- parts of the moon, unilluminated by the ed that the magnetic influence was trans- sun, quite like a star, and even appeared mitted through large wires, though of con- like a star of the sixth magnitude, seen siderable length, provided they were solid, situated to the north-east of the moon. Dr. more readily than through small ones, how- Olbers is inclined to believe that this ever short. An analogous effect was found brightness is produced by the reflection of to be exhibited on connecting the poles of the light of the earth from an even and a magnet by pieces of iron, of different smooth surface of a great extent of rock in lengths and thickness. The paper was the moon. concluded by contrasting this analogy with RECENT investigations having directed the opposite effects observed in the trans- the attention of observers in a particular mission of common electricity.

manner to the study of the optical characThe same gentleman, on the application ters of crystallised minerals, we think it of magnetism as a measure of electricity, may not be without use to notice a circumdescribes a galvanometer consisting of a stance in the structure of crystals, which, connecting-wire moveable upon a gra- if not known, or neglected, may lead into duated slide. By comparing the deviations error. Many crystals, which, in a geof a needle placed below it at different dis- neral view, appear simple, are found to be tances, the tangent of the deviation was compound, when all their relations are atfound to vary inversely as the distance of tended to; and these, when examined opthe connecting-wire from the magnetic tically, will present a compound, in place needle. On applying the deviation pro- of a simple structure. The simple strucduced on the magnetic needle as a measure ture characterises the species of minerals, of the increased effect produced by moving while the compound structure often distwo galvanic surfaces towards each other, tinguishes the varieties or subspecies.

MM. ARAGO

MM. ARAGO and FRESNEL have lately whole without water, the juice of the fruit applied the principle of Count Rumford's being quite sufficient. When this mixture concentric or co-lateral meshes to the im- had acquired the consistency of paste, he provement of lamps, intended either for put it into a vessel, in which he allowed it light-houses or theatres, or for other uses to rise for about twelve hours. By this where a strong bright clear light is wanted. process he obtained a very excellent In order to obviate the difficulty which bread. was formerly found to arise from the car- The Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris bonization of the wick by the great heat have proposed the following prize question occasioned at the summit of the burner, for 1823: “ To determine, by precise the oil was made to flow over at the mesh, experiments, the causes, either chemica! and in thus keeping the flame at the top of or physiological, of animal heat." It is the wick, a full, clear, and steady combus- particularly required that the heat emitted tion was obtained.

by a healthy avimal in a given time be asM. Duduit de MAIZIERES has invent certained, as well also as the quantity of ed, and practised with great success, a carbonic acid produced in respiration, and method of making bread with common ap- that the heat ihus produced, he compared ples very far superior to potatoe bread. with that occasioned by the formation of After having boiled one-third of peeled as much carbonic acid from the combustion apples, he bruised them while quite warm of carbon. The prize will be a gold medal into two-thirds of flour, including the pro- of 3000 francs value. per quantity of yeast, and kneaded the

BRITISH LEGISLATION. ACTS PASSED in the FIRST YEAR of the REIGN of GEORGE THE FOURTH, or in the SECOND SESSION of the SEVENTH PARLIAMENT of the UNITED KINGDOM.

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(AP. XXXVI. For the better Re- &c. shall be declared guilty of felony with

gulation of the Public Notaries in out benefit of elergy. Recited act, so far Ireland.—May 28th, 1821.

as inflicts punishment of death, repealed. CAP. XXXVII. To repeal the Du

II. Such offences may be punished with ties of Customs on the Importation into transportation for life, &c. Great Britain of certain Sorts of Wood

CAP. XLI. For giving greater Faci. and Timber, and certain Drawbacks or lity in the Prosecution and Abatement allowances in respect of such Duties, of Nuisances arising from Furnaces and to grant other Duties and Draw- used and in the working of Steam Enbacks in lieu thereof.May 28th, 1821. gines.-May 28th, 1821. CAP. XXXVIII. An Act for esta

I. It shall and may be lawful for the

Court by which Judgment ought to be problishing Regulations respecting certain Parts of the Proceedings in the Court Indictment, to award such Costs as shall"

nounced in case of Conviction on any such of Session, and in the Court of Commissioners for Teinds, and respecting the Prosecutor or Prosecutors, to be paid by

be deemed proper and reasonable to the Duties, Qualifications, and Emoluments the Party or Parties so convicted as aforeof certain Clerks and other officers of said, such Award to be made either before the said Courts.-May 28th, 1321. or at the time of pronouncing Anal judr.

CAP. XXXIX. An Act for the bet- ment, as to the Court may seem fit. ter Regulation of the Courts of Ad

II. If it shall appear to the Court by miralty in Scotland, and of certain Pro. which Judgment ought to be pronounced in ceedings in the Court of Session, con

case of Conviction on any such Indictment, nected therewith.-May 28th, 1821.

that the Grievance may be remedied by CAP. XL. To repeal so much of an

altering the Construction of the Furnace Act, made in the Parliament of Ireland Steam, it shall be lawful to the Court, with

so employed in the working of Engines by in the Eleventh and Twelfth Years of out the Consent of the Prosecutor, to make the Reign of King George the Third, such Order touching the Premises, as shall for preventing Frauds committed by be by the said Court thought expedient for Bankrupts, as inflicts Capital Punish- preventing the Nuisance in future, before ment on certain Offrnces therein speci- passing final Sentence upon the Defendant fied ; and to provide more suitable and or Defendants so convicted. effectual Punishment for such offences. III. Not to extend to Owners of Fur-May 28th, 1821.

naces erected solely for working of Mines. I. 11 and 12 G. 3. c. 8. s. 24. (1.) reciting

CAP. XLII. To defray the Charge that on Bankrupts refusing to surrender, or of the Pay, Cloathing, and contingent be examined, or to deliver up their effects, Expences of the Disembodied Militia in

Great

mons.

Great Britain; and to grant Allowances Beginning of each Assizes, as the Judge in certain Cases to Subaltern Officers, or Justices of Assize in England, or the

Ailjutants, Quartermasters, Surgeons, Judge or Justices of the Grand Sessions in Surgeons Mates, and Serjeant Majors Wales, or the Justices of the Courts of Sesof Militia, until the Twenty-fifth Day

sions in the Counties Palatine of Chester, of March One thousand eight hundred

Durham or Lancaster, shall before or at and twenty-two.—May 28th, 1821.

the Commencement of such Assizes reCAP. XLIII. To defray, until the

spectively think fit to direct; and the other

of which Sets shall attend and serve for Twenty-fifth Day of June, One thou

the Residue of such Assizes. sond eight hundred and twenty-two, the

II. Such Sheriff or other Officer shall, Charge of the Pay and Clothing of the

in the Summons to the Persons in each of Militia of Ireland; and for making

such Sets, require the Attendance of such Allowances to Officers and Quartermas- Persons at the said Assizes generally acters of the said Militia during Peace. cording to the Mode now in Use, but upon - May 28th, 1821.

the Back of each Summons he shall indorse CAP. XLIV. To exclude Persons whether the Person named therein is in the holding certain Judicial Offices in Ire- First or Second Set, and shall specify at Innd, from being Members of the House what Time the Attendance of such Person of Commons.—May 28th, 1821.

will be required. I. From and after the passing of this Act,

III. Every such Attendance and Service no Persou holding the Office of Lord Chan- of such Jurors shall entitle such Jurors to cellor in Ireland, Master of the Rolls in the like Certificates and Exemptions as Ireland, or being One of the Twelve Judges they have been heretofore entitled to, for of the Courts of King's Bench, Common

their Attendance and Service during the Pleas, and Exchequer in Ireland, or being

whole Assizes. a Master in Chancery in Ireland, shall be

The Sheriff or other Officer to whom the capable of being elected, or of sitting or Return of the Venire facias Juratores or voting as a Member of the House of Com- other Process for the Trial of Causes at

Nisi Prius doth belong, shall, upon his reCAP. XLV. To amend an Act of turn of every writ or process, annex therethé Forty-sixth Year of the Reign of to a Panel, containing the Christian and ilis Inte Majesty King George the Third,

Sirnames, Additions and Places of Abode, for consolidating and rendering more

of the Persons in each of such Sets; and efectual the several Acis for the Pura

during the Attendance and Service of the chase of Buildings, and further Iinprove

First of such Sets, the Jury on the Civil ment of the Streets and Places near to

Side shall be drawn from the Names of the Westminster Hall and the Tho Houses

Persons in that Set, and during the Atten

dance and Service of the Second of such of Parliament.-June 8th, 1821.

Sets, from the Names of the Persons in CAP. XLVI. To regulate the Atten

such Second Set. dance of Jurors at the Assizes, in certain Cases.-June Sth, 1921.

CAP. XLVII. To exclude the BoI. From henceforth, in any County in rough of Grampound, in the County of which the Judge or Justices of Assize in

Cornwall, from sending Burgesses to England, or the Judge or Justices of the serve in Parliament; and to enable the Grand Sessions in any County of Wales, County of York to send Two additional or the Justices of the Courts of Sessions Knights to serve in Parliament, in lieu held for the Counties Palatine of Chester, thereof.—June 8th, 1821. Durham or Lancaster, shall think fit so to direct, the Sheriff or other Officer to whom

I. Whereas there was the most notorious the Return of the Venire facias Juratores

and general Bribery and Corruption previor other Process for the Trial of Causes at

ous to the election of Burgesses to serve Nisi Prius doih belong, shall summon and

in the last Parliament for the Borough of impannel not more than one hundred and

Grampound, in the County of Cornwall, in forty-four Jurors, or such lesser number as

order to procure the Return of Burgesses

to serve in the Parliament for the said Bothe Judge or Justices of Assize in England, or the Judge or Justices of Assize of the

rough; and it should therefore be excluded Grand Sessions in Wales, or the Justices

from hereafter returning Burgesses to of the Courts of Sessions in the Counties

serve in Parliament: And whereas it is Palatine of Chester, Durham or Lancas

expedient that two additional Knights of ter, shall think fit to direct, to serve indis

the Shire should be returned for the County criminately on the Criminal and Civil Side;

of York, to serve in Parliament in lieu of and shall divide such Jurors equally into

two Burgesses for the Borough of GramTwo Sets, the first of which Set shall at

pound; be it enacted, that the Borough of tend and serve for so many Days at the

Grampound, in the County of Cornwall, shall cease to clect and return Burgesses Knights shall be returned to serve in the to serve in the High Court of Parliament. High Court of Parliament for the County

shall

Il. If, during the present Parliament, of York; and that from the end of the the election of the two Burgesses now present Parliament, and at all times thereserving therein for the same Borough of after, the said County of York shall reGrampound, or either of them, shall by turn, to serve in the High Court of ParliaDeath or otherwise become void, then and ment, four Knights of the Shire instead of in every such Case an additional Knight or two Knights of the Shire.

NEW BOOKS PUBLISHED IN AUGUST,

With an HISTORICAL and CRITICAL PROEMIUM.

Authors or Publishers desirous of seeing an early notice of their Works, are

requested to transmit copies before the 18th of the Month.

Onion of eli empresenterentin is Pablicia-
NE of the most interesting publica- collection of gems in the world, worth up-

wards of two millions sterling. From the tory of the Brazil, by JAMES HENDERSON, mine, the diamonds are conveyed by a comprehending a very full and particular strong military guard to the treasury, till account of the geography, commerce, colo- dispatched for London, which is now their nization, &c. of that important country. great mart. Agriculture is in a very deThe author, it appears, on his arrival at graded state, and the present system of Rio de Janeiro, in 1819, was disappointed landed tenure is so bad, that the soil seems in his views of immediate employment, likely to remain covered with wild grass and therefore resolved to devote his time and forests till doomsday. When it is moto the acquisition of intelligence respecting derately cultivated, the returns are quick these vast regions. He has succeeded in and bountiful. From the recent establishcollecting a very considerable mass of in- ment of a free constitution in this colony, formation on the past and present state of the warm est hopes of its speedy improvethe Brazil, treating under distinct heads ment, in every respect, may be entertained. of the twenty-two provinces which it com- And having escaped from political slavery, prises. The picture which is presented to we may reasonably expect that the system us of the external aspect of the country is of domestic bondage will not much longer highly magnificent and rich; but this be allowed to disgrace a națion calling itwriter concurs with all his predecessors in seif free. In an appendix to the volume, deploring the state of society at Rio de we find a zoological account of the aniJaneiro, which he represents as being cen- mals peculiar to the country, amongst turies behind in the comforts and enjoy- which the reptiles are the most formidable, ments of civilized life. Even hospitality, being exceedingly numerous, and for the the virtue of an uncultivated people, is most part venomous.

Clouds of insects here unknown. Living is as expensive, or people the air. A collection has been almore so, than in London, with none of the ready made of above sixteen hundred comforts which the latter affords. A mo- different sorts of butterflies. Perhaps no derate sized house will let for two hundred other region in the world equals the Brazil and fifty or three hundred pounds per an- in the innumerable species of birds which num; and provisions, with the exception it possesses, of incomparable beauty of of vegetables and fruit, are neither cheap plumage and variety of song. This work nor good. Books are prohibited, and the is illustrated with twenty-eight plates, exestate of literature is consequently very cuted with good effect upon stone, after low.

Only two gazettes are published sketches taken by Mr. Henderson on the throughout the whole empire. Assassina. spot, and with two maps. The style is tion is frequent; the inhabitants carrying plain and unaffected, and the author's inknives hid under the sleeves of their coats, formation appears to be drawn from auwhich they throw and use with great dex- thentic sources. We think considerable terity; and these knives, we are ashamed credit is due to him for the judgment and to say, are manufactured in England ex- ability with which he has embodied the pressly for that purpose. The deplorable result of his researches, which we regard state of the government has counteracted as a valuable contribution to our stock of the advantages of nature, which would knowledge respecting this important and otherwise have rendered this nation one advancing country. of the richest in the world. Even the dia. LAURENT's Classical Tour through mond mines are not worked to advantage. various parts of Greece, Turkey, and Italy, The produce of these is selected, in the is a work in the perusal of which we have first instance, by the royal family; and it felt considerable interest. The author is is said that the King possesses the best very minute in his descriptions of the

various

various adventures he met with illustrative its appearance no earlier than thirty years of the manners and customs of the inhabi- since. Since that period the medical tants, and offers only short notices of the world has been favoured with Dr. Bartley's different architectural remains in the coun. Treatise on Forensic Medicine, and Dr. tries through which he travelled. In this, Robertson's Treatise on Medical Police. as the latter have been so often and so par- Another volume has been lately added to ticularly described, he has, we think, acted these, entitled The Principles of Forensie judiciously, especially as he appears to Medicine, systematically arranged and aphave been much limited in his time, and the plied to British Practice, by John Gorsubjects of which he treats have been, DON SMITH, M.D. and we do not hesitate generally speaking, but little noticed by to say that this work will be found of great travellers. His work is well adapted to utility to those whose avocations require a supply that sort of information, and will knowledge of this very important branch reward the diligence ot' its readers, espe- of the medical science, upon a correct accially as the scene of this excursion lies in quaintance with which the life and liberty a country to which the public attention is of individuals frequently depend. Howat present, and may probably continue for ever skilfully a work of this kind may be some time to be strongly directed.

written, as to every thing relating to that One of the most powerful of the many portion of it which is more peculiarly corrupt and unconstitutional means gene- connected with the medical art, it is evirally used at present, on the election of dent, that the application of that knowborough representatives, consists in the ledge involves a considerable acquaintance votes of non-resident electors. The ad- with legal learning. It is only in this view mission of those votes was the first innova- that we think Dr Smith might have rention on the original method of election, and dered his work more useful, especially to has materially contributed to the estab- his legal readers, to whom, however, we lishment of the present detestable system. have no hesitation in recommending it as From An Essay on the Elective Franchise an useful manual in the course of their with reference to the original and common practice in criminal cases. Law Right in Residents, by ARTHUR The Legend of Argyle is a novel founded Kelly, Esq. Barrister at Law, we find on the attempt made in favour of the Prethat this innovation first arose from the tender in 1715. We do not pronounce an necessity of the members being freemen undeserved opinion of this work, when we of the city they represented, and as they say that it does not rise above the ordinary were originally paid for their services, in level of the contents of the circulating li. proportion to their distance from the seat brary. It may be skimmed over for the of parliament, it was the interest of the amusement of the passing moment, but boroughs to have a representative residing wholly fails in making any permanent imas near it as possible. In this way almost pression on the fancy or the heart. all the distant boroughs had non-resident Miss LETITIA MATILDA HAWKINS has representatives. The custom of making recently published a new novel called conspicuous men honorary members, as Heraline. This lady has before displayed a matter of compliment, soon became preva- considerable ability as the author of The lent, and this has led to the most dangerous Countess and Gertrude, and other works. consequences. This evil is traced from Her present effort will, we think, contriits source, to its present alarming state, in bute to increase her reputation. It appears this interesting tract, which we earnestly to be her object to make her pages the recommend to the perusal of our readers. vehicle of moral and religious improveIt is accompanied by an appendix, contain: ment; an effect which may be reasonably ing lists of the boroughs and their various expected from the good sense and correct rights of voting, distinguished under se- sentiment with which they abound. parate heads.

Mr. Mawe's Descriptive Catalogue of Although the science of medicine in Minerals has reached the fourth edition, England has at least kept pace with its and is now offered to the public in an progress on the continent, there is yet one improved and enlarged form. The author branch of it in which we have long been has availed himself of the labours of Haüy confessedly inferior to our neighbours. and of Professor Clarke, of Cambridge, Wbile in Germany many voluminous and and has entered more particularly into a important works on forensic medicine have detail of the physical and chemical characbeen long before the public, and while in ters of minerals. Considerable credit is France the attention of the professors of due to Mr. Mawe for the professional medicine has been much engaged on this ability displayed in this elementary work, subject, it is only within these few years which is eminently calculated to answer that any work of the kind has appeared in its intended purpose by assisting the stu. England. Dr. Farr's Elements is said to dent in the classification of minerals and be the first production on this subject the management of collections. which we possess, and this volume made Amongst the works of imagination lately MONTHLY MAG. No. 358.

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offered

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